Daidaito a Fuskar Doka

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Rubutun rubutu a Cape Town : "Dukkansu za su kasance daidai a gaban doka."

Daidaito a gaban doka, wanda kuma aka sani da daidaito a ƙarƙashin doka, daidaito a idon shari'a, daidaiton shari'a, ko daidaito na shari'a, shine ka'idar cewa duk mutane dole ne a kiyaye su daidai da doka. Ka'idar tana buƙatar tsari mai tsari na doka wanda ke bin tsarin da ya dace don samar da adalci daidai, kuma yana buƙatar kariya daidai gwargwado don tabbatar da cewa babu wani mutum ko rukuni na mutane da za su sami gata akan wasu ta hanyar doka. Wani lokaci ana kiran ka'idar isonomy, yana tasowa daga tambayoyi daban-daban na falsafa game da daidaito, daidaito da adalci. Daidaito a gaban doka yana ɗaya daga cikin mahimman ka'idodin wasu ma'anar 'yanci . Bai dace da bautar shari'a ba .

Mataki na 7 na Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam ta Duniya (UDHR) ta ce: "Dukkan su daidai ne a gaban doka kuma suna da hakki ba tare da wariya ba zuwa daidaitaccen kariyar doka". Don haka dole ne a yi wa kowa adalci a karkashin doka ba tare da la'akari da launin fata, jinsi, launi, kabila, addini, nakasa, ko wasu halaye ba, ba tare da wata gata, wariya ko bangaranci ba . Babban garantin daidaito yana samuwa ta mafi yawan kundin tsarin mulki na duniya, amma takamaiman aiwatar da wannan garantin ya bambanta. Misali, yayin da yawancin kundin tsarin mulki ke ba da tabbacin daidaito ba tare da la’akari da launin fata ba, kaɗan ne kawai ke ambata ‘yancin yin daidaito ba tare da la’akari da ɗan ƙasa ba.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutum-mutumi na daidaito a birnin Paris a matsayin misali na daidaito

Littafi Mai Tsarki ya ce: “Ku da baƙo za ku zama ɗaya a gaban Ubangiji: Doka da ka’idoji iri ɗaya za su shafi ku da baƙon da ke zaune a cikinku.” (Littafin Lissafi 15:15)

Masanin falsafa Guan Zhong ( 720-645 BC) ya bayyana cewa "sarki da talakawansa komai girma da ƙanƙanta suna bin doka zai zama babban tsari". [1]

Na 431 Maganar jana'izar BCE na Pericles, da aka rubuta a cikin Tarihin Thucydides na Yaƙin Peloponnesia, ya haɗa da wani sashi na yabon daidaito tsakanin ' yan ƙasa maza masu 'yanci na dimokuradiyyar Athenia :

Idan muka dubi dokokin, za su ba da damar yin adalci ga kowa a cikin bambance-bambancen da ke cikin sirri; idan a matsayin zamantakewa, ci gaba a cikin rayuwar jama'a ya fadi ga suna don iya aiki, ba a yarda da la'akari da aji don tsoma baki tare da cancanta ba; haka kuma talauci baya hana hanya. [2]

Jihar nebraska ta Amirka ta dauki taken "Daidaito a Fuskar Doka" a 1867. ya bayyana a akan tutar jihar da kuma tambarin iko na jihar. an zabi alamar don nuna yancin siyasa da hakkokin bakaken mutane da mata a nebraska, musamman kin bautarwa da kuma cewar bakake mutane zasuyi zabe a dokance tun samuwar jihar. masu fafutuka a nebraska sun mika alamar ga wasu kungiyoyin, a misali, don yada yancin LGBT a nebraska.

Bukatu ta biyar na Yarjejeniya Ta 'Yanci ta Afirka ta Kudu, wadda aka amince da ita a shekarar 1955, ita ce "Dukkan Su Zasu Daidaita Kafin Doka!"

A takarda ta 200 na laifuffuka na kasar japan, hukunci dangane da parcide, an hukunta baya bisa doka don ya saba daidaito karkashin doka ta kotun koli na Japan a 1973. wannan shine sakamakon shari'a a tuhumar laifin Tochigi partricide.

Sassaucin Ra'ayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sassaucin ra'ayi yana kira ga daidaito a gaban doka ga kowa da kowa. 'Yancin sassaucin ra'ayi na gargajiya kamar yadda masu sassaucin ra'ayi da masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na Amurka suka amince da su na adawa da bin haƙƙin ƙungiya a cin zarafin ɗan adam .

Sanarwa daga Sir George Arthur zuwa Tasmanian Indigenous, yana nufin nuna daidaiton fari da baki a gaban doka.

A cikin Yarjejeniyar Gwamnati ta Biyu (1689), John Locke ya rubuta: “Haka kuma na daidaito, wanda dukkan iko da hukunce-hukunce ke daidaitawa, babu wanda ke da fiye da wani; babu wani abu da ya fi bayyana, fiye da halittun nau’in jinsi daya. da matsayi, da fasikanci da aka haifa ga dukkan fa'idojin yanayi, da kuma amfani da basira iri daya, su ma su kasance daidai da juna ba tare da karkata ko karkata ba, sai dai idan ubangiji da shugabansu duka ya kamata, ta kowace irin shelanta nufinsa., kuma ku sanya jũna a kan sãshe, kuma ku yi masa wa'adi bayyananne, wani haƙƙi na mulki da mulki wanda bãbu shakka." [3]

A cikin 1774, Alexander Hamilton ya rubuta cewa: "Dukan maza suna da asali guda ɗaya, suna shiga cikin yanayi guda ɗaya, saboda haka suna da hakki ɗaya. Ba za a iya sanya wani dalili da zai sa wani mutum ya fi wani iko a kan ’yan uwansa ba, face sai sun ba shi son rai da shi.” [4]

A cikin Social Statics, Herbert Spencer ya bayyana shi a matsayin doka ta halitta "cewa kowane mutum na iya da'awar cikakken 'yanci don yin amfani da ikonsa wanda ya dace da mallaka kamar 'yanci ga kowane mutum". Spencer ya fayyace wata hanya, "kowannensu yana da 'yancin yin duk abin da ya ga dama muddin bai keta 'yancin wani ba". [5]

Ƙaunar mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daidaito a gaban doka ƙa'idar wasu rassan mata ne. A karni na 19, daidaiton jinsi a gaban doka wata manufa ce mai tsauri, amma wasu daga baya ra'ayoyin mata na ganin cewa daidaiton shari'a bai isa ya samar da daidaito na hakika da zamantakewa tsakanin mata da maza ba. Manufar daidaito na yau da kullun na iya ladabtar da mata saboda rashin bin ƙa'idar namiji yayin da manufa na jiyya daban-daban na iya ƙarfafa ra'ayin jima'i. [6]

A shekara ta 1988, kafin yin hidima a matsayin Mai Shari’a na Kotun Koli, Ruth Bader Ginsburg ta rubuta: “Bayani game da yadda mata ko maza suke – gogewar rayuwata ta bayyana – ba za su iya ja-gorance ni wajen yanke shawara game da wasu mutane ba. Aƙalla a cikin doka, Ban sami wani fifiko na dabi'a ko rashi a kowane jinsi ba. A cikin aji ko a cikin takardun digiri daga 1963 zuwa 1980, kuma a yanzu a cikin karanta taƙaitaccen bayani da sauraron muhawara a kotu sama da shekaru goma sha bakwai, ban gano wani abin dogaro ba ko tsayayyen tunani na namiji ko mace - har ma da alkalami." [7] A cikin Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin 'Yancin Ƙasar Amirka a cikin 1970s, Ginsburg ya kalubalanci Frontiero v. Richardson dokokin da suka ba da amfanin kiwon lafiya ga matan masu hidima, amma ba ga mazajen mata masu hidima ba. [8] Akwai kundin tsarin mulkin kasa sama da 150 da a halin yanzu suka ambaci daidaito ba tare da la'akari da jinsi ba.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Xia Zhang:Further Discussion on the Spirit of Rule of Law Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 233. 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Humanities (ICCESSH 2018).
  2. Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, Written 431 BCE, Translated by Richard Crawley (1874), retrieved via Project Gutenberg.
  3. John Locke (1689). Second Treatise of Government. Chapter 2.
  4. Alexander Hamilton (15 December 1774). "A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress". National Archives of Founders Online. Harold C. Syrett, ed. (1961). The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 1 (1768–1778). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 45–78.
  5. Herbert Spencer. Social Statics. c. 4, § 3.
  6. Jaggar, Alison. (1994) "Part One: Equality. Introduction." In Living with Contradictions: Controversies in Feminist Social Ethics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  7. Jeff Rosen, "The Book of Ruth," New Republic, August 2, 1993, p. 19.
  8. O'Dea, Suzanne. From Suffrage to the Senate: An Encyclopedia of American Women in Politics, ABC-CLIO, 1999