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Sanskrit

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Sanskrit
संस्कृतम् — 𑖭𑖽𑖭𑖿𑖎𑖴𑖝𑖦𑖿
'Yan asalin magana
2,212 (1971)
6,106 (1981)
49,736 (1991)
14,135 (2001)
harshen asali: 26,490 (2011)
Devanagari (en) Fassara, Kannada script (en) Fassara, Vatteluttu (en) Fassara, Sharada (en) Fassara, Siddhaṃ (en) Fassara, Nandinagari (en) Fassara da Nāgarī (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san
Glottolog sans1269[1]

Sanskrit (/;संस्कृत- _ _ _ _ _ संस्कृत- , saṃskṛta-; [2] mai संस्कृतम् संस्कृतम् , saṃskṛtam, IPA: [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐm] [lower-alpha 1] ) harshe ne na gargajiya mallakar reshen Indo-Aryan na harsunan Indo-European. Ya taso ne a Kudancin Asiya bayan harsunan da suka gabace sa sun bazu a can daga arewa maso yamma a ƙarshen zamanin Bronze. Sanskrit shine harshen Hindu mai tsarki, harshen falsafar Hindu na gargajiya, da na rubutun tarihi na Buddha da Jainism. Ya kasance harshen haɗin gwiwa a zamanin da da na tsakiyar Asiya ta Kudu, kuma bayan watsa al'adun Hindu da Buddha zuwa kudu maso gabashin Asiya, Gabashin Asiya da Asiya ta Tsakiya a farkon zamanin da, ya zama yaren addini da al'adu masu girma, kuma na manyan siyasa. a wasu daga cikin wadannan yankuna. [4] Sakamakon haka, Sanskrit ya yi tasiri mai ɗorewa a kan harsunan Kudancin Asiya, Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya da Gabashin Asiya, musamman a cikin ƙamus ɗinsu na yau da kullun da koyo. [5]

Sanskrit gabaɗaya yana nuna nau'ikan yaren Indo-Aryan da yawa. Mafi girma daga cikin waɗannan shine Vedic Sanskrit da aka samu a cikin Rigveda, tarin waƙoƙi 1,028 da kabilun Indo-Aryan suka yi ƙaura daga gabashin Pakistan zuwa arewa maso yammacin Indiya tsakanin 1500 KZ da 1200 KZ. Vedic Sanskrit ya yi hulɗa tare da tsoffin harsunan da suka rigaya sun kasance na yanki, suna ɗaukar sunayen sabbin tsirrai da dabbobi; bugu da kari, tsoffin harsunan Dravidian sun rinjayi salon sauti na Sanskrit. Sanskrit kuma yana iya ƙara kunkuntar zuwa ga Sanskrit na gargajiya, ingantaccen tsari kuma daidaitacce na nahawu wanda ya fito a tsakiyar karni na 1 KZ kuma an daidaita shi a cikin mafi ƙarancin nahawu na zamanin da, [lower-alpha 2] Aṣṭādhyāyī ('surori takwas') na Pāṇini. Babban ɗan wasan kwaikwayo a Sanskrit, Kālidāsa, ya rubuta a cikin Sanskrit na gargajiya, kuma an fara bayanin tushen ilimin lissafi na zamani a cikin Sanskrit na gargajiya. Manyan almara guda biyu na Sanskrit, Mahābhārata da Rāmāyaṇa, duk da haka, an haɗa su cikin kewayon rajistar labarun baka da ake kira Epic Sanskrit wanda aka yi amfani da shi a arewacin Indiya tsakanin 400 KZ da 300 CE, kuma kusan. na zamani tare da Sanskrit na gargajiya. A cikin ƙarnuka masu zuwa, Sanskrit ya zama mai ɗaure al'ada, ya daina koyo a matsayin yaren farko, kuma a ƙarshe ya daina haɓaka a matsayin harshe mai rai.

Waƙoƙin Rigveda sun yi kama da mafi kyawun kasidu na iyalai na Iran da Girkanci, Gathas na tsohon Avestan da Iliad na Homer. [7] Kamar yadda Rigveda aka watsa ta baki ta hanyoyin haddace na musamman hadaddun, tsauri da aminci, [8] [9] a matsayin rubutu guda ɗaya ba tare da bambance-bambancen karatu ba, [9] da aka kiyaye ta archaic syntax da ilimin halittar jiki suna da mahimmanci mahimmanci a cikin sake ginawa. harshen magabata na gama gari Proto-Indo-European. Sanskrit ba shi da ingantaccen rubutun ɗan ƙasa: daga kusan ƙarshen karni na 1st CE, an rubuta shi a cikin rubutun Brahmic daban-daban, kuma a cikin zamani na yau da kullun a Devanagari. [lower-alpha 1]

Sanskrit

An gane matsayin Sanskrit, aiki, da wuri a cikin al'adun gargajiyar Indiya ta hanyar shigar da shi cikin Tsarin Tsarin Harsunan Jadawali na takwas na Indiya. Koyaya, duk da ƙoƙarin farfaɗowa, [10] babu masu magana da harshen farko na Sanskrit a Indiya. [10] A cikin kowace ƙidayar shekara ta Indiya na baya-bayan nan, 'yan ƙasa dubu da yawa sun ba da rahoton Sanskrit ya zama yarensu na asali, amma ana tsammanin lambobin suna nuna buri na daidaitawa da martabar harshen. An koyar da Sanskrit a cikin gurukulas na gargajiya tun zamanin da; ana koyar da shi a yau a matakin sakandare. Kwalejin Sanskrit mafi tsufa ita ce Kwalejin Benares Sanskrit da aka kafa a 1791 yayin mulkin Kamfanin Gabashin Indiya. Ana ci gaba da amfani da Sanskrit sosai a matsayin harshe na biki da al'ada a cikin waƙoƙin Hindu da na Buddha da waƙoƙi.

Etymology da nomenclature[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  A cikin Sanskrit, sifa na fi'ili sáṃskṛta- kalma ce da ta ƙunshi sáṃ ('tare, mai kyau, da kyau, cikakke') da kṛta -('made, formed, aiki'). [11] [12] Yana nuni da aikin da aka “shirya da kyau, tsarkakakke kuma cikakke, goge, mai tsarki”. [13] [14] A cewar Biderman, kamalar mahallin da ake magana a kai a cikin asalin asalin kalmar shine tonal-maimakon ma'anar-halaye. Sauti da watsawa na baka sun kasance halaye masu kima sosai a tsohuwar Indiya, kuma masu hikimarta sun tace haruffa, tsarin kalmomi da ainihin nahawunsu cikin “tarin sauti, wani nau’in kyakyawan kyawon kide-kide”, in ji Biderman, a matsayin harshe na gama-gari. ake kira Sanskrit. [12] Daga ƙarshen lokacin Vedic zuwa gaba, jihar Annette Wilke da Oliver Moebus, sauti mai raɗaɗi da tushe na kaɗe-kaɗe sun jawo "madaidaicin adadin litattafan harshe, falsafa da na addini" a Indiya. An hango sauti a matsayin "mafificin dukkan halitta", wani wakilcin duniya kanta; "Maganin ban mamaki" na tunanin Hindu. Neman kamala a cikin tunani da makasudin 'yanci na daga cikin ma'auni na sauti mai tsarki, kuma zaren gama gari wanda ya sadar da dukkan ra'ayoyi da zaburarwa tare ya zama neman abin da Indiyawan da suka yi imani da shi ya zama cikakken yare, "phonocentric episteme". ta Sanskrit. [15] [16]

Sanskrit na rubutun nahawu

Sanskrit a matsayin yare ya yi gogayya da yarukan Indiya da yawa, marasa madaidaicin harsunan Indiya da ake kira Prakritic harsuna (prākṛta). Kalmar prakrta a zahiri tana nufin "na asali, na halitta, na al'ada, mara fasaha", in ji Franklin Southworth. Dangantakar da ke tsakanin Prakrit da Sanskrit tana samuwa a cikin matani na Indiya da aka kwanan wata zuwa karni na 1 AZ. Patañjali ya yarda cewa Prakrit shine yaren farko, wanda kowane yaro ya karbe shi da dukkan kurakuren sa kuma daga baya yana haifar da matsalolin fassara da rashin fahimta. Tsarin tsarkakewa na harshen Sanskrit yana kawar da waɗannan kurakurai. Mawallafin nahawu na Sanskrit na farko Daṇḍin ya bayyana, alal misali, cewa yawancin harsunan Prakrit sun samo asali ne a cikin Sanskrit, amma ya ƙunshi "asarar sautuna" da lalata da ke haifar da "rashin kula da nahawu". Daṇḍin ya yarda cewa akwai kalmomi da tsarin ruɗani a cikin Prakrit waɗanda ke bunƙasa ba tare da Sanskrit ba. Ana samun wannan ra'ayi a cikin rubutun Bharata Muni, marubucin tsohuwar rubutun Natya Shastra. Masanin Jain na farko Namisādhu ya yarda da bambancin, amma ya ƙi yarda cewa yaren Prakrit lalata ne na Sanskrit. Namisādhu ya bayyana cewa yaren Prakrit shine pūrvam ('ya zo gabanin, asali') kuma ya zo ga yara bisa ga dabi'a, yayin da Sanskrit ya kasance gyaran Prakrit ta hanyar "tsarkake ta hanyar nahawu".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sanskrit". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita . Penguin. pp. 13 ff. ISBN 978-0-14-044918-1 . "The Bhagawad Gita, an intensely spiritual work, that forms one of the cornerstones of the Hindu faith, and is also one of the masterpieces of Sanskrit poetry. (from the backcover)"Empty citation (help)
  3. Cardona 1997, p. 557.
  4. Michael C. Howard 2012
  5. Burrow 1973.
  6. Evans, Nicholas (2009). Dying Words: Endangered languages and what they have to tell us. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-0-631-23305-3.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lowe2015-IE
  8. Staal 1986.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Filliozat 2004.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named sreevastan-thehindu-sanskrit
  11. Angus Stevenson & Maurice Waite 2011
  12. 12.0 12.1 Shlomo Biderman 2008.
  13. Will Durant 1963.
  14. Louis Renou & Jagbans Kishore Balbir 2004.
  15. Annette Wilke & Oliver Moebus 2011.
  16. Guy L. Beck 2006.


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