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Fiction (Almara)

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Fiction (Almara)
art genre (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na work of art (en) Fassara da labari
Hashtag (en) Fassara fiction
Hannun riga da non-fiction (en) Fassara
Wani kwatanci daga littafin Lewis Carroll na 1865 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, wanda ke nuna jarumar almara Alice, tana wasa mai ban sha'awa na croquet.

Almara salon rubutu ne na ƙirƙira ko ƙagar labari. Rubutun almara ƙirƙirarren labari ne wanda mawallafi yake ƙaga na al'amarin da bai faru ba kuma ba na tarihi ba.[1][2] Hotunan ƙagaggu ne don haka ba su dace da tarihi na gaskiya, ko bayyanawa ba. A cikin kunkuntar ma'ana ta al'ada, "fiction" yana nufin rubuce-rubucen labarai a cikin litattafai – sau da yawa suna magana musamman ga litattafai, novellas, da gajerun labarai.[3] Fiye da ƙari, duk da haka, almara ya ƙunshi hikayoyin ƙididdiga da aka bayyana a kowace matsakaici, ciki har da ba rubuce-rubuce kawai ba har ma da gidan wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo, fina-finai, shirye-shiryen talabijin, wasan kwaikwayo na rediyo, wasannin kwaikwayo, wasan kwaikwayo mai ban dariya, da wasanni na bidiyo.

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawanci, labarin almara na aikin ana tallata shi a bainar jama'a don haka masu sauraro suna tsammanin aikin zai karkata ta wasu hanyoyi daga duniyar gaske maimakon gabatar da, alal misali, kawai ingantattun hotuna ko haruffa waɗanda su ne ainihin mutane. Domin ana fahimtar almarar gabaɗaya ba ta cika bin duniyar gaske ba, jigogi da mahallin aiki, kamar idan da kuma yadda yake da alaƙa da al'amura ko abubuwan da suka faru a zahiri, suna buɗewa ga fassarar.[4] Halaye da abubuwan da suka faru a cikin wasu ayyukan almara na iya kasancewa a cikin mahallin nasu gaba ɗaya daban da sanannen sararin samaniya: duniyar almara mai zaman kanta. Ƙirƙirar fasaha na gina duniyar tunanin da ake kira ginin duniya.

kade-kaden almara

Ya bambanta da almara, masu yin ayyukan da ba na almara ba suna ɗaukar alhakin gabatar da bayanai kawai (da kuma wani lokacin ra'ayi) bisa ga gaskiyar tarihi da gaskiya. Duk da bambance-bambancen gargajiya tsakanin almara da na wacce ba almara ba, wasu ayyukan zamani sun ɓata wannan iyaka, musamman waɗanda ke faɗuwa ƙarƙashin wasu nau'ikan labarun gwaji-ciki har da wasu almara na postmodern, autofiction, ko ƙirƙira kamar litattafan almara da docudramas — kamar yadda haka kuma da gangan damfara na wallafe-wallafen tallan tallace-tallacen ƙarya a matsayin ƙagaggun labarai.[5]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ba da labari ya wanzu a cikin dukkan al'adun ɗan adam, kuma kowace al'ada ta ƙunshi abubuwa daban-daban na gaskiya da almara a cikin ba da labari. Almara na farko yana da alaƙa da tarihi da tatsuniyoyi. Mawaƙan Girkawa irin su Homer, Hesiod, da Aesop sun haɓaka labarun ƙagaggun da aka fara ba da labari ta hanyar ba da labari sannan kuma a rubuce. An ci gaba da almarar almara a tsohuwar Girka, ta hanyar al'adun ba da labari na Asiya da Masar. Ba a gane aikin ƙage na musamman a matsayin dabam da labarun tarihi ko tatsuniya ba har zuwa lokacin daular. Labarin Plasmatic, yana bin gabaɗayan ƙirƙira haruffa da abubuwan da suka faru, an haɓaka ta ta tsohuwar wasan kwaikwayo da Sabon Comedy.[6] Tsarin gama gari tsakanin almara na farko shine jerin ban mamaki da ban mamaki kamar yadda marubutan farko suka gwada iyakokin rubutun almara. Tatsuniyoyi na Milesian sun kasance farkon misali na rubuce-rubucen almara a tsohuwar Girka da Italiya. Kamar yadda rubuce-rubucen almara suka haɓaka a tsohuwar Girka, an jaddada haruffa masu alaƙa da yanayin yanayi don ingantacciyar alaƙa da masu sauraro, gami da abubuwa kamar soyayya, fashin teku, da bukukuwan addini. An haɓaka soyayyar jarumtaka a cikin tsakiyar Turai, wanda ya haɗa abubuwa masu alaƙa da fantasy, gami da abubuwan allahntaka da ƙiyayya.[7]

nan wasanni ne na bidiyo da ake haskawa masu sanya almara

Miguel de Cervantes tare da Don Quixote ne suka kirkiro tsarin littafin na zamani a farkon karni na 17. Littafin ya zama farkon matsakaicin almara a cikin ƙarni na 18th da 19th. Yawancin lokaci ana danganta su da ra'ayoyin Haskakawa irin su empiricism da agnosticism. Hakikanin gaskiya ya bunkasa a matsayin salon adabi a wannan lokaci. Sabbin nau'ikan kafofin watsa labarai da aka haɓaka a ƙarshen 19th da farkon 20th ƙarni, gami da fitattun mujallun almara da fim na farko. An haɓaka almara mai hulɗa a ƙarshen karni na 20 ta hanyar wasannin bidiyo. [8]




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "fiction". Lexico. Oxford University Press. 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019.
  2. Harmon, William; Holman, C. Hugh (1990). A Handbook to Literature (7th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall. p. 212.
  3. ""Definition of 'fiction". Oxford English Dictionaries (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2015. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  4. Culler, Jonathan (2000). Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-285383-7. Non-fictional discourse is usually embedded in a context that tells you how to take it: an instruction manual, a newspaper report, a letter from a charity. The context of fiction, though, explicitly leaves open the question of what the fiction is really about. Reference to the world is not so much a property of literary [that is, fictional] works as a function they are given by interpretation.
  5. Menand, Louis (2018). "Literary Hoaxes and the Ethics of Authorship". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 18 August 2022.
  6. Whitmarsh, Tim (2013). "The "Invention of Fiction"". Beyond the Second Sophistic: Adventures in Greek Postclassicism. University of California Press. pp. 11–34. doi:10.1525/california/9780520276819.001.0001. ISBN 9780520957022. Archived from the original on 18 August 2022. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  7. Dunlop, John Colin (1845). The History of Fiction (3rd ed.). Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 46, 55–56.
  8. Niesz, Anthony J.; Holland, Norman N. (1984). "Interactive Fiction". Critical Inquiry. 11 (1): 110–129. doi:10.1086/448277. ISSN 0093-1896. S2CID 224795950. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.Empty citation (help)