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Harkar Zamantakewa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
harkar zamantakewa
type of world view (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na group action (en) Fassara, social process (en) Fassara, collective behavior (en) Fassara da social change (en) Fassara
Bangare na Al'umma
Participant (en) Fassara individual (en) Fassara da ma'aikata
Has goal (en) Fassara social change (en) Fassara
Has contributing factor (en) Fassara world view (en) Fassara
Nada jerin list of social movements (en) Fassara
harkar zamantakewa kenan

Harkar zamantakewa wani ƙoƙari ne marar tsari daga babban rukuni na mutane don cimma wata manufa ta musamma,zamantakewa ko siyasa. Wannan na iya zama don aiwatar da sauyi na zamantakewa, ko don tsayayya ko soke ɗaya. Wani nau'in aikin rukuni ne kuma yana iya haɗawa da daidaikun mutane, ƙungiyoyi ko duka biyun. An bayyana ƙungiyoyin jama'a a matsayin "tsari da dabaru na ƙungiyoyi waɗanda za su iya ƙarfafa al'ummomin da ake zalunta don haɓaka ƙalubale masu inganci da kuma yin tsayayya da masu ƙarfi da masu fa'ida". Suna wakiltar hanyar sauyin zamantakewa daga ƙasa a cikin ƙasashe.

Kimiyyar siyasa da ilimin zamantakewa sun haɓaka ra'ayoyi iri-iri da bincike mai zurfi akan ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa. Misali, wasu bincike kuma a kimiyyar siyasa sun nuna alakar da ke tsakanin jama'a da kafa sabbin jam'iyyun siyasa [1] da kuma tattauna ayyukan ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa dangane da tsara ajanda da tasiri a kan siyasa. Masana ilimin zamantakewa sun bambanta tsakanin nau'ikan motsi na zamantakewa da yawa suna nazarin abubuwa kamar iyaka, nau'in canji, hanyar aiki, kewayo, da tsarin lokaci.

Wasu masanan sun yi iƙirarin cewa ƙungiyoyin zamantakewar Yammacin Turai na zamani ya zama mai yiwuwa ta hanyar ilimi (yawan yada wallafe-wallafen) da kuma yawan motsin aiki saboda ci gaban masana'antu da birane na al'ummomin ƙarni na 19. Wani lokaci ana jayayya cewa 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, ilimi da 'yancin ɗan adam na tattalin arziƙin da ke yaɗuwa a cikin al'adun Yammacin zamani suna da alhakin adadin da ba a taɓa ganin irinsa ba na ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa daban-daban na wannan zamani. Yawancin ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa na shekaru ɗari na ƙarshe sun girma, kamar Mau Mau a Kenya, don adawa da mulkin mallaka na Yamma. Ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa sun kasance kuma suna ci gaba da kasancewa tare da tsarin siyasa na dimokuradiyya. Lokaci-lokaci, ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa suna shiga cikin tsarin dimokuradiyya, amma galibi suna samun bunƙasa bayan an sami dimokuradiyya. A cikin shekaru 200, da suka gabata, sun zama wani ɓangare na shahararriyar furuci da rashin yarda a duniya.[2]

zamantakewar wajen aiki

Ƙungiyoyin zamani sukan yi amfani da fasaha da intanet don tara mutane a duniya. Daidaita yanayin sadarwa jigo ne na gama gari tsakanin ƙungiyoyi masu nasara. [3] Bincike ya fara gano yadda ƙungiyoyin bayar da shawarwari ke da alaƙa da ƙungiyoyin jama'a a cikin Amurka [3] da Kanada suna amfani da kafofin watsa labarun don sauƙaƙe haɗin gwiwar jama'a da ayyukan gama kai.

Ma'anoni.[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mario Diani yayi jayayya cewa kusan dukkanin ma'anoni suna raba ma'auni guda uku: "Cibiyar sadarwa ta mu'amala ta yau da kullun tsakanin yawancin mutane, rukuni da/ko kungiyoyi, masu tsunduma cikin rikicin siyasa ko al'adu, bisa tushen asalin gama gari"

Masanin ilimin zamantakewa Charles Tilly ya bayyana harkar zamantakewa a matsayin jerin wasan kwaikwayo, nuni da yaƙin neman zaɓe wanda talakawa ke yin iƙirari ga wasu. [4] Ga Tilly, ƙungiyoyin jama'a babbar hanya ce ta shigar talakawa cikin harkokin siyasar jama'a. Ya yi nuni da cewa akwai manyan abubuwa guda uku a cikin harkar zamantakewa:

  1. Yaƙin neman zaɓe: ci gaba mai dorewa, ƙoƙarin jama'a yana yin iƙirarin gamayya na hukumomin da aka yi niyya;
  2. Repertoire (repertoire na jayayya): aikin haɗe-haɗe daga cikin nau'ikan ayyukan siyasa masu zuwa: ƙirƙirar ƙungiyoyi da ƙungiyoyin haɗin gwiwa na musamman, tarurrukan jama'a, jerin gwano, fage, tarurruka, zanga-zangar, korafe-korafe, sanarwa zuwa ga kuma a cikin kafofin watsa labarai na jama'a, da buga littattafai; kuma.
  3. WUNC tana nuni : haɗe-haɗen wakilcin jama'a na mahalarta taron na w orthiness, u nity, n umbers, da nasu da kuma/ko mazaɓansu.

Sidney Tarrow ya bayyana harkar na zamantakewa a matsayin "kalubalen gama gari [ga manyan mutane, hukumomi, wasu kungiyoyi ko ka'idojin al'adu] ta mutanen da ke da manufa guda da hadin kai a ci gaba da mu'amala da manyan mutane, abokan adawa da hukumomi." Ya bambanta ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa da ƙungiyoyin siyasa da masu fafutuka. [5]

Masana ilimin zamantakewa John McCarthy da Mayer Zald sun bayyana a matsayin harkar na zamantakewa a matsayin "tsarin ra'ayi da imani a cikin yawan jama'a wanda ke wakiltar abubuwan da ake so don canza wasu abubuwa na tsarin zamantakewa da/ko rarraba lada na al'umma." [6]

A cewar Paul van Seeters da Paul James, ma'anar harkar zamantakewa ya ƙunshi wasu ƙananan yanayi na 'haɗuwa':

(1.) the formation of some kind of collective identity; (2.) the development of a shared normative orientation; (3.) the sharing of a concern for change of the status quo and (4.) the occurrence of moments of practical action that are at least subjectively connected together across time addressing this concern for change. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose.[7]

Satirical engraving na Wilkes na William Hogarth. Wilkes yana riƙe da bugu biyu na Arewacin Burtaniya.
Tashin hankali na Gordon, wanda aka nuna a cikin zanen John Seymour Lucas



Manazarta.[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2009), "Social movements", A Dictionary of Sociology, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780199533008.001.0001, ISBN 978-0-19-953300-8, retrieved 2020-03-06Empty citation (help)
  2. Deric., Shannon (2011-01-01). Political sociology : oppression, resistance, and the state. Pine Forge Press. p. 150. ISBN 9781412980401. OCLC 746832550.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "social movement | Definition of social movement by Webster's Online Dictionary". www.webster-dictionary.org. Retrieved 2020-03-06.. etal Invalid |url-status=1–25 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. Tilly, 2004
  5. Tarrow, 1994
  6. Pugh, Jeff (2008). "Vectors of Contestation: Social Movements and Party Systems in Ecuador and Colombia". Latin American Essays. XXI: 46–65.Empty citation (help)
  7. James, Paul; van Seeters, Paul (2014). Globalization and Politics, Vol. 2: Global Social Movements and Global Civil Society. London: Sage Publications. p. xi.