Filin shakatawa na tsaunukan Simien

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Wikidata.svgFilin shakatawa na tsaunukan Simien
national park (en) Fassara da mashaƙata
Simienské hory.jpg
Bayanai
Farawa 1969
IUCN protected areas category (en) Fassara IUCN category II: National Park (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Habasha
Wuri mafi tsayi Ras Dashen (en) Fassara
Maƙirƙiri C. W. Nicol (en) Fassara
Gagarumin taron list of World Heritage in Danger (en) Fassara
Heritage designation (en) Fassara UNESCO World Heritage Site (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo simienmountains.org
World Heritage criteria (en) Fassara World Heritage selection criterion (vii) (en) Fassara da World Heritage selection criterion (x) (en) Fassara
Significant place (en) Fassara Debarq (en) Fassara
Wuri
 13°11′N 38°04′E / 13.18°N 38.07°E / 13.18; 38.07
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaHabasha
Region of Ethiopia (en) FassaraAmhara Region (en) Fassara
Zone of Ethiopia (en) FassaraSemien Gondar Zone (en) Fassara
Ethiopia, Gondar
Filin shakatawa na Simien

Filin shakatawa na tsaunukan Simien shine mafi girman filin shakatawa na ƙasar Habasha. Tana cikin Yankin Arewacin Gonar na Yankin Amhara, Yankin da ya ƙunshi tsaunukan Simien kuma ya haɗa da Ras Dashan, wuri mafi girma a Habasha.

Gida ne ga wasu nau'ikan halittu da ke cikin hatsari, ciki har da kerkiyan Habasha da kuma walia ibex, akuyar daji wacce ba a samun ta a duniya. Har ila yau, dabbar gelada da caracal, kuli, suna faruwa a cikin tsaunukan Simien. Fiye da nau'in tsuntsaye 50 ne ke zaune a wurin shakatawar, gami da kyawawan ungulu mai gemu, ko lammergeier, tare da fika-fikai 3 mai tsawon kafa 10.[1]

Filin shakatawa ya ratsa ta hanyar da ba a santa ba wanda ya taso daga Debarq, inda hedkwatar gudanarwar wurin shakatawar take, gabas ta hanyar wasu ƙauyuka zuwa Buahit Pass (4,430 m), inda hanyar ta juya kudu ta ƙare a Mekane Berhan, 10 kilomita nesa da iyakar wurin shakatawa.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa wurin shakatawar a 1969, wanda Clive Nicol ya kafa, wanda ya yi rubutu game da abubuwan da ya samu a From the Roof of Africa (1971, ISBN 0 340 14755 5).

Yankin na Simien an zauna kuma an noma shi aƙalla shekaru 2,000. Da farko, zaizayar kasa ya fara bayyana cewa sharewar ya fara ne a wani gangare na tsaunin tsauni amma daga baya ya fadada zuwa wani gangare mai tsayi.

Yana daga ɗayan wuraren farko da (UNESCO) ta sanya su a matsayin Gidan Tarihin Duniya (1978). Ko yaya, saboda tsananin raguwar jama'a na wasu nau'in halayenta na asali, a cikin shekarar 1996 an kuma sanya shi cikin Jerin kayan

al'aduna duniya.i.

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fiye da miliyoyin shekaru saboda mummunan zaizayar ƙasar tuddai na Italia da keɓaɓɓun tsaunuka, an ƙirƙiri kwari masu zurfin gaske da kuma tsaunuka masu tsayin mita 1,500, suna ƙirƙirar wasu wurare masu ban mamaki a duniya.

Yankin al'adun yana gefen yamma na tsaunukan Simien kuma yana da nisan kilomita 120 daga lardin Gonem na Begemder a arewa maso yammacin Habasha. Yankin Simien yana da wadataccen ruwa mai zurfin ciki, kuma yana aiki ne a matsayin kyakkyawan tafkin kamawa. Ruwa yana kiyayewa ta Kogin Mayshasha, wanda ke gudana cikin ranakun ruwa guda biyu da kuma gandun dajin ƙasa daga arewa zuwa kudu. A sakamakon haka, wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa suna da yawa tare da namun daji da tsirrai.

Furanni da Dabbobin Yankin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ciyawar tana hade da dazuzzuka masu tsayi na Afirka, dazuzzuka da ciyayi masu tsayi. Yankunan tsaunuka masu tsayi sun hada da savannah na montane da itacen bishiyar (Erica arborea), katuwar lobelia (Lobelia rhynchopetalum), rawaya na farko (Primula verticillata), everlastings (Helichrysum spp.), Alkyabbar mace (alchemilla), da kuma gansakuka (mosses, Grimmiaceae). Lichen ya rufe bishiyoyin yankin mai tsayi. An rarraba ciyayi ko'ina cikin wurin zuwa gida uku, gandun Montane (1900-3000m), Ericaceous Belt ko SubAfroalpine (2700-3700m) da Afroalpine (3700-5433m). A cikin dajin Montane akwai bishiyoyin Juniper (Juniperous procera), African Redwood (Hagenia abyssinica), African Olive (Olea africana), Fig Fig (Ficus spp), da Bishiyoyi na Waterberry (Szygium guineense). Hakanan akwai nau'ikan shrubs da yawa da suka hada da Nightshade (Solanum sessilistellatum), Abyssinian rose (Rosa abyssinica), Cowslip (Primula verticillata), da Stinging Nettle (Urtica).[3] Rage da kankara sun watse makiyaya, gandun daji da daji. A wani lokaci, gandun daji na St. John (Hypericum spp.) Dazuzzuka sun girma daga 3,000 m zuwa 3,800 m sama da matakin teku, amma yanzu ya kusan tafi. Ba a san takamaiman lamba ba.

Ana samun Walia ibex a cikin Filin shakatawa na tsaunukan Simien

Wurin Shaka tawas yana dauke da nau'in tsuntsaye sama da 130 da kuma manyan nau'ikan dabbobi masu shayarwa guda 20[4] kamar su gelada dabbar daji (Theropithecus gelada), kerkeci na Habasha (wanda ake kira Simen fox, Canis simensis), Walia ibex (Capra walie), awakin daji na daji da kuma dabbar Anubis.[5] Mazauna a kan gangaren arewacin gangarowa sunfi yawa daga tsaunukan Simien, kuma galibinsu ana samunsu a wurin shakatawa. Kerkeken Habasha yana da yawa a Habasha kuma sauran dabbobi masu shayarwa sun hada da dabbar hamadryas, biri biri, damisa, carak, kyanwa daji, hyena da aka samo da dodo. Hakanan akwai manyan shuke-shuke, kamar su bushbuck, duiker na kowa, da klipspringer.

Nau'in tsuntsaye guda 400 sun hada da ungulu mai gemu, gaggafa ta Verreaux, kestrels, ungulu, lanner falcon, augur ungulu da hankaka mai kauri. An rubuta jimillar nau'ikan 21 na dabbobi masu shayarwa, nau'ikan 3 na halittu masu dauke da cutar, nau'o'in tsuntsaye 63 da nau'ikan 7 na halittun masu dauke da cutar.

Kiyayewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa shi a zaman wurin shakatawa na ƙasar a cikin 1969 kuma an kiyaye shi a ƙarƙashin Dokar erveasa ta assasa. Kayan gado na yanzu yana buƙatar sarrafawa mai inganci. Ya kamata a kara yawan ma'aikatan gudanarwa sannan a karfafa ilimi. Gudanar da wuraren shakatawa na kasa yana kiyaye wakiltar nau'ikan wuraren shakatawa kuma yana aiki tare da mazauna yankin don rage matsin lamba akan albarkatun shakatawa ta hanyar faɗaɗa ƙasar noma, wuce gona da iri, da wuce gona da iri na albarkatun ƙasa. Saboda canjin yanayi na duniya, matsin lamba kan wuraren tarihi ya karu.

Ana buƙatar isasshen tallafi na kuɗi don gudanar da wuraren shakatawa da samar da hanyoyin inganta rayuwar mazauna yankin. Wajibi ne a shirya, aiwatarwa, sake dubawa da kuma lura da tsarin gudanarwa, don sake dubawa da fadada iyakar dajin, da kuma shiga cikin mazauna yankin. Hadin kai na cikin gida yana da mahimmanci musamman don hana dorewar amfani da albarkatun gandun daji na kasa da bunkasa ci gaban rayuwa. Samun isasshen tallafin kuɗi don sake tsugunnar da mazauna cikin yankin gado da kuma gabatar da ingantaccen kula da dabbobi yana da mahimmanci don rage tsananin damuwa kan rayuwar namun daji.

Domin kula da kyawawan dabi'u na duniya, ana buƙatar ilimin muhalli da shirye-shiryen horo na mazauna mazauna ciki da wajen al'adun gargajiyar gami da samun haɗin kai da goyon baya na mazauna yankin cikin kula da al'adun gargajiya.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. WordTravels Ethiopia Travel Guide, Retrieved on June 22, 2008
  2. Philip Briggs, Ethiopia: The Bradt Travel Guide, 5th edition (Chalfont St Peters: Bradt, 2009), p. 240
  3. "Simien plants".
  4. "Simien National Park". UNESCO.
  5. "Relationship between Topographic Variables and Land Cover in the Simen Mountains National Park, a World Heritage Site in Northern Ethiopia".