Aristotle

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Aristotle / / ˈærɪs tɒtəl / ; [ [1] Greek Aristotéles, pronounced [aristotélɛːs] ; 384-322 BC) masanin falsafar Girka ne kuma masanin ilimin lissafi a lokacin zamanin gargajiya a tsohuwar Girka. Plato ya koyar da shi, shine wanda ya kafa makarantar falsafar Peripatetic a cikin Lyceum da kuma al'adar Aristotelian mai faɗi. Rubuce-rubucen sa sun ƙunshi batutuwa da yawa da suka haɗa da ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, ilmin halitta, ilimin dabbobi, metaphysics, dabaru, da'a, aesthetics, waƙoƙi, wasan kwaikwayo, kiɗa, lafazi, ilimin halin dan Adam, ilimin harshe, tattalin arziki, siyasa, yanayin yanayi, geology, da gwamnati . Aristotle ya ba da hadaddun haɗaɗɗun nau'ikan falsafar da ke gabansa. Sama da duka daga koyarwarsa ne kasashen yamma suka gaji kamus na hankali, da matsaloli da hanyoyin bincike. A sakamakon haka, falsafarsa ta yi tasiri na musamman akan kusan kowane nau'i na ilimi a yammacin Turai kuma yana ci gaba da kasancewa batun tattaunawa ta falsafar zamani.

Ba a san komai game da rayuwarsa ba. An haifi Aristotle a birnin Stagira a Arewacin Girka. Mahaifinsa, Nikomachus, ya mutu sa’ad da Aristotle yake ƙarami, kuma wani mai kula da shi ya rene shi. Yana da shekara sha bakwai ko sha takwas ya shiga Kwalejin Plato a Athens kuma ya zauna a can har ya kai shekara talatin da bakwai ( c. 347 BC ). [2] Ba da daɗewa ba bayan Plato ya mutu, Aristotle ya bar Athens kuma, bisa buƙatar Philip II na Macedon, ya koyar da Alexander the Great tun daga 343 BC. [3] Ya kafa ɗakin karatu a Lyceum wanda ya taimaka masa ya fitar da yawancin ɗaruruwan littattafansa a kan naɗaɗɗen takarda. Ko da yake Aristotle ya rubuta kyawawan litattafai da tattaunawa don bugawa, kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na ainihin fitowar sa ya tsira, babu ɗayansa da aka yi niyya don bugawa. [4]

Ra'ayin Aristotle yana da siffa sosai ga malanta na tsakiyar zamanai. Tasirin kimiyyar jiki ya tashi daga Late Antiquity da Farkon Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Zamani zuwa Renaissance, kuma ba a maye gurbinsu da tsari ba har sai an haɓaka wayewa da ka'idoji irin su injiniyoyi na gargajiya . Wasu abubuwan duban dabbobin Aristotle da aka samu a cikin ilimin halittarsa, kamar a hannun hectocotyl (haihuwa) na dorinar ruwa, an kafirta su har zuwa karni na 19. Ya kuma rinjayi falsafar Judeo-Islam a lokacin Tsakiyar Zamani, da kuma tauhidin Kiristanci, musamman Neoplatonism na Cocin Farko da al'adar scholastic na Cocin Katolika . An girmama Aristotle a tsakanin malaman musulmi na zamanin da a matsayin "Malami na farko", kuma a cikin kiristoci na zamanin da kamar Thomas Aquinas a matsayin kawai "Masanin Falsafa", yayin da mawallafin Dante ya kira shi "shugaban wadanda suka sani". Ayyukansa sun ƙunshi sanannun binciken ilimin tunani na farko, kuma masana na zamanin da kamar Peter Abelard da John Buridan suka yi nazari.

Tasirin Aristotle akan dabaru ya ci gaba da kyau har zuwa ƙarni na 19. Bugu da kari, ƙa'idojinsa, ko da yake ko da yaushe yana da tasiri, ya sami sabon sha'awa tare da zuwan zamani na kyawawan dabi'u . Aristotle an kira shi "uban dabaru", "uban ilimin halitta", "uban kimiyyar siyasa", "uban ilimin dabbobi", "uban ilimin mahaifa", "uban shari'ar halitta", "da uban hanyar kimiyya", "uban maganganu", "uban ilimin halin ɗan Adam", "uban gaskiya", "uban zargi", "uban mutum-mutumi", "uban ilimin telebijin", da " uban meteorology". [6]

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Makarantar Aristotle a Mieza, Macedonia, Girka

Gabaɗaya, cikakkun bayanai game da rayuwar Aristotle ba su da kyau. Tarihin rayuwar da aka rubuta a zamanin d ¯ a sau da yawa hasashe ne kuma masana tarihi sun yarda da ƴan mahimman bayanai kawai.

An haifi Aristotle a shekara ta 384 BC a Stagira, Chalcidice, kusan 55 km (mil 34) gabas da Tasalonika ta zamani . [7] [8] Mahaifinsa, Nikomakus, shi ne likitan sirri ga Sarki Amyntas na Makidoniya. Yayin da yake matashi, Aristotle ya koyi game da ilmin halitta da bayanan likita, wanda mahaifinsa ya koyar. Duk iyayen Aristotle duka sun mutu yana ɗan shekara goma sha uku, kuma Proxenus na Atarneus ya zama waliyinsa. [9] Ko da yake ɗan ƙaramin bayani game da ƙuruciyar Aristotle ya tsira, wataƙila ya ɗan ɗauki ɗan lokaci a cikin fadar Macedonia, yana yin dangantakarsa ta farko da masarautar Makidoniya . [10]

Yana da shekaru sha bakwai ko sha takwas, Aristotle ya koma Athens don ci gaba da karatunsa a Kwalejin Plato . [11] Wataƙila ya ɗanɗana asirin Eleusinian kamar yadda ya rubuta lokacin da yake kwatanta abubuwan gani da ake kallo a Eleusinian Mysteries, "ƙwarewa shine koya" [παθείν μαθεĩν]. [12] Aristotle ya zauna a Athens kusan shekaru ashirin kafin ya tafi a 348/47 BC Labarin al'ada game da tarihin tafiyarsa ya nuna rashin jin dadinsa tare da jagorancin Kwalejin bayan da kulawa ya wuce ga dan uwan Plato Speusippus, ko da yake yana yiwuwa ya ji tsoron rashin amincewa da Macedonia a Athens a lokacin kuma ya bar kafin Plato ya mutu. [13] Aristotle sannan ya raka Xenocrates zuwa kotun abokinsa Hermias na Atarneus a Asiya Ƙarama . Bayan mutuwar Hermias, Aristotle ya yi tafiya tare da ɗalibinsa Theophrastus zuwa tsibirin Lesbos, inda suka yi bincike tare da nazarin halittu da dabbobi na tsibirin da kuma tafkin da ke da mafaka. Yayin da yake a Lesbos, Aristotle ya auri Pythias, ko dai ɗiyar riƙon Hermias ko kuma ƴar ɗan'uwa. Ta haifa masa ƴa mace, wadda kuma suka sa masa suna Fatiyas. A cikin 343 BC, Philip na biyu na Makidoniya ya gayyaci Aristotle don ya zama malami ga ɗansa Alexander . [14] [3]

Hoton hoton Aristotle; wani Imperial Roman (ƙarni na ɗaya ko na biyu AD) kwafin wani sassaken tagulla da ya ɓace wanda Lysippos ya yi.

An naɗa Aristotle a matsayin shugaban makarantar sarauta ta Macedon . A lokacin Aristotle a kotun Macedonia, ya ba Alexander darussa ba kawai ga Alexander amma kuma ga wasu sarakuna biyu na nan gaba: Ptolemy da Cassander . [15] Aristotle ya ƙarfafa Alexander zuwa ga ci gabas, kuma halin Aristotle ga Farisa ya kasance mai ƙabilanci mara kunya . A cikin wani sanannen misali, ya shawarci Iskandari da ya zama “shugaba ga Helenawa, mai ɗorewa ga ƴan baranda, ya kula da na farko kamar abokai da dangi, kuma ya yi mu’amala da na ƙarshe kamar dabba ko tsiro”. [15] Na 335 BC, Aristotle ya koma Athens, ya kafa makarantarsa a can da ake kira Lyceum . Aristotle ya gudanar da darussa a makarantar na shekaru goma sha biyu masu zuwa. Yayin da yake Atina, matarsa Pythias ta mutu kuma Aristotle ya shiga tare da Herpyllis na Stagira, wanda ya haifa masa ɗa wanda ya sa wa mahaifinsa, Nicomachus . Idan Suda – tarin uncritical daga tsakiyar zamanai – daidai ne, yana iya yiwuwa ya sami erômenos, Palaephatus na Abydus . [16]

Wannan lokaci a Atina, tsakanin 335 zuwa 323 BC, shine lokacin da Aristotle ya yi imanin cewa ya haɗa yawancin ayyukansa. [3] Ya rubuta tattaunawa da yawa, wanda guntu kawai ya tsira. Waɗannan ayyukan da suka wanzu suna cikin sigar rubuce -rubuce kuma ba, galibi, an yi niyya don yaɗawa ba; gaba daya ana tunanin su ne kayan taimakon lacca ga dalibansa. Muhimman litattafansa sun hada da Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Siyasa, A Ruhi da Waka . Aristotle ya yi karatu kuma ya ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci ga "hankali, metaphysics, lissafi, kimiyyar lissafi, ilmin halitta, ilimin halitta, ɗabi'a, siyasa, aikin gona, likitanci, rawa, da wasan kwaikwayo." [2]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Collins English Dictionary.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Humphreys 2009.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Russell 1972.
  4. Barnes 1995.
  5. Leroi 2015, p. 352.
  6. * "the father of logic": Wentzel Van Huyssteen, Encyclopedia of Science and Religion: A-I, p. 27
    • "the father of biology": S. C. Datt, S. B. Srivastava, Science and society, p. 93.[5]
    • "the father of political science": N. Jayapalan, Aristotle, p. 12, Jonathan Wolff, Lectures on the History of Moral and Political Philosophy, p. 48.
    • the "father of zoology": Josef Rudolf Winkler, A Book of Beetles, p. 12
    • "the father of embryology": D.R. Khanna, Text Book Of Embryology, p. 2
    • "the father of natural law": Shellens, Max Solomon (1959). "Aristotle on Natural Law". Natural Law Forum. 4 (1): 72–100. doi:10.1093/ajj/4.1.72.
    • "the father of scientific method": Shuttleworth, Martyn. "History of the Scientific Method". Explorable., Riccardo Pozzo (2004) The impact of Aristotelianism on modern philosophy. CUA Press. p. 41. 08033994793.ABA
    • "the father of rhetoric": "Aristotle". History., Bizzell, P. and Bruce Herzberg. (2000). The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. NY: Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 3.
    • "the father of psychology": Margot Esther Borden, Psychology in the Light of the East, p. 4
    • "the father of realism": Russell L. Hamm, Philosophy and Education: Alternatives in Theory and Practice, p. 58
    • "the father of criticism": Nagendra Prasad, Personal Bias in Literary Criticism: Dr. Johnson, Matthew Arnold, T.S. Eliot, p. 70. Lord Henry Home Kames, Elements of Criticism, p. 237.
    • "the father of meteorology":"What is meteorology?". Meteorological Office."94.05.01: Meteorology". Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
    • "the father of individualism": Allan Gotthelf, Gregory Salmieri, A Companion to Ayn Rand, p. 325.
    • "the father of teleology": Malcolm Owen Slavin, Daniel H. Kriegman, The Adaptive Design of the Human Psyche: Psychoanalysis, Evolutionary Biology, and the Therapeutic Process, p. 292.
  7. McLeisch 1999.
  8. Aristoteles-Park in Stagira.
  9. Hall 2018.
  10. Anagnostopoulos 2013.
  11. Blits 1999.
  12. Evans 2006.
  13. Aristotle 1984.
  14. Shields 2016.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Green 1991.
  16. Smith 2007.