Cold War

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentCold War

Iri cold war (en) Fassara
perpetual war (en) Fassara
proxy war (en) Fassara
historical period (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan 1945 –  25 Disamba 1991
Wuri Latin America (en) Fassara
Asiya
Afirka
Turai
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Juyin Al'adu
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Berlin Crisis of 1961 (en) Fassara
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Soviet–Afghan War (en) Fassara
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War of Attrition (en) Fassara
Operation Cyclone (en) Fassara
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Saur Revolution (en) Fassara
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Cold War

Cold War kalma ce da aka saba amfani da ita don yin nuni ga lokacin tashin hankali na geopolitical tsakanin Amurka da Tarayyar Soviet da abokansu, Western Bloc da Eastern Bloc. Ana amfani da kalmar Cold War ne domin babu wani kazamin fada kai tsaye tsakanin manyan kasashen biyu, amma kowannensu yana goyon bayan manyan rikice-rikicen yanki da ake kira proxy wars. Rikicin ya samo asali ne a kan gwagwarmayar akida da siyasa ta duniya don tasirin duniya daga wadannan manyan kasashe biyu, bayan kawancen wucin gadi da nasarar da suka samu a kan Jamus na Nazi da Japan a shekara ta A1945. Baya ga ci gaban makaman nukiliya da tura sojoji na al'ada, an bayyana gwagwarmayar mamayewa ta hanyar kai tsaye kamar yakin tunani, yakin farfaganda, leken asiri, takunkumi far-reaching embargoes, hamayya a abubuwan wasanni, da gasar fasaha kamar Space Race.

Amurka ce ta jagoranci kungiyar Western Bloc da kuma wasu kasashe na duniya na farko wadanda galibi su ne masu sassaucin ra'ayi na dimokiradiyya amma suna da alaka da hanyar sadarwa ta kasashe masu mulki, wadanda galibinsu kasashen da suka yi mulkin mallaka ne . [1] [upper-alpha 2] The Eastern Bloc ta kasance a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Tarayyar Soviet da Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci, wanda ke da tasiri a duk Second world kuma an danganta shi da hanyar sadarwa na kasashe masu mulki. Gwamnatin Amurka ta goyi bayan gwamnatoci masu adawa da gurguzu da na tashe-tashen hankula a fadin duniya, yayin da gwamnatin Soviet ta ba da tallafi ga jam'iyyun left-wing parties da juyin juya hali a duniya. Kamar yadda kusan dukkan kasashen da suka yi mulkin mallaka suka samu ‘yancin kai a tsakanin shekara ta 1945 zuwa 1960, sun zama fagen fama na duniya na uku a yakin cacar baka.

Kashi na farko na yakin cacar baka ya fara ne jim kadan bayan kawo karshen yakin duniya na biyu a shekara ta 1945. Amurka da kawayenta sun kirkiro kawancen soja na NATO a cikin shekarar 1949. a cikin fargabar harin Soviet kuma sun kira manufofinsu na duniya game da hana tasirin Soviet. Tarayyar Soviet ta kafa yarjejeniyar Warsaw a shekarar 1955. don mayar da martani ga NATO. Manyan rikice-rikice na wannan lokaci sun hada da shingen Berlin na shekarar 1948-1949, juyin juya halin kwaminisanci na kasar Sin na shekarar 1945-1949, yakin Koriya ta shekarar 1950-1953, juyin juya halin Hungary na shekarar 1956, Rikicin Suez na shekarar 1956, Rikicin. Shekarar 1961, na Berlin, Rikicin Berlin 6, Rikicin Cuban 6, Rikicin Berlin 6 da Makami mai linzami 19. Yaƙin Vietnam na shekarar 1964-1975. Amurka da USSR sun fafata don samun tasiri a Latin Amurka, Gabas ta Tsakiya, da kasashen Afirka da Asiya da Oceania da suka mai da mulkin mallaka.

Bayan rikicin makami mai linzami na Cuba, an fara wani sabon mataki wanda ya ga rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin Sin da Tarayyar Soviet tsakanin Sin da Tarayyar Soviet ta dagula dangantakar da ke tsakanin bangaren Kwaminisanci wanda ya kai ga jerin gwabza fada a kan iyaka, yayin da kasar Faransa, wTuraiamP

Detente ya rushe a ƙarshen shekaru goma tare da farkon yakin Soviet-Afganistan a 1979. Farkon shekarun 1980. wani lokaci ne na tashin hankali. Amurka ta kara matsin lamba na diflomasiyya, soja, da tattalin arziki a kan Tarayyar Soviet, a daidai lokacin da ta riga ta yi fama da tabarbarewar tattalin arziki. A tsakiyar 1980s, sabon shugaban Soviet Mikhail Gorbachev ya gabatar da liberalizing gyare-gyare na glasnost ("budewa", c. 1985) da kuma perestroika ("sake tsarawa", 1987) kuma ya kawo karshen shigar Soviet a Afghanistan a shekarar 1989. Matsin lamba ga ikon mallakar ƙasa ya ƙaru a Gabashin Turai, kuma Gorbachev ya ƙi tallafa wa gwamnatocinsu ta hanyar soja.

A shekara ta 1989, faɗuwar Iron curtain bayan wasan kwaikwayo na Pan-european da kuma juyin juya hali na lumana (ban da Romania da Afghanistan) sun hambarar da kusan dukkanin gwamnatocin gurguzu na Gabas ta Tsakiya. Ita kanta jam'iyyar gurguzu ta Tarayyar Soviet ta rasa iko a cikin kasar kuma an dakatar da ita bayan yunkurin juyin mulkin da aka yi a watan Agustan shekarar 1991. Wannan kuma ya haifar da rugujewar Tarayyar Soviet a watan Disamba na shekarar 1991, da ayyana 'yancin kai na jamhuriyar da ke cikinta da kuma rugujewar gwamnatocin gurguzu a yawancin kasashen Afirka da Asiya. An bar Amurka a matsayin babbar kasa daya tilo a duniya.

Yaƙin cacar baki da abubuwan da suka faru sun bar tarihi mai mahimmanci. Ana kiransa sau da yawa a cikin shahararrun al'adu, musamman tare da jigogi na leken asiri da kuma barazanar yakin nukiliya. Don tarihin mai zuwa, duba dangantakar kasa da kasa tun shekarar 1989.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen yakin duniya na biyu, marubucin Ingilishi George Orwell ya yi amfani da cold war, a matsayin jumla na gaba ɗaya, a cikin rubutunsa "You and the Atomic Bomb", wanda aka buga a 19 Oktoba 1945 a cikin jaridar Birtaniya Tribune. Da yake la'akari da duniyar da ke rayuwa a cikin inuwar barazanar yakin nukiliya, Orwell ya dubi tsinkayar James Burnham na duniya mai banƙyama, yana rubuta:

Looking at the world as a whole, the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of slavery... James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications—that is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a state which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of "cold war" with its neighbours.[2]

A cikin The Observer na 10 Maris 1946, Orwell ya rubuta, "bayan taron Moscow a watan Disambar da ya gabata, Rasha ta fara yin 'yaƙin ruwan sanyi' a kan Burtaniya da Daular Burtaniya." [3]

Cold War

Amfani na farko na kalmar don bayyana takamaiman rikicin geopolitical bayan yakin tsakanin Tarayyar Soviet da Amurka ya zo a cikin jawabin Bernard Baruch, mai ba da shawara mai tasiri ga shugabannin Demokradiyya, [4] a ranar 16 ga watan Afrilu 1947. Jawabin, wanda ɗan jarida Herbert Bayard Swope ya rubuta, [5] ya yi shelar, "Kada a yaudare mu: muna a yau a tsakiyar cold war."

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. G. Jones 2014.
  2. Orwell 1945.
  3. Orwell 1946.
  4. Gaddis 2005.
  5. Safire 2006.