Ƴancin yin Tarayya

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Wikidata.svgYancin Kungiya
Ƴancin Jama'a da Q11291637 Fassara
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na Ƴancin Jama'a da fundamental rights (en) Fassara

’Yancin kungiya ko 'yancin yin tarayya a turance (freedom of association) ya ƙunshi haƙƙin mutum na shiga ko barin ƙungiyar bisa radin kansa, da haƙƙin ƙungiyar na ɗaukar matakin gamayya don biyan bukatun membobinta, da kuma haƙƙin ƙungiyar na karɓar ko ƙin zama mamba bisa wasu sharudda. Ana iya siffanta shi da haƙƙin mutum tare da wasu mutane don bayyanawa, haɓakawa, bi da ko kare muradun gama gari tare. [1] 'Yancin haɗin gwiwa duka haƙƙin mutum ne kuma haƙƙin gamayya ne, wanda duk tsarin shari'a na zamani da na dimokraɗiyya suka tabbatar, gami da Dokar Haƙƙin Amurka, labari ko sashi 11 na Yarjejeniyar Turai kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam, labari ko sashe na 2 na Yarjejeniya ta Kanada ta Hakkoki da 'Yanci. da dokokin kasa da kasa, gami da labari/sashi 20 da 23 na Yarjejeniyar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta Duniya da shafi na 22 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa . Sanarwar da Kungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya ta yi kan muhimman ka'idoji da hakkoki a aiki ta kuma tabbatar da wadannan hakkoki.

'Yancin ƙungiyoyi yana bayyana ta hanyar 'yancin shiga ƙungiyar kwadago, shiga cikin 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ko shiga cikin al'ummomin muhawara, jam'iyyun siyasa, ko wani kulob ko ƙungiya, ciki har da ƙungiyoyin addini da ƙungiyoyi, 'yan uwantaka, da na wasanni kuma ba don a tilasta masa shiga ƙungiya. [2] Yana da alaƙa da 'yancin yin taro, musamman a ƙarƙashin Dokar Haƙƙin Amurka. 'Yancin taro yawanci yana da alaƙa da muhallin siyasa. Duk da haka, (misali Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka, kayan haƙƙin ɗan adam, da sauransu) 'yancin yin haɗin gwiwa na iya haɗawa da 'yancin yin taro . A kasar Amirka, tun daga Dokar Haƙƙin Bil Adama ta 1968, an tauye ’yancin yin tarayya da yawa game da gidaje, ilimi, da kasuwanci idan ya zo ga kabilanci ko ƙabila.

Kotuna da jami'an da aka wakilta na ƙananan hukumomi na iya sanya hani kan kowane haƙƙin wanda aka yanke masa hukunci a matsayin sharaɗin doka. Haƙƙoƙin 'ƴancin ƙungiyoyi da ƴancin taro ana yafewa a ƙarƙashin wasu yanayi, kamar ƙarar laifi ko hukunci, hani da oda da hanyoyin bincike da kama mai fasikanci.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gaba ɗaya 'yancin yin cuɗanya da ƙungiyoyi bisa ga zaɓin ɗaiɗaikun mutane, da kuma ƙungiyoyin su ɗaukar mataki don inganta muradun su, ya zama wani abin da ya dace na kowace al'umma ta demokuradiyya. Domin ‘yancin yin ƙulla dole ya amince da tushen madafan iko da ƙungiyoyin jama’a, baya ga gwamnati, ita ce babbar manufa ta danniya daga dukkan al’ummomin kama-karya. A cikin Ƙasar Ingila, an haramta duk wani nau'i na "haɗuwa" da masu aikata laifuka, musamman ƙungiyoyin ma'aikata, har zuwa Dokar Haɗuwa ta 1825. Bayan wannan, har yanzu ba har sai da Dokar Kamfanoni ta 1856, Dokar Ƙungiyar Kasuwanci ta 1871 da kuma Laifin Maƙarƙashiya da Kariya na Dokar 1875 cewa kamfanoni da kuma ƙungiyoyin kasuwanci sun zama halal gabaɗaya. A Jamus, an kafa irin wannan tsarin dokokin danniya a kan ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago da ƙungiyoyin demokuradiyya ta gwamnatin Bismarck a ƙarƙashin Sozialistengesetze (Ayyukan Socialist) a cikin 1878. Wadannan sun kasance suna aiki har zuwa 1890. A cikin 1933, mulkin kama-karya na Fascist na jam'iyyar gurguzu ta Hitler ta sake haramta ƙungiyoyin kwadago, kuma ƙungiyoyin da ake da su sun zama ƙasa kuma aka haɗa su zuwa gwamnati guda da ke ƙarƙashin ikon Labour Front. A yammacin Jamus bayan yakin duniya na biyu, ƙungiyoyin 'yan kasuwa sun yi gaggawar tayar da su tare da ba da tabbacin Grundgesetz na Jamus. A Amurka, kotunan jihohi daban-daban sun ware kungiyoyin kwadago a lokuta daban-daban a matsayin masu hana kasuwanci. A karkashin dokar Clayton ta 1914, an ba ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago cikakkiyar yanci don tsarawa da kuma yin aiki tare don tabbatar da yarjejeniyar gama gari, duk da haka an sanya wasu matsaloli har sai da Dokar Hulɗa da Ma'aikata ta 1935 ta ƙirƙiri cikakken tsarin aiki.

Doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniya ta Kanada ta Hakkoki da 'Yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sashi na biyu na Yarjejeniya, ƙarƙashin taken "Yanci na Asali" yana cewa:

Kowane mutum yana da 'yanci masu zuwa:



'yancin yin tarayya.

A karkashin dokokin Kanada, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki yana da matakai uku: 'yancin yin tarayya da sauran mutane, 'yancin yin kira ga sauran haƙƙoƙin tsarin mulki tare, da "manufa" 'yancin yin ciniki tare don zama daidai. kafa tare da sauran kungiyoyi da ƙungiyoyi.

Yarjejeniyar Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin Mulkin Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Italiya an kafa 'yancin yin tarayya a cikin Mataki na 18 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki, wanda ya ce: Dan kasa yana da 'yancin yin tarayya ko shiga kungiya batare da izini ba.

Dokar Hakkokin Afrika ta Kudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Afirka ta Kudu ya kafa ‘yancin yin tarayya a sashe na 18, wanda ya ce “Kowa yana da ‘yancin yin tarayya." Bugu da ƙari, Sashe na 17 ya ce, "Kowa yana da 'yancin yin taro, da yin zanga-zanga, da gabatar da koke." don haka ya kafa 'yancin yin taro haƙƙin ma'aikata na 'yancin haɗin gwiwa dangane da 'yancin kafa ƙungiyoyin kasuwanci da ciniki na gama gari an amince da su daban, a cikin sashe na 23. [3]

Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da Kwaskwarima na Farko na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka ya bayyana haƙƙoƙin haɗawa da koke ga gwamnati, rubutun Ƙimar Farko bai yi takamaiman maganar haƙƙin ƙungiyoyi ba. Duk da haka, Kotun Koli ta Amurka ta gudanar a NAACP v. Alabama (1958) cewa 'yancin haɗin gwiwa wani muhimmin bangare ne na 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki domin, a yawancin lokuta, mutane na iya shiga cikin ingantaccen magana kawai idan sun shiga tare da wasu. Sauran shari’o’in Kotun Koli da suka shafi al’amuran ‘yancin yin tarayya sun haɗa da:

  • Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen v. Virginia , 377 US 1 (1964)
  • United Mine Workers v. Ƙungiyar Bar Association ta Jihar Illinois , 389 US 217 (1967)
  • Healey v. James , 408 US 169 (1972)
  • NAACP v. Kamfanin Claiborne Hardware Co., Ltd. , 458 US 898 (1982)
  • Boy Scouts na Amurka v. Dale , 530 US 640 (2000)
  • Janus v. Farashin AFSCME , Na 16-1466, 585 US ___ (2018).[4]

Batutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiya ta kusanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani muhimmin abu na 'yancin kai shi ne 'yancin zaɓar shiga da kiyaye wasu ƙa'idodin ɗan adam. Ana ɗaukar waɗannan ƙaƙƙarfan alaƙar ɗan adam nau'i ne na "ƙungiya ta kusa" Misalin misalan “haɗin kai” shine iyali. Dangane da hukunce-hukuncen shari'a kuma yana iya ƙara zuwa zubar da ciki, hana haihuwa da kuma na sirri, babba, mara kasuwanci da alaƙar jima'i.

Ƙungiyar bayyanawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Amurka, ƙungiyoyi masu bayyanawa ƙungiyoyi ne waɗanda ke yin ayyukan da Dokar Gyara ta Farko ta kiyaye magana, taro, 'yan jarida, koke-koke na gwamnati don magance korafe-korafe, da kuma gudanar da addini kyauta. A cikin Roberts v. United States Jaycees, Kotun Koli ta Amurka ta yanke hukuncin cewa ƙungiyoyi ba za su keɓe mutane ba saboda dalilan da ba su da alaƙa da furucin ƙungiyar. Koyaya, a cikin yanke shawara na Hurley v. Gay-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston, Kotun ta yanke hukuncin cewa wata kungiya na iya ware mutane daga zama memba idan kasancewarsu zai shafi ikon kungiyar na bayar da shawarar wani ra'ayi. Gwamnati ba za ta iya, ta hanyar amfani da dokokin hana wariya, ta tilasta wa ƙungiyoyi su haɗa da saƙon da ba sa son isarwa.

Koyaya, wannan ra'ayi yanzu ba ya aiki a tsarin Jami'ar saboda hukuncin Kotun Koli a cikin Christian Legal Society v. Martinez (2010), wanda ya goyi bayan Hastings College of Law manufofin cewa yanayin makarantar game da fahimtar ƙungiyoyin ɗalibai ba su da tsaka-tsaki kuma masu ma'ana. Manufar tana buƙatar ƙungiyoyin ɗalibai su ƙyale "kowane ɗalibi ya shiga, zama memba, ko neman matsayi na jagoranci, ba tare da la'akari da matsayinsu ko imaninsu ba" don haka, ana iya amfani da su don hana amincewar ƙungiyar a matsayin ƙungiyar ɗalibai ta hukuma saboda ta buƙaci ta. mambobi don shaida a rubuce cewa "Na gaskanta da Littafi Mai-Tsarki a matsayin hurarriyar maganar Allah; Allahntakar Ubangijinmu, Yesu Kiristi, ruhin Allah; Mutuwar Yesu almasifu domin zunubanmu, tashinsa daga matattu da kuma dawowar sa; Kasancewa da ikon Ruhu Mai Tsarki cikin aikin sabuntawa; kuma Yesu almasifu, ɗan Allah, Ubangijin raina ne Kotun ta yi nuni da cewa, saboda wannan binciken tsarin mulki yana faruwa ne a mahallin ilimi, la'akarin da ya sa kotun ta yi amfani da wani matakin da ya rage na tantance magana a cikin tarukan jama'a. Don haka, manufar duk masu shigowa kwalejin ma'ana ce, yanayin tsaka-tsakin ra'ayi kan samun damar shiga taron ƙungiyar ɗalibai.

Iyakance Hakkin Dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hukunce-hukuncen kotu sun iyakance haƙƙin haɗin gwiwa na Farko na Kundin Tsarin Mulki . Misali, haramun ne a Amurka a yi la’akari da launin fata wajen kullawa da aiwatar da wasu kwangiloli na sirri banda aure. Wannan iyaka akan sakamakon 'yancin haɗin gwiwa daga Sashe na 1981 na Title 42 na Code of the United States Code, kamar yadda aka daidaita a kan Kwaskwarimar Farko a cikin shawarar 1976 na Runyon v. McCrary.

Gwamnatoci sau da yawa suna buƙatar kwangilar mannewa tare da ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu don dalilai na ba da izini, kamar tare da Hukumar Kula da Kasuwanci don kasuwancin hannun jari a cikin 1938 Maloney Act gyare-gyare ga Dokar musanya Securities/tsaro na 1934. Waɗannan kwangilolin galibi suna yin hulɗa tare da membobin da aka dakatar, kamar yadda ake iya gani a Amurka v. Merriam, 108 F.3d 1162.

Ayyukan da aka tsara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi adawa da ƙungiyar ƙwadago a cikin ƙarni na 19, tare da ko da ƙasashe masu sassaucin ra'ayi irin su Burtaniya sun haramta ta na lokuta daban-daban (a cikin yanayin Burtaniya, tsakanin 1820 zuwa 1824).

A cikin ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago na ƙasa da ƙasa, 'yancin haɗin gwiwa wani hakki ne da aka gano a ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodin ƙwadago na duniya a matsayin haƙƙin ma'aikata don tsarawa da yin ciniki tare . 'Yancin haɗin gwiwa, a wannan ma'ana, an amince da shi a matsayin ainihin haƙƙin ɗan adam ta wasu takardu da suka haɗa da Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Dan Adam ta Duniya da Yarjejeniyar Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru ta Duniya C87 da Yarjejeniyar C98 biyu na asali takwas, ainihin ma'auni na aiki na duniya. 'Yancin haɗin gwiwa' kuma na iya komawa ga haramcin doka kan kwangiloli masu zaman kansu da aka yi shawarwari tsakanin ma'aikaci mai zaman kansa da ma'aikatansu da ke buƙatar ma'aikata a wani wurin aiki su shiga ƙungiyar a matsayin wa'adi da yanayin aiki. Magoya bayan wannan nau'in 'yanci na ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu suna da'awar cewa 'yancin shiga ƙungiya ya ƙunshi 'yancin shiga ƙungiyar. A kasar Amirkakalmar 'yancin yin aiki' ta fi zama ruwan dare ga irin wannan doka.

"Kotun koli a yau (1-21-1997) ta takaita ikon masu shirya kungiyoyin kwadago na shiga kadarorin ma’aikata don rarraba littattafai ko kuma bukaci ma’aikata su shiga kungiyar. A cikin ra'ayi 6 zuwa 3 da Mai Shari'a Clarence Thomas ya rubuta, Kotun ta ce Hukumar Kula da Kwadago ta kasa ta kasa ba da cikakkiyar kariya ga 'yancin mallakar ma'aikata lokacin da ta amince da wata doka shekaru hudu da suka gabata wanda ya bai wa masu shirya kungiyoyin damar shiga yankuna. kamar wuraren ajiye motoci na wuraren kasuwanci ko masana'antu." -New York Times.[5]

Ka'ida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dimokuradiyya da jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jeremy McBride ya ce mutunta 'yancin yin tarayya daga dukkan hukumomin gwamnati da kuma yin amfani da wannan 'yancin daga kowane bangare na al'umma yana da muhimmanci duka biyu don tabbatar da dimokiradiyya ta gaskiya da kuma tabbatar da cewa, da zarar an samu, ta kasance "lafiya da bunƙasa." Dangane da haka yana kallon kafa jam'iyyun siyasa a matsayin wata muhimmiyar alama ta 'yancin walwala.

'Yancin ƙungiyoyi ba wai kawai ana amfani da su ta hanyar siyasa ba, har ma don buƙatu iri-iri - kamar al'adu, nishaɗi, wasanni da zamantakewa da taimakon jin kai. Jeremy McBride yayi ikirarin cewa kafa kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu ( NGOs ), wanda ya daidaita da ƙungiyoyin jama'a, shine "'ya 'yan itace na ayyukan haɗin gwiwa." [1]

Sassaucin ra'ayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu 'yancin walwala sun yi imanin cewa yayin da 'yancin haɗin gwiwa ya haɗa da 'yancin ma'aikata su shirya a matsayin ƙungiyoyi da kuma janye aikin su amma sun amince da 'yancin ma'aikaci don maye gurbin wannan aiki. Sun kuma yi imanin cewa idan ƙungiyoyi suka yi amfani da dabarun tilastawa ko tashin hankali, irin waɗannan halayen za su kasance da cin zarafi na haƙƙoƙin mutum ɗaya da haƙƙin mallaka. Wasu masu sukar ƙungiyar sun yi zargin cewa ana yawan samun irin wannan keta haddi na ƙungiyar.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jeremy McBride, Freedom of Association, The Essentials of Human Rights, Hodder Arnold, London, 2005, p. 18
  2. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 20, 2
  3. Constitution of South Africa Chapter 2: Bill of Rights
  4. Wayne Batchis, Citizens United and the Paradox of "Corporate Speech": From Freedom of Association to Freedom of The Association, 36 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 5Archived 2013-05-13 at the Wayback Machine (2012).
  5. "The Italian Constitution" (PDF). The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27.