Farar shinkafa

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Farar shinkafa
shinkafa

Farar shinkafa ana niƙa shinkafar da aka cire ɓangarorinta, bran, da ƙwayoyin cuta . Wannan yana canza dandano, laushi da siffar shinkafar kuma yana taimakawa wajen hana lalacewa, idan ana ajiyarta, kuma yana sauƙaƙawa wurin narkarda ita idan an ana buƙatar hakan. Bayan niƙa ( hulling ), shinkafar tana gogewa, hakan na haifar da shinkafar ta riƙa haske da sheƙi.

Ayyukan niƙa da gyaran duka suna cire sinadaran gina jiki dake cikin shinkafar. Abincin da ba shi da daidaituwa dangane da farar shinkafar da ba ta da wadataccen abinci yana barin mutane da yawa masu rauni ga cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta na beriberi, saboda ƙarancin thiamine (bitamin B 1 ). [1] Farar shinkafa galibi ana samar da ita da wasu sinadarai da ake cirewa daga cikinta yayin sarrafa ta.[2] Haɓɓaka farar shinkafa tare da sinadaran B1, B3, da iron na buƙatar doka a Amurka alokacin shirye-shiryen gwamnati na rarrabawa ga makarantu, ƙungiyoyin sa-kai, ko ƙasashen waje.[3][4]

Shinkafar ta samu karɓuwa fiye da Shinkafa mai launin ruwan kasa a rabi ƙarni na biyu na (19th century) saboda an sami tagomashi daga yan kasuwa, farar shinkafa ta haifar da barkewar cutar beriberi a Asiya.[5][6]

A lokuta daban-daban, tun daga ƙarni na 19, an ba da shawarar shinkafa mai launin ruwan kasa (brown rice) da sauran hatsi irin su shinkafar daji a matsayin madadin lafiya.[7][8] Bran a cikin shinkafa mai launin ruwan kasa yana ƙunshe da fiber na abinci mai mahimmanci kuma ƙwayar ta ƙunshi bitamin da albarkatu masu yawa.[9]

Yawanci, gram 100 na shinkafa da ba a dafa shi ba yana samar da kusan gram 240 zuwa 260 na hatsin da aka dafa, bambancin ƙaruwar ya dogara kocokan akan yawan ruwan da shinkafar take tsotsewa a lokacin girki.

Niƙan shinkafa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafin injin niƙa, ana niƙa shinkafa ta hanyar amfani da hannu wurin dakawa da taɓarya acikin turmi, ko kuma wasu hanyoyi na gargajiya, amma da injin niƙa ana samun fitar da shinkafar adadi mafi yawa akan dakan hannu. A ƙarshen karni na 19th an samar da injuna daban-daban kamar Huller & Sheller Mills (1870) da Injin Milling Engleberg (1890). A shekara ta 1955, an ƙirƙira sababbin injuna a Japan waɗanda suka inganta inganci da ƙarfin fitarwa sosai.[10]

Abubuwan da ke gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Nutritionalvalue

Yayin da shinkafa launin ruwan kasa brown rice, da farar shinkafa suna da adadin kuzari da carbohydrates iri ɗaya, shinkafa mai launin ruwan ƙasa ita ce tushen mafi kyawun duk abubuwan gina jiki idan aka kwatanta da farar shinkafar da ba ta da yawa. Brown rice shinkafa ce gabaɗaya wacce daga cikinta kawai ake cire husk ɗin (the outermost layer). Don samar da farar shinkafa, ana cire Layer na bran da ƙwayoyin cuta, suna barin mafi yawa endosperm starchy. Wannan tsari yana haifar da raguwa ko cikakkiyar lalacewa na yawancin bitamin da ma'adanai na abinci. Rasa abubuwan gina jiki, irin su bitamin B1 da B3, da baƙin ƙarfe, wani lokaci ana ƙara su a cikin farar shinkafa, tsarin da ake kira haɓakawa.[11] Ko da tare da raguwar sinadirai masu gina jiki, farar shinkafa da ba ta da kyau har yanzu tana da kyau tushen manganese kuma ya ƙunshi matsakaicin adadin sauran sinadarai irin su pantothenic acid da selenium.[12][13]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Carpenter KJ (2000). Beriberi, white rice, and vitamin B : a disease, a cause, and a cure. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22053-9.
  2. "Christiaan Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  3. Perkins S. "How Is White Rice Healthy for Our Body?". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  4. "7 U.S. Code § 1431c – Enrichment and packaging of cornmeal, grits, rice, and white flour available for distribution". cornell.edu. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  5. Arnold D (July 2010). "British India and the "beriberi problem", 1798–1942". Medical History. 54 (3): 295–314. doi:10.1017/s0025727300004622. PMC 2889456. PMID 20592882.
  6. Cavanagh J, Broad R (2011-03-09). "Why Billions Eat Unhealthy Rice and Shouldn't". Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  7. Hendrick B. "Brown Rice vs. White Rice: Which Is Better?". WebMD. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  8. "White or brown rice? Mee pok or spaghetti? Take our food quiz and digest the facts about glycaemic index". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
  9. "Difference between white and brown rice". reComparison.
  10. Zhang, Baichun (2019). Explorations in the History and Heritage of Machines and Mechanisms. Springer. pp. 90–94.
  11. "Enriched rice". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2021-04-06.
  12. "Rice, white, long-grain, regular, raw, unenriched". USDA. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  13. "Rice, brown, long-grain, raw". USDA. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2021.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wikimedia Commons on Farar shinkafa