Tarihi

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Prehistory, wanda kuma aka sani da tarihin adabi, [1] shine lokacin tarihin ɗan adam tsakanin amfani da kayan aikin dutse na farko da hominins c. Shekaru miliyan 3.3 da suka gabata da farkon rubuta tarihin tare da ƙirƙira tsarin rubutu. Amfani da alamomi, alamomi, da hotuna suna bayyana da wuri a tsakanin mutane, amma tsarin rubutun da aka sani na farko ya bayyana c. shekaru 5000 da suka gabata. An dauki dubban shekaru kafin tsarin rubutu ya fara karbuwa sosai, tare da yada rubuce-rubuce zuwa kusan dukkan al'adu a karni na 19. Ƙarshen tarihi ya zo a lokuta daban-daban a wurare daban-daban, kuma ba a cika amfani da kalmar ba wajen tattaunawa a cikin al'ummomi inda tarihi ya ƙare kwanan nan.

A farkon shekarun Bronze, Sumer a Mesopotamiya, Indus Valley Civilization, da kuma tsohuwar Misira sune farkon wayewar da suka bunkasa rubutun nasu da kuma kiyaye bayanan tarihi, tare da makwabta masu biyo baya. Yawancin sauran wayewa sun kai ƙarshen tarihi a lokacin zamanin Iron Age mai zuwa. Sashe na shekaru uku na prehistory zuwa Stone Age, Bronze Age, da Iron Age ya kasance ana amfani da shi don yawancin Eurasia da Arewacin Afirka, amma ba a yi amfani da su ba a waɗancan sassan duniya inda aikin ƙarfe mai ƙarfi ya isa ba zato ba tsammani daga hulɗa da su. Al'adun Eurasian, irin su Oceania, Australasia, da yawa na yankin kudu da hamadar sahara, da wasu sassan Amurka. Tare da wasu keɓancewa a cikin wayewar zamanin Columbia a cikin Amurka, waɗannan yankuna ba su haɓaka tsarin rubuce-rubuce masu sarƙaƙƙiya ba kafin zuwan Eurasia, don haka kafin tarihinsu ya kai ɗan lokaci kaɗan; misali, 1788 yawanci ana ɗaukarsa azaman ƙarshen prehistory na Ostiraliya.

Lokacin da al'ada ke rubutawa da wasu, amma ba ta inganta tsarin rubutunta ba, yawanci ana kiranta da tarihin al'ada. Ta hanyar ma'anarsa, babu rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubuce daga tarihin ɗan adam, waɗanda za mu iya sani kawai daga bayanan kayan tarihi na kayan tarihi da na ɗan adam: kayan tarihi da ragowar ɗan adam. An fara fahimtar waɗannan ta hanyar tarin tatsuniyoyi da kwatanci tare da al'ummomin da suka riga sun fara karatu da aka gani a zamanin yau. Babban mataki don fahimtar shaidar da ta gabata shine haduwa, kuma amintattun dabarun haduwa sun ci gaba a hankali tun ƙarni na sha tara. [2] Ƙarin shaida ya zo daga sake gina tsoffin harsunan magana. Dabarun na baya-bayan nan sun haɗa da binciken sinadarai na bincike don bayyana amfani da ingancin kayan, da nazarin kwayoyin halitta na ƙasusuwa don tantance dangi da halayen jiki na mutanen zamanin da.

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manyan ginshiƙan dutse a Göbekli Tepe, a kudu maso gabashin Turkiyya, waɗanda farkon mutanen Neolithic suka gina don amfani da su shekaru 11,000 da suka wuce.
Zane na farko da ke tunanin balagagge da matashi daga zamanin da suka rigaya suna yin kayan aikin dutse
Tunanin ƙarni na goma sha tara na mutanen farko a cikin jeji

Farko

Kalmar “prehistory” na iya nufin tsawon lokaci tun farkon duniya ko duniya, amma galibi yana nufin lokacin da rayuwa ta bayyana a duniya, ko ma musamman ga lokacin da halittu masu kama da mutum suka bayyana. [3] [4]

Ƙarshe

Kwanan da ke nuna ƙarshen tarihin prehistory yawanci ana bayyana shi azaman zuwan rubutaccen tarihin tarihin zamani. Kwanan wata saboda haka ta bambanta sosai daga yanki zuwa yanki dangane da ranar da bayanan da suka dace suka zama tushen ilimi mai amfani. [5] Alal misali, a Masar an yarda da cewa tarihi ya ƙare a shekara ta 3100 KZ, yayin da a New Guinea ƙarshen zamanin prehistoric ya kasance kwanan nan, a cikin 1870s, lokacin da masanin ilimin ɗan adam na Rasha Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai ya shafe shekaru da yawa yana zaune a tsakanin 'yan ƙasa. jama'a, kuma sun bayyana tsarin rayuwarsu a cikin cikakken bayani. A cikin Turai al'adun gargajiyar da aka rubuta da kyau na tsohuwar Girka da tsohuwar Roma suna da al'adun makwabta, gami da Celts da ƙaramin Etruscans, tare da ɗan ƙaramin rubutu ko babu rubutu, kuma masana tarihi dole ne su yanke shawarar nawa nauyin da za su ba wa sau da yawa masu tsananin son zuciya. lissafin waɗannan al'adun protohistoric a cikin adabin Girkanci da na Romawa.

Lokaci lokaci

A cikin rarrabuwar tarihin ɗan adam a cikin Eurasia, masana tarihi galibi suna amfani da tsarin shekaru uku, yayin da malaman zamanin kafin ɗan adam yawanci suna amfani da ingantaccen rikodin yanayin ƙasa da ƙayyadaddun tushe na duniya a cikin ma'aunin lokacin geologic . Tsarin shekaru uku shine ƙaddamar da tarihin ɗan adam zuwa lokaci guda uku a jere, wanda aka sanya wa suna don manyan fasahar yin kayan aiki:

  • Zamanin Dutse
  • Shekarun Bronze
  • Iron Age

Don prehistory na Amurka duba zamanin Pre-Columbian.

Tarihin kalmar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ra'ayin "prehistory" ya fito ne a lokacin haskakawa a cikin aikin antiquarians waɗanda suka yi amfani da kalmar "na farko" don kwatanta al'ummomin da suka wanzu kafin rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubuce. [6] Kalmar "prehistory" ta fara bayyana a cikin Turanci a cikin shekarar 1836 a cikin Binciken Kwata-kwata na Ƙasashen waje. [7]

Ma'auni na lokacin geologic don lokutan lokaci na ɗan adam, da kuma tsarin shekaru uku na tarihin ɗan adam, an tsara shi a cikin ƙarshen karni na sha tara a cikin aikin Birtaniya, Jamusanci, da Scandinavian anthropologists, archeologists, da antiquarians.

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  2. Graslund, Bo. 1987. The birth of prehistoric chronology. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  3. Fagan, Brian. 2007. World Prehistory: A brief introduction New York: Prentice-Hall, Seventh Edition, Chapter One
  4. Renfrew, Colin. 2008. Prehistory: The Making of the Human Mind. New York: Modern Library
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