Leo Tolstoy

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Leo Tolstoy
Murya
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Yasnaya Polyana (en) Fassara, 28 ga Augusta, 1828 (Julian)
ƙasa Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Mazauni Yapeeva Street (en) Fassara
Dzerzhinsky Street, 11/2 (en) Fassara
Tolstoy Urama, 25/68 (en) Fassara
Pyatnitskaya Street (en) Fassara
Lev Tolstoy Street (en) Fassara
Denezhnyy Lane (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Rashanci
Mutuwa Astapovo (en) Fassara, 7 Nuwamba, 1910 (Julian)
Makwanci Yasnaya Polyana (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Ciwon huhu)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Nikolay Tolstoy
Mahaifiya Mariya Volkonskaya
Abokiyar zama Sophia Tolstaya (en) Fassara  (23 Satumba 1862 -  20 Nuwamba, 1910)
Yara
Ahali Mariya Tolstaya (en) Fassara da Nikolay Tolstoy (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Yare Tolstoy family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Kazan Imperial University (en) Fassara : Doka
Harsuna Rashanci
Faransanci
Turanci
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a marubuci, marubucin wasannin kwaykwayo, mai falsafa, Marubuci, ilmantarwa, essayist (en) Fassara, Marubiyar yara, diarist (en) Fassara, prose writer (en) Fassara, dan jarida mai ra'ayin kansa da Esperantist (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Employers Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka War and Peace (en) Fassara
Anna Karenina (en) Fassara
A Confession (en) Fassara
The Kingdom of God Is Within You (en) Fassara
What Is Art? (en) Fassara
Boyhood (en) Fassara
Childhood (en) Fassara
Hadji Murat (en) Fassara
The Kreutzer Sonata (en) Fassara
Resurrection (en) Fassara
The Snowstorm (en) Fassara
Where Love Is, God Is (en) Fassara
Youth (en) Fassara
Father Sergius (en) Fassara
Sebastopol Sketches (en) Fassara
The Fruits of Enlightenment (en) Fassara
What is my faith (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Alexander Pushkin (en) Fassara, Nikolai Gogol (en) Fassara, Fedor Dostoevsky, Peter Kropotkin (en) Fassara, African Spir (en) Fassara, Henry David Thoreau (en) Fassara, Petr Chelčický (en) Fassara, Stendhal (en) Fassara, Gautama Buddha, Plato, George Eliot (en) Fassara, Arthur Schopenhauer (en) Fassara, Aristotle, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (en) Fassara, Charles Dickens (en) Fassara, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (en) Fassara, Victor Hugo (en) Fassara, Henry George (en) Fassara, Laurence Sterne (en) Fassara da Harriet Beecher Stowe (en) Fassara
Mamba Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (en) Fassara
Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Fafutuka literary realism (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Л. Н. Т. da Л. Н.
Artistic movement Gajeren labari
short novel (en) Fassara
ƙagaggen labari
drama (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Eastern Orthodoxy (en) Fassara
Tolstoyan movement (en) Fassara
Kiristanci
IMDb nm0866243
tolstoy.ru

Leo Tolstoy, marubuci ɗan ƙasar Rasha ne wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan marubutan kowane lokaci. Ya sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin adabi kowace shekara daga 1902 zuwa 1906 da kuma lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel a 1901, 1902, da 1909; kasancewar bai taba yin nasara ba babban cece-kuce.[1]

An haife shi ga dangin ƴan ƙasar Rasha a cikin 1828, Fitattun ayyukan Tolstoy sun haɗa da litattafan War da Aminci (1869) da Anna Karenina (1878), galibi ana ambaton su azaman fitattun almara na gaske. [1] Ya fara samun yabo na wallafe-wallafen a cikin shekarunsa ashirin tare da ilimin tarihin kansa, Yarantaka, Yaro, da Matasa (1852-1856), da Sevastopol Sketches (1855), dangane da abubuwan da ya samu a Yaƙin Crimean. Almararsa ta ƙunshi tarin gajerun labarai da litattafai da yawa kamar Mutuwar Ivan Ilyich (1886), Farin Ciki na Iyali (1859), "Bayan Ball" (1911), da Hadji Murad (1912). Ya kuma rubuta wasan kwaikwayo da kasidu masu yawa na falsafa.

Leo Tolstoy

A cikin 1870s, Tolstoy ya sami babban rikicin ɗabi'a, wanda ya biyo bayan abin da yake ɗauka a matsayin farkawa ta ruhaniya daidai daidai, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin aikinsa mara almara A Confession (1882). Fassarar da ya yi na zahiri na koyarwar ɗabi’a na Yesu, da ke kan Huɗuba bisa Dutse, ya sa shi ya zama Kirista mai ƙwazo, anarchist da kuma son zaman lafiya. Ra'ayinsa game da juriya mara tashin hankali, wanda aka bayyana a cikin irin waɗannan ayyuka kamar Mulkin Allah Yana Cikinku (1894), ya yi tasiri sosai a kan manyan mutane na ƙarni na 20 kamar su Mahatma Gandhi [2] da Martin Luther King Jr. [3] Shi ma. Ya zama mai ba da shawara na Georgism, falsafar tattalin arziki na Henry George, wanda ya shigar da shi a cikin rubuce-rubucensa, musamman tashin matattu (1899).

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tolstoys sanannen dangi ne na tsoffin sarakunan Rasha waɗanda suka samo asalin zuriyarsu ga wani ɗan adam mai suna Indris wanda Pyotr Tolstoy ya kwatanta da isowa "daga Nemec, daga ƙasashen Kaisar" zuwa Chernigov a 1353 tare da 'ya'yansa maza biyu Litvinos (ko Litvonis) da Zimonten (ko Zigmont) da druzhina na mutane 3000. [4] [5] Yayin da aka dade ana amfani da kalmar "Nemec" wajen kwatanta Jamusawa kawai, a wancan lokacin ana amfani da ita ga duk wani baƙon da ba ya jin Rashanci (daga kalmar nemoy ma'ana bebe ).[6] Daga nan aka canza Indris zuwa Orthodoxy na Gabas, a ƙarƙashin sunan Leonty, da 'ya'yansa maza kamar Konstantin da Feodor. An yi wa jikan Konstantin Andrei Kharitonovich laƙabi da Tolstiy (wanda aka fassara a matsayin mai ) ta Vasily II na Moscow bayan ya tashi daga Chernigov zuwa Moscow. [4] [5]

Saboda sunayen arna da kuma gaskiyar cewa Demetrius I Starshy ya mulki Chernigov a lokacin, wasu masu bincike sun kammala cewa su Lithuanians ne waɗanda suka zo daga Grand Duchy na Lithuania. [4] A lokaci guda kuma, ba a taɓa samun ambaton Indris a cikin takaddun ƙarni na 14 zuwa 16 ba, yayin da aka batar da tarihin Chernigov da Pyotr Tolstoy yayi amfani da shi azaman tunani. [4] Mambobin dangin Tolstoy na farko da aka rubuta suma sun rayu a cikin karni na 17, don haka Pyotr Tolstoy da kansa ana daukarsa a matsayin wanda ya kafa gidan mai daraja, Peter the Great ya ba shi taken kirga. [7] [8]

Rayuwa da aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Leo Tolstoy yana da shekaru 20, c. 1848

An haifi Tolstoy a Yasnaya Polyana, wani yanki na iyali mai 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) kudu maso yammacin Tula, da 200 kilometres (120 mi) kudu da Moscow. Shi ne na huɗu cikin 'ya'ya biyar na Count Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy (1794-1837), tsohon soja na yakin Patriotic na 1812, da Princess Mariya Tolstaya (née Volkonskaya ; 1790-1830). Mahaifiyarsa ta rasu yana da shekara biyu, mahaifinsa kuma yana da shekara tara. [9] Tolstoy da 'yan uwansa sun girma ta hanyar dangi. A shekara ta 1844, ya fara karatun shari'a da harsunan gabas a Jami'ar Kazan, inda malamai suka bayyana shi a matsayin "wanda ba ya iya kuma ba ya son koyo". Tolstoy ya bar jami'a a tsakiyar karatunsa, [9] ya koma Yasnaya Polyana sannan ya shafe lokaci mai tsawo a Moscow, Tula da Saint Petersburg, yana jagorantar rayuwa mai laushi da jin dadi. [1] Ya fara rubuce-rubuce a wannan lokacin, [9] ciki har da littafinsa na farko Childhood, labarin ƙage na ƙuruciyarsa, wanda aka buga a 1852.[1] A cikin 1851, bayan ya ci bashin caca mai nauyi, ya tafi tare da ɗan'uwansa zuwa Caucasus kuma ya shiga soja. Tolstoy ya yi aiki a matsayin matashin sojan bindigu a lokacin Yaƙin Crimean kuma ya kasance a Sevastopol a lokacin yaƙin Sevastopol na tsawon watanni 11 a 1854–55, [10] gami da Yaƙin Chernaya. A lokacin yakin an san shi da jaruntaka kuma an kara masa girma zuwa laftanar. [10] Ya firgita da yawan mace-macen da aka yi a yaƙi, [9] kuma ya bar soja bayan ƙarshen Yaƙin Crimean. [1]

Kwarewarsa a cikin soja, da tafiye-tafiye guda biyu a Turai a cikin 1857 da 1860-61 ya canza Tolstoy daga marubucin al'umma mai rudani da gata zuwa mai tashin hankali da ruhi. Sauran wadanda suka bi wannan hanya sune Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin da Peter Kropotkin. A lokacin ziyararsa ta 1857, Tolstoy ya shaida kisan gilla a bainar jama'a a birnin Paris, abin da ya faru da ya ratsa jiki wanda ya nuna sauran rayuwarsa. A cikin wata wasiƙa zuwa ga abokinsa Vasily Botkin, Tolstoy ya rubuta: “Gaskiya ita ce, Jiha wata makarkashiya ce da aka tsara ba kawai don a yi amfani da ita ba, amma sama da duka don lalata ’yan ƙasarta . . . Daga yanzu ba zan taba bauta wa wata gwamnati a ko’ina ba.” [11] Manufar Tolstoy na rashin tashin hankali ko ahimsa ya ƙarfafa lokacin da ya karanta fassarar Jamusanci na Tirukkural. Daga baya ya cusa ra'ayin a Mahatma Gandhi ta hanyar Wasikarsa zuwa ga Hindu lokacin da matashi Gandhi ya yi magana da shi yana neman shawararsa. [12]

Leo Tolstoy

Tafiyarsa ta Turai a cikin 1860-61 ta tsara ci gaban siyasa da wallafe-wallafe lokacin da ya sadu da Victor Hugo. Tolstoy karanta Hugo's sabuwar gama Les Misérables. Irin wannan motsin fage na yaƙi a cikin littafin Hugo da kuma Tolstoy's War da Aminci na nuna wannan tasiri. Falsafar siyasa ta Tolstoy ma ta rinjayi ziyarar Maris 1861 zuwa ga anarchist na Faransa Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, sannan yana zaune a gudun hijira a ƙarƙashin sunan da aka ɗauka a Brussels. Tolstoy ya sake nazarin littafin Proudhon mai zuwa, La Guerre et la Paix (" Yaki da Zaman Lafiya " a cikin Faransanci), kuma daga baya ya yi amfani da taken don gwanintarsa. Mutanen biyu sun kuma tattauna batun ilimi, kamar yadda Tolstoy ya rubuta a cikin litattafansa na ilimi: "Idan na ba da labarin wannan tattaunawa da Proudhon, don nuna cewa, a cikin kwarewata, shi ne kawai mutumin da ya fahimci muhimmancin ilimi da kuma na bugu. latsa a zamaninmu."

An kori shi da sha'awa, Tolstoy ya koma Yasnaya Polyana kuma ya kafa makarantu 13 ga 'ya'yan manoma na Rasha, waɗanda aka 'yantar da su a cikin 1861. Tolstoy ya bayyana ka'idodin makarantun a cikin rubutunsa na 1862 "Makarantar a Yasnaya Polyana". Gwaje-gwajensa na ilimi ba su daɗe ba, wani ɓangare saboda tsangwama daga ’yan sandan sirri na Tsarist. Koyaya, a matsayin jagora kai tsaye zuwa Makarantar Summerhill AS Neill, makarantar a Yasnaya Polyana za a iya da'awar misali na farko na ingantacciyar ka'idar ilimin demokraɗiyya.

  • Count Sergei Lvovich Tolstoy (1863-1947), mawaki da ethnomusicologist.
  • Countess Tatyana Lvovna Tolstaya (1864-1950), matar Mikhail Sergeevich Sukhotin.
  • Count Ilya Lvovich Tolstoy (1866-1933), marubuci
  • Count Lev Lvovich Tolstoy (1869-1945), marubuci kuma sculptor.
  • Countess Maria Lvovna Tolstaya (1871-1906), matar Nikolai Leonidovich Obolensky .
  • Count Peter Lvovich Tolstoy (1872-1873), ya mutu tun yana jariri

Count Nikolai Lvovich Tolstoy (1874-1875), ya mutu tun yana jariri

  • Countess Varvara Lvovna Tolstaya (1875-1875), ya mutu tun yana jariri.

Count Andrei Lvovich Tolstoy (1877-1916), yayi aiki a cikin yakin Russo-Japanese.

  • Michael Lvovich Tolstoy (1879-1944)
  • Alexei Lvovich Tolstoy (1881-1886)
  • Countess Alexandra Lvovna Tolstaya (1884-1979)
  • Leo Tolstoy
    Ivan Lvovich Tolstoy (1888-1895)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Britannica
  2. Martin E. Hellman, Resist Not Evil in World Without Violence (Arun Gandhi ed.), M.K. Gandhi Institute, 1994, retrieved on 14 December 2006
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Vitold Rummel, Vladimir Golubtsov (1886). Genealogical Collection of Russian Noble Families in 2 Volumes. Volume 2 – The Tolstoys, Counts and Noblemen. Saint Petersburg: A.S. Suvorin Publishing House, p. 487
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ivan Bunin, The Liberation of Tolstoy: A Tale of Two Writers, p. 100
  6. Nemoy/Немой word meaning from the Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary (in Russian)
  7. Tolstoy coat of arms by All-Russian Armorials of Noble Houses of the Russian Empire. Part 2, 30 June 1798 (in Russian)
  8. The Tolstoys article from Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1890–1907 (in Russian)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AuthorDataSheet
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Ten Things You Didn't Know About Tolstoy". BBC.
  11. A.N. Wilson, Tolstoy (1988), p. 146
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Walsh2018