Socrates

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Socrates
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Alopeke (en) Fassara, 469 "BCE"
ƙasa Classical Athens (en) Fassara
Mazauni Classical Athens (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Athens, 15 ga Faburairu, 399 "BCE"
Yanayin mutuwa forced suicide (en) Fassara (hemlock poisoning (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Sophroniscus
Mahaifiya Phaenarete
Abokiyar zama Xanthippe (en) Fassara
Myrto (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Ancient Greek (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a mai falsafa, mai koyarwa da marubuci
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Anaxagoras (en) Fassara, Pre-Socratic philosophy (en) Fassara da sophist (en) Fassara
Mamba boule (en) Fassara
IMDb nm1419271

Socrates [1] (Greek/Girkanci : Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC) masanin falsafar Girka ne daga Athens wanda aka bayyana shi a matsayin wanda ya kafa falsafar Yammacin Turai kuma daga cikin falsafar falsafa na farko na al'adar tunani. Wani mutum ne mai ban mamaki, Socrates bai rubuta rubutu ba kuma an san shi da shi ta hanyar bayanan marubutan gargajiya, musamman ɗalibansa Plato da Xenophon. An rubuta waɗannan asusun a matsayin tattaunawa, wanda Socrates da masu magana da shi suna nazarin wani batu a cikin salon tambaya da amsa; sun haifar da nau'in adabin Socratic dialogue. Litattafan saɓani na Socrates sun sake gina falsafarsa kusan ba zai yiwu ba, yanayin da aka sani da matsalar Socratic. Socrates ya kasance mutum mai ban mamaki a cikin al'ummar Athens. A cikin 399 BC, an zarge shi da rashin adalci da lalata matasa. Bayan shari’ar da ta shafe yini guda, an yanke masa hukuncin kisa. Ya yi ranarsa ta ƙarshe a gidan yari, ya ƙi yin tayin taimaka masa ya tsere.

Tattaunawar Plato na daga cikin cikakkun bayanai na Socrates don tsira daga zamanin da. Suna nuna tsarin Socratic zuwa sassan falsafa ciki har da rationalism da ɗa'a Platonic Socrates ya ba da sunansa ga manufar tsarin Socratic, da kuma Socratic irony. Hanyar tambaya ta Socratic, ko elenchus, tana ɗaukar tsari a cikin tattaunawa ta amfani da gajerun tambayoyi da amsoshi, waɗanda nassosin Plato suka kwatanta a cikin abin da Socrates da masu shiga tsakaninsa suke nazarin fannoni daban-daban na al'amari ko ma'ana mai ma'ana, yawanci dangane da ɗaya daga cikin kyawawan halaye, kuma sun sami kansu a cikin wani mawuyacin hali, gaba ɗaya sun kasa bayyana abin da suke tunanin sun fahimta. An san Socrates da shelar jahilcinsa gaba ɗaya; ya kasance yana cewa kawai abin da ya sani shi ne jahilcinsa, yana neman ya nuna cewa sanin jahilcinmu shi ne matakin farko na falsafa.

Socrates ya yi tasiri mai ƙarfi a kan masana falsafa a zamanin dā kuma ya ci gaba da yin hakan a zamanin yau. Malaman zamani na zamani da na Musulunci sun yi nazari da shi kuma ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a tunanin juyin mulkin Italiya, musamman a cikin yunkurin 'yan Adam. Sha'awa a gare shi ya ci gaba da raguwa, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin ayyukan Søren Kierkegaard da Friedrich Nietzsche. Hotunan Socrates a cikin fasaha, adabi, da al'adun gargajiya sun sanya shi sananne a al'adar falsafar Yammacin Turai.

Sources da matsalar Socratic[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Socrates bai rubuta koyarwarsa ba. Duk abin da aka sani game da shi ya fito ne daga lissafin wasu: galibi masanin falsafa Plato da masanin tarihi Xenophon, waɗanda duka almajiransa ne; Mawallafin wasan kwaikwayo na Athenia Aristophanes (Zamanin Socrates); da kuma almajiri Plato Aristotle, wanda aka haifa bayan mutuwar Socrates. Yawancin labaran da suka saba da juna daga waɗannan tsoffin asusun suna ba da amfani kawai don rikitar da ikon malamai na sake gina tunanin Socrates a dogara, yanayin da aka sani da matsalar Socratic. [3] Ayyukan Plato, Xenophon, da sauran mawallafa waɗanda suke amfani da halin Socrates a matsayin kayan aikin bincike, an rubuta su ta hanyar tattaunawa tsakanin Socrates da masu shiga tsakani da kuma samar da babban tushen bayanai game da rayuwa da tunanin Socrates. Tattaunawar Socratic (logos sokratikos) kalma ce da Aristotle ya ƙirƙira don bayyana wannan sabon salo na adabi. Duk da yake ba a san ainihin kwanakin abubuwan da suka yi ba, wasu ƙila an rubuta su bayan mutuwar Socrates. [2] Kamar yadda Aristotle ya fara lura, gwargwadon yadda tattaunawar ke nuna Socrates da gaske lamari ne na wasu muhawara. [3]

Plato da Xenophon[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutum mai gaskiya, Xenophon ba ƙwararren masanin falsafa ba ne. [4] Ba zai iya cikakkiyar fahimta ba ko bayyana hujjojin Socrates. [4] Ya yaba wa Socrates saboda hazakarsa, kishin kasa, da jajircewarsa a fagen fama. [4] Ya tattauna Socrates a cikin ayyuka huɗu: Memorabilia, Oeconomicus, Taro, da Uzuri na Socrates. Ya kuma ambaci wani labari da ke nuna Socrates a cikin littafinsa na Anabasis. [4] Oeconomicus ya ba da labarin tattaunawa kan al'amuran noma masu amfani. [4] Kamar Plato's <i id="mwaw">Apology</i>, Xenophon's Apologia ya kwatanta gwajin Socrates, amma ayyukan sun bambanta sosai kuma, bisa ga WKC Guthrie, asusun Xenophon ya nuna Socrates na "lalata da rashin haƙuri". [4] Taro na tattaunawa ne na Socrates tare da wasu fitattun mutanen Athens yayin tattaunawar bayan cin abincin dare, amma ya bambanta da taron tarukan Plato: babu zoba a cikin jerin baƙi. [4] A cikin Memorabilia, ya kare Socrates daga zarge-zargen lalata matasa da kuma kasancewa a gaban alloli; da gaske, tarin labarai ne daban-daban da aka taru don gina sabon uzuri ga Socrates. [4]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Jones 2006.
  2. Döring 2011.
  3. Dorion 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Guthrie 1972.