Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi IPAc-en|ˈ|ɡ|ɑː|n|d|i|,_|ˈ|ɡ|æ|n|d|; IPA|Gujarati IPA-hns|ˈmoːɦəndaːs ˈkərəmtʃənd ˈɡaːndʱi|lang|Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; Yarayu daga 2 ga watan October shekara ta 1869 zuwa 30 January 1948) yakasance mutum in Indiyane shi kuma mai kara hakkin Dan'adam, yazama Shugaban Indian independence movement masu fito na fito da mulkin mallakar kasar Birtaniya. Ta amfani da babu fada a Neman bukatun mu, civil disobedience, Gandhi yajagoranci Indiya har tasamu incin Kai, da samar da civil rights da freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable") – applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – Ana kiransa da Bapu a kasarsa wato Baba da harshen [℅Gujarati]] , papa) kuma Gandhi ji, da kuma babban kasarmu.
An haife shi da kuma girmansa daga gidan Hindu merchant caste dake coastal Gujarat, Indiya, Yayi karatun lauya Inner Temple, Landan, Gandhi da farko yadauka nonviolent civil disobedience a matsayin expatriate lawyer a kasar South Africa,a yankin yan'indiya masu nemain yanci. Bayan dawowarsa Indiya a 1915, ya shirya da harhada kananan manoma, da kananan maaikata dansu shiga zanga zanga akan biyan kudin haraji dasu keyi sosai da wariya daake nuna masu. Da yazama Shugaban Indian National Congress a 1921, Gandhi yajagoranci campaigns akan abubuwan dasuka damu al'ummarsa da kuma yin nasarar samun mulkin kai ko Swaraj.
Gandhi yajagoranci Indiya Dan tunkarar harajin gishiri da turawa suka kakaba masu biya Dandi Salt March a 1930, daga nan kuma yajasu suka nema turawan dasu bar kasar Indiya a 1942.An kulle shi na tsawon shekaru a lokuta daban daban a kasarsa da kuma South Africa. Yarayu modestly a self-sufficient residential community kuma yanasa kayan aladar kasar Indiya, Abincinsa ganyanyaki ne kuma yazabi hakan ne a matsayin gyaran rayuwarsa da yakin siyasarsa.
Yadda Gandhi yake neman yancin kai a Indiya ta hanyar kula da yawan masu addinin, dukda hakan yasa musulmai sun kalubalance shi a farkon shekara ta 1940, wadanda sune suke neman yancin kasar musulmai kadai a waccan lokaci. A watan Augusta shekara ta 1947, Britaniya ta baiwa indiya yanci inda suka kasa kasar biyu da bangaren Indiyan yan'Hindu zalla da kuma bangaren Indiya ta musulmai zallla wato Pakistan. Kamar yadda aka Samu watsuwar yan'Hindu, Muslimai, da yan'Sikh yasa rikicin addinin yabarke musamman a yankin Punjab, da Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence a Delhi, Gandhi yaziyarce inda rikicin yashafa domin nuna tausayawa agaresu, a watan da yabiyo baya yafara yin azumi har mutuwarsa dan neman hana kara faruwar rikicin, azuminsa na karshe dayayi itace a 12 ga watan Janairun shekara ta 1948 lokacin yana da shekara 78, da kuma burinsa na matsi dan ganin kasarsa Indiya ta biya dukiyoyin da kasar Pakistan take binsu. wasu yan Indiya sunyi tunanin ko Gandhi yacika nuna kusanci. daga cikin su akwai Nathuram Godse, wanda daga baya yakashe a Hindu nationalist, Gandhi a 30 January 1948, da harbinsa da harshashi uku a kirjinsa. Captured along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators, Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were tried, convicted and executed while many of their other accomplices were given prison sentences.
Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
- "Gandhi". webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150114041417/http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gandhi |date=14 January 2015. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- McGregor, Ronald Stuart. The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 799. ISBN 978-0-19-864339-5. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Quote: (mahā- (S. "great, mighty, large, ..., eminent") + ātmā (S. "1.soul, spirit; the self, the individual; the mind, the heart; 2. the ultimate being."): "high-souled, of noble nature; a noble or venerable man."}}
- Gandhi, Rajmohan (2006) p. 172: "... Kasturba would accompany Gandhi on his departure from Cape Town for England in July 1914 en route to India. ... In different South African towns (Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg, and the Natal cities of Durban and Verulam), the struggle's martyrs were honoured and the Gandhi's bade farewell. Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'. He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice." (p. 172).
- McAllister, Pam (1982). Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. New Society Publishers. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-86571-017-7. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Quote: "With love, Yours, Bapu (You closed with the term of endearment used by your close friends, the term you used with all the movement leaders, roughly meaning 'Papa'." Another letter written in 1940 shows similar tenderness and caring.
- Eck, Diana L. (2003). Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Beacon Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8070-7301-8. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Unknown parameter
|url-status=suggested) (help) Quote: "... his niece Manu, who, like others called this immortal Gandhi 'Bapu,' meaning not 'father,' but the familiar, 'daddy'." (p. 210)
- "Gandhi not formally conferred 'Father of the Nation' title: Govt" Archived 6 Satumba 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Indian Express, 11 July 2012.
- "Constitution doesn't permit 'Father of the Nation' title: Government" Archived 7 ga Janairu, 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Times of India, 26 October 2012.
- Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-300-12078-3. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013. Text "Quote: "the Muslim League had only caught on among South Asian Muslims during the Second World War. ... By the late 1940s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people. ... one, articulated by the Congress, rested on the idea of a united, plural India as a home for all Indians and the other, spelt out by the League, rested on the foundation of Muslim nationalism and the carving out of a separate Muslim homeland." (p. 18)" ignored (help); Unknown parameter
- Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-300-12078-3. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Text "Quote: "South Asians learned that the British Indian empire would be partitioned on 3 June 1947. They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets. Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, ..., it is hardly surprising that many ... did not hear the news for many weeks afterwards. For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of 1947 may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India." (p. 1)" ignored (help)
- Brown (1991), p. 380: "Despite and indeed because of his sense of helplessness Delhi was to be the scene of what he called his greatest fast. ... His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought – he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January 1948. He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops. Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; ... But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: that he would only do after a large number of important politicians and leaders of communal bodies agreed to a joint plan for restoration of normal life in the city."
- Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2008). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Taylor & Francis. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-7007-1267-0. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Text "Quote: "The apotheosis of this contrast is the assassination of Gandhi in 1948 by a militant Nathuram Godse, on the basis of his 'weak' accommodationist approach towards the new state of Pakistan." (p. 544)" ignored (help); Unknown parameter