Muhimman Guraren Tarihi na Duniya

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Muhimman Guraren Tarihi na Duniya
heritage designation (en) Fassara da conservation designation (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na natural heritage (en) Fassara da cultural heritage (en) Fassara
Ƙasa no value
Hashtag (en) Fassara PatrimoineMondial
Kiyaye ta UNESCO
Shafin yanar gizo whc.unesco.org
Shafin yanar gizo unesco.de… da whc.unesco.org…
Wuri

Muhimman Guraren Tarihi na Duniya alama ce ko yanki mai kariyar doka ta yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa da Hukumar Kula da Ilimi, Kimiyya da Al'adu ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNESCO) ke gudanarwa. UNESCO ta keɓe wuraren tarihi na duniya don samun al'adu, tarihi, kimiyya ko wasu nau'ikan abubuwa masu mahimmanci. An yi la'akari da wuraren da cewa sun ƙunshi " al'adun gargajiya da na halitta a duk faɗin duniya waɗanda ake ganin suna da kima ga ɗan adam ".

Ana amfani da tambarin Gadon Duniya don gano kaddarorin da Yarjejeniyar Kayayyakin Tarihi ta Duniya ke kiyaye su kuma an rubuta su a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya na hukuma.
Alamar tarihi ta UNESCO a Þingvellir National Park a Iceland
Alamar tarihi ta UNESCO a gidan sufi na Sanahin a Armenia

Don zaɓen, ƙasar da ta karbi bakuncinsu ce ta zaɓe wurin da aka ba da izini kuma kwamitin ƙasa da ƙasa ya ayyana shi ya zama wata alama ta musamman wacce za ta iya gane yanayin ƙasa da tarihi kuma yana da mahimmancin al'adu ko na zahiri. Misali, Rukunan Tarihi na Duniya na iya zama dadadden kango ko gine-gine na tarihi, gine-gine, birane, [lower-alpha 1] hamada, dazuzzuka, tsibirai, tabkuna, abubuwan tarihi, duwatsu, ko wuraren jeji. [3] [4] Wurin Gado na Duniya na iya nuna wani gagarumin ci gaba na ɗan adam, kuma ya zama shaida na tarihin iliminmu a duniyarmu, ko kuma yana iya zama wurin kyawawan kyawawan dabi'u. Tun daga watan Satumba na 2023, jimillar Rukunan Tarihi na Duniya 1,199 (al'adu 933, 227 na halitta, da gaurayewar kaddarorin al'adu da na dabi'a 39) sun kasance a cikin kasashe 168 . Tare da yankuna 59 da aka zaɓa, Italiya ita ce ƙasar da ta fi yawan shafuka; Sai China mai 57, sai Faransa da Jamus da ke da 52 kowanne.

The graph represents the amount of UNESCO sites inscribed on the World Heritage List each year for each continent. You can see that in 2000 there was a general increase in the enrollments in the list of UNESCO sites
Jadawalin yana wakiltar adadin wuraren UNESCO da aka rubuta a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya kowace shekara ga kowace nahiya.

An yi nufin rukunin yanar gizon don kiyayewa mai amfani ga zuriya, wanda in ba haka ba zai kasance cikin haɗari daga keta haddi na mutum ko dabba, rashin kulawa, rashin kulawa ko shiga mara izini, ko barazana daga sakaci na gudanarwa na gida. UNESCO ta keɓe wuraren a matsayin yankuna masu kariya. Jerin wuraren tarihi na duniya yana kiyaye shi ne ta tsarin kula da abubuwan tarihi na duniya wanda kwamitin UNESCO na duniya ke gudanarwa, wanda ya ƙunshi "jahohi 21" waɗanda babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya zaɓa, kuma ya ba da shawarar ta hanyar bita na ƙungiyoyin ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙasashen duniya a cikin yanayi ko al'adu. tarihi, da ilimi. Kundin tsarin shirin, sunaye, da kuma adana wuraren fitattun al'adu ko mahimmancin halitta ga al'adun gama-gari da gadon ɗan adam. An fara shirin ne da " Yarjejeniya Game da Kare Al'adu da Halitta na Duniya ", wanda Babban taron UNESCO ya amince da shi a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1972. Tun daga wannan lokacin, jihohi 195 sun amince da yarjejeniyar, sun mai da shi ɗaya daga cikin yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa da aka fi sani da kuma shahararren shirin al'adu a duniya. Don yin la'akari, kadarorin dole ne su kasance ƙarƙashin wani nau'i na kariyar jiha ko kiyayewa kuma ƙasa memba ce ta zaɓe ta.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1954, gwamnatin Masar ta yanke shawarar gina sabon Babban Dam na Aswan, wanda sakamakonsa na gaba zai mamaye babban kwarin Nilu mai dauke da taskokin al'adu na tsohuwar Masar da kuma tsohuwar Nubia . A shekara ta 1959, gwamnatocin Masar da Sudan sun bukaci UNESCO ta taimaka musu don kare da kuma ceto abubuwan tarihi da wuraren da ke cikin hadari. A cikin 1960, Darakta-Janar na UNESCO ya kaddamar da yakin kasa da kasa don Ajiye abubuwan tunawa na Nubia. Wannan Kamfen na Ƙasashen Duniya don Ajiye abubuwan tunawa na Nubia ya haifar da tonowa da rikodin ɗaruruwan shafuka, dawo da dubban abubuwa, da kuma ceto da ƙaura zuwa mafi girma na manyan haikali da yawa. Shahararrun waɗannan su ne rukunin haikalin Abu Simbel da Philae . Yaƙin neman zaɓe ya ƙare a cikin 1980 kuma an yi la'akari da nasara. Don gode wa ƙasashen da suka ba da gudummawa musamman ga nasarar yaƙin neman zaɓe, Masar ta ba da gudummawar haikali huɗu; Haikali na Dendur ya koma Metropolitan Museum of Art a New York City, Temple of Debod zuwa Parque del Oeste a Madrid, Temple of Taffeh zuwa Rijksmuseum van Oudheden a Leiden, da kuma Haikali na Ellesyia zuwa Museo Egizio a cikin Turin.

Aikin ya ci dalar Amurka 80 miliyan (daidai da $ 284.14 miliyan a 2022 ), kusan $40 miliyan daga cikinsu an tattara su daga kasashe 50. Nasarar aikin ta haifar da wasu kamfen na kariya, kamar ceton Venice da tafkinta a Italiya, rugujewar Mohenjo-daro a Pakistan, da Gandun Haikali na Borobodur a Indonesia. Tare da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan abubuwan tarihi da wuraren tarihi, UNESCO ta ƙaddamar da daftarin yarjejeniya don kare al'adun gargajiya. [5]

Yarjejeniya da bango[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar (takardar da aka rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa ) wanda ke jagorantar aikin kwamitin tarihi na duniya ya kasance cikin shekaru bakwai (1965-1972).

ƘAsar Amirka ta ƙaddamar da ra'ayin kiyaye wurare masu mahimmanci na al'adu ko na halitta. Wani taron fadar White House a shekarar 1965 ya yi kira da a samar da "Amincin Gadon Duniya" don adana "mafi kyawun yanayi na duniya da wuraren kyan gani da wuraren tarihi na yanzu da kuma makomar 'yan kasa baki daya". Kungiyar kare dabi'a ta kasa da kasa ta samar da irin wadannan shawarwari a shekarar 1968, wadanda aka gabatar a shekarar 1972 a taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan muhallin dan Adam a Stockholm. A karkashin kwamitin kula da kayayyakin tarihi na duniya, ana bukatar kasashen da suka rattaba hannu kan samar da bayanai na lokaci-lokaci da su gabatar da rahoton bayanai na lokaci-lokaci tare da samar wa kwamitin cikakken bayani kan yadda kowace kasa da ke halartar taron ta aiwatar da yarjejeniyar tarihi ta duniya da kuma 'hoton' yanayin halin da ake ciki yanzu a kadarori na duniya.

Dangane da daftarin yarjejeniyar da UNESCO ta fara, daga karshe duk bangarorin sun amince da nassi guda, kuma "Yarjejeniyar kare al'adu da dabi'a ta duniya" ta kasance babban taron UNESCO a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1972. Yarjejeniyar ta fara aiki a ranar 17 ga Disamba 1975. Tun daga watan Mayu 2023, jihohi 195 ne suka amince da shi: kasashe membobin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya 191, kasashe masu sa ido na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya 2 ( Mai Tsarki da Falasdinu ), da jihohi 2 cikin 'yanci tare da New Zealand ( tsibiran Cook da Niue ). Kasashe biyu ne kawai mambobin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ba su amince da yarjejeniyar ba: Liechtenstein da Nauru .

Ta hanyar sanya wurare a matsayin wuraren tarihi na duniya, UNESCO na son taimakawa wajen isar da su ga al'ummomi masu zuwa. Dalilinsa shine "[h] al'adunmu shine gadonmu daga baya, abin da muke rayuwa da shi a yau" da kuma cewa duka al'adun gargajiya da na dabi'a "mabubbukan rayuwa ne da ba za a iya maye gurbinsu ba". Manufar UNESCO game da abubuwan tarihi na duniya ya ƙunshi ƙananan hari guda takwas. Waɗannan sun haɗa da ƙarfafa himmar ƙasashe da jama'ar gari don kiyaye abubuwan tarihi na duniya ta hanyoyi daban-daban, ba da agajin gaggawa ga wuraren da ke cikin haɗari, ba da taimakon fasaha da horar da ƙwararru, da tallafawa ayyukan haɓaka wayar da kan jama'a na ƙungiyoyin Jihohi. [6]

Kasancewa a matsayin Gidan Tarihi na Duniya na iya tasiri sosai ga rukunin yanar gizon, yanayinsa, da hulɗar da ke tsakanin su. Wurin da aka jera yana samun karɓuwa na ƙasa da ƙasa da kariyar doka, kuma yana iya samun kuɗi daga wasu asusun ajiyar kayan tarihi na duniya don sauƙaƙe kiyaye shi ƙarƙashin wasu sharuɗɗa. UNESCO ta yi la'akari da maido da wurare guda huɗu masu zuwa daga cikin labarun nasarar da ta samu: Angkor a Cambodia, Tsohon birnin Dubrovnik a Croatia, Wieliczka Gishiri Mine kusa da Kraków a Poland, da kuma Ngorongoro Conservation Area a Tanzaniya. Bugu da ƙari, yawan jama'ar gida da ke kusa da wani shafi na iya amfana daga ƙarar kudaden shiga na yawon buɗe ido. Lokacin da akwai muhimmiyar hulɗar tsakanin mutane da yanayin yanayi, ana iya gane waɗannan a matsayin "yanayin al'adu". [lower-alpha 2]

Tsarin tantancewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dole ne ƙasa ta fara gano mahimman wuraren al'adu da na halitta a cikin takaddar da aka sani da Jerin Tentative. Bayan haka, zai iya sanya rukunin yanar gizon da aka zaɓa daga wannan jeri zuwa Fayil ɗin Zaɓuɓɓuka, wanda Majalisar Ƙasa ta Duniya akan Monuments da Shafuka da Ƙungiyar Kulawa ta Duniya ta tantance. Wata ƙasa ba za ta iya zaɓar rukunin yanar gizon da ba a fara haɗa su a cikin Lissafin Lantarki ba. Ƙungiyoyin ƙasashen duniya biyu suna ba da shawarwari ga kwamitin tarihi na duniya don sababbin sunayen. Kwamitin yana yin taro sau ɗaya a shekara don sanin ƙaddarorin da aka zaɓa don ƙarawa cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya; wani lokacin yakan jinkirta yanke shawararsa ko kuma ya nemi ƙarin bayani daga ƙasar da ta zaɓi shafin. Akwai sharuɗɗan zaɓi guda goma - dole ne rukunin yanar gizon ya cika aƙalla ɗaya don haɗawa cikin jerin.

Sharuɗɗan zaɓi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Site No. 252: The Taj Mahal, an example of a World Heritage Site
Waje mai lamba. 252: Taj Mahal, misali na wurin tarihi na al'adu
  1. "Don wakiltar ƙwararren ƙwararren ɗan adam mai hazaka"
  2. "Don nuna muhimmiyar musanyar dabi'un ɗan adam, na tsawon lokaci ko a cikin yankin al'adu na duniya, game da ci gaba a cikin gine-gine ko fasaha, zane-zane mai ban mamaki, tsara gari ko zane-zane."
  3. "Don ba da shaida ta musamman ko aƙalla na musamman ga al'adar al'ada ko wayewar da ke raye, ko wacce ta ɓace."
  4. "Don zama babban misali na wani nau'in gini, gine-gine ko fasaha na fasaha ko shimfidar wuri wanda ke kwatanta (a) muhimmin mataki (s) a tarihin ɗan adam"
  5. "Don zama babban misali na zaman jama'a na al'ada, amfani da ƙasa, ko amfani da ruwa wanda ke wakiltar al'adu (ko al'adu), ko hulɗar ɗan adam da muhalli musamman lokacin da ya zama mai rauni a ƙarƙashin tasirin sauyin da ba za a iya jurewa ba."
  6. "Don a haɗa kai tsaye ko a zahiri tare da abubuwan da suka faru ko al'adu masu rai, tare da ra'ayoyi, ko tare da imani, tare da ayyukan fasaha da wallafe-wallafe masu mahimmanci na duniya" [lower-alpha 3]

Halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Waje mai lamba. 156: Serengeti National Park, misali na wurin gado na halitta
Waje mai lamba. 274: Wuri Mai Tsarki na Tarihi na Machu Picchu, misali na gauraye wuraren tarihi

Extensions da sauran gyare-gyare[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wata ƙasa na iya buƙatar tsawaita ko rage iyakokin, canza sunan hukuma, ko canza ma'aunin zaɓi na ɗaya daga cikin rukunin yanar gizon ta da aka riga aka jera. Duk wata shawara don gagarumin canjin kan iyaka ko don gyara ƙa'idodin zaɓin rukunin yanar gizon dole ne a ƙaddamar da shi kamar sabon zaɓi ne, gami da sanya ta farko a cikin Lissafin Tsara sannan kuma a kan Fayil na zaɓi. Buƙatar canjin ƙananan iyaka, wanda ba shi da tasiri mai mahimmanci akan girman kadarorin ko kuma ya shafi "fitacciyar darajarsa ta duniya", ana kuma kimanta ta ƙungiyoyin shawarwari kafin a tura su ga kwamitin. Irin waɗannan shawarwari za su iya yin watsi da ko dai ƙungiyoyi masu ba da shawara ko Kwamitin idan sun yanke hukunci cewa ya zama babban canji maimakon ƙarami. [8] Ana aika shawarwarin canza sunan hukuma kai tsaye ga kwamitin. [8]

Hadari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yanar Gizo No. 1, tsibirin Galápagos, an ƙaddamar da iyakokinsa a cikin 2001 da 2003, kuma an haɗa shi cikin jerin haɗari daga 2007 zuwa 2010.

Ana iya ƙara wani wuri zuwa cikin Jerin Abubuwan Tarihi na Duniya a cikin Haɗari idan yanayi ya yi barazana ga halayen da aka rubuta alamar ƙasa ko yanki a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya. Irin waɗannan matsalolin na iya haɗawa da rikice-rikice na makami da yaƙi, bala'o'i, gurɓata yanayi, farauta, ko ƙauyuka marasa ƙarfi ko ci gaban ɗan adam. Wannan jeri na haɗari an yi niyya ne don ƙara wayar da kan ƙasashen duniya game da barazanar da kuma ƙarfafa matakan da za su iya magance su. Barazana ga rukunin yanar gizo na iya zama ko dai an tabbatar da barazanar da ke gabatowa ko kuma yuwuwar hatsarori da za su iya yin illa ga rukunin yanar gizo.

Ana duba yanayin kiyayewa ga kowane rukunin yanar gizon da ke cikin jerin haɗarin kowace shekara; bayan wannan, kwamitin na iya buƙatar ƙarin matakan, share kadarorin daga jerin idan barazanar ta daina ko kuma la'akari da sharewa daga cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya da ke cikin haɗari da kuma jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya. Shafuka guda uku ne kawai aka taɓa cire sunayensu : Wuri Mai Tsarki na Arab Oryx a Oman, Kwarin Dresden Elbe a Jamus, da City Maritime Mercantile City a Burtaniya. A shekarar 2007 ne kai tsaye aka cire rukunin Oryx na Arabiya, maimakon a fara sanya shi cikin jerin masu hadari, bayan da gwamnatin Omani ta yanke shawarar rage girman yankin da kashi 90 cikin dari. Dresden Elbe Valley an fara sanya shi a cikin jerin haɗari a cikin 2006 lokacin da Kwamitin Tarihi na Duniya ya yanke shawarar cewa shirin gina gadar Waldschlösschen zai canza yanayin kwarin. Dangane da mayar da martani, majalisar birnin Dresden ta yi ƙoƙarin dakatar da ginin gadar. Duk da haka, bayan yanke hukunci da yawa na kotu ya ba da damar gina gadar ta ci gaba, an cire kwarin daga jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya a 2009. An soke matsayin Liverpool ta Duniya a cikin Yuli 2021, biyo bayan ci gaba ( Liverpool Waters da Bramley-Moore Dock Stadium ) a kan docks na arewacin wurin Tarihi na Duniya wanda ke haifar da "rashin halayen da ba za a iya jurewa ba" akan shafin.

Kididdigar farko a duniya don auna kididdigar baraza ga wuraren tarihi na duniya ya nuna cewa kashi 63 cikin 100 na wuraren da aka lalata sun lalace ta hanyar kara matsin lamba na bil'adama da suka hada da mamaye hanyoyi, kayayyakin aikin gona da matsugunan a cikin shekaru ashirin da suka gabata. [9] [10] Waɗannan ayyukan suna yin haɗari ga Shafukan Al'adun Duniya na Halitta kuma suna iya lalata ƙima ta musamman. Daga cikin wuraren tarihi na duniya da ke dauke da gandun daji, kashi 91 cikin 100 sun samu asara tun shekara ta 2000. Yawancinsu sun fi fuskantar barazana fiye da yadda ake tunani a baya kuma suna buƙatar ɗaukar matakan kiyayewa cikin gaggawa. [9]

Bugu da ƙari kuma, lalata kadarorin al'adu da wuraren kafa asali na ɗaya daga cikin manufofin farko na yaƙin asymmetrical na zamani. Don haka, da gangan 'yan ta'adda, 'yan tawaye da sojojin haya suka farfasa wuraren tarihi na archaeological, abubuwan tarihi masu tsarki da na zamani da kuma kwashe dakunan karatu, wuraren adana kayan tarihi da gidajen tarihi. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da UNESCO tare da hadin gwiwar Blue Shield na kasa da kasa suna taka rawar gani wajen dakile irin wadannan ayyuka. "Babu jerin yajin aiki" an kuma ƙirƙira don kare kadarorin al'adu daga hare-haren iska. [11] Koyaya, ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa tare da mazauna wurin ne kawai za a iya aiwatar da kiyaye wuraren tarihi na duniya, abubuwan gano kayan tarihi, abubuwan baje koli da wuraren adana kayan tarihi daga lalata, sata da fashi. Shugaban da ya kafa kungiyar Blue Shield International Karl von Habsburg ya takaita shi da wadannan kalmomi: "Idan ba tare da al'ummar gari ba kuma ba tare da masu halartar wurin ba, hakan ba zai taba yiwuwa ba".

Suka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Aikin da UNESCO ke gudanarwa ya jawo suka. Wannan ya samo asali ne sakamakon rashin wakilcin wuraren tarihi a wajen Turai, yanke shawara kan zaɓin wurin da kuma mummunan tasirin yawon buɗe ido a wuraren da ba za su iya sarrafa saurin haɓakar lambobin baƙi ba. Babban masana'antar zaɓe ta girma a kusa da kyaututtukan, saboda jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya na iya ƙara yawan dawowar yawon buɗe ido. Kudaden jeri na yanar gizo galibi suna da tsayi da tsada, suna jefa ƙasashe matalauta cikin wahala. Kokarin da Eritrea ta yi na tallata Asmara misali daya ne.

A cikin 2016, an ba da rahoton cewa gwamnatin Ostiraliya ta yi nasarar yin yunƙuri don neman ganin an cire Babban Barrier Reef na Tarihin Duniya daga rahoton UNESCO mai taken "Al'adun Duniya da Yawon shakatawa a cikin Canjin Yanayi". Ayyukan da gwamnatin Ostiraliya ta yi, da suka haɗa da kashe kuɗi masu yawa don zaɓe da ziyarar jami'an diflomasiyya, sun kasance a matsayin martani ga damuwarsu game da mummunan tasirin da lakabin "na cikin haɗari" zai iya haifar da kudaden shiga na yawon shakatawa a wurin da UNESCO ta keɓe a baya. A cikin 2021, masana kimiyya na duniya sun ba da shawarar UNESCO ta sanya Babban Barrier Reef a cikin jerin da ke cikin haɗari, saboda canjin yanayi na duniya ya haifar da mummunan yanayin murjani da ingancin ruwa. Bugu da ƙari, gwamnatin Ostiraliya ta yi yaƙi da wannan, kuma a cikin Yuli 2021, Kwamitin Tarihi na Duniya, wanda ya ƙunshi wakilan diflomasiyya na kasashe 21, sun yi watsi da kimantawar UNESCO, bisa nazarin masana kimiyya, "cewa raƙuman ruwa yana cikin haɗari daga sauyin yanayi da sauransu. ya kamata a sanya a cikin jerin." A cewar ƙungiyoyin kare muhalli, wannan "yanke shawara nasara ce ga masu zagon ƙasa kuma Australiya, a matsayin masu kula da babban tekun murjani na duniya, yanzu tana kan gwaji."

Wurare da yawa da aka jera, kamar Casco Viejo a Panama da Hội An a Vietnam, sun yi ƙoƙari don daidaita daidaito tsakanin fa'idodin tattalin arziƙin abinci don ƙara yawan adadin baƙi bayan fitarwa da kiyaye al'adun asali da al'ummomin gida.

Wani abin suka kuma shi ne, akwai kamanceceniya da wadannan shafuka, wadanda ke dauke da salo iri daya, wuraren ba da ziyara, da dai sauransu, ma’ana an kawar da dayawa daga cikin ire-iren wadannan shafuka domin su zama masu jan hankali ga masu yawon bude ido.

An kuma soki UNESCO game da zargin nuna son kai, wariyar launin fata, da launin fata a cikin rubutun gadon duniya. Babban gunkin duk rubutun gadon duniya yana cikin yankuna waɗanda galibin al'ummarsu suna da fata mai laushi, gami da Turai, Gabashin Asiya, da Arewacin Amurka. [12] [13] [14] [15]

Ƙididdiga[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wuraren Tarihi na Duniya na UNESCO

Kwamitin tarihi na duniya ya raba duniya zuwa yankuna biyar da ya kira yankuna: Afirka, Larabawa, Asiya da Pacific, Turai da Arewacin Amurka, da Latin Amurka da Caribbean. Kasashen Rasha da Caucasus an rarraba su a matsayin Turai, yayin da Mexico da Caribbean aka ware a matsayin na yankin Latin Amurka da Caribbean. Yankunan yanki na UNESCO kuma suna ba da fifiko ga gudanarwa, maimakon ƙungiyoyin yanki. Don haka, tsibirin Gough, wanda ke Kudancin Tekun Atlantika, wani yanki ne na yankin Turai da Arewacin Amurka saboda gwamnatin Burtaniya ta zabi wurin.

Teburin da ke ƙasa ya haɗa da rugujewar rukunin yanar gizon bisa ga waɗannan yankuna da rabe-rabensu As of Satumba 2023 </link></link> :

Yanki/yanki Al'adu Halitta Gauraye Jimlar Kashi Jam'iyyun Jiha tare da rubuce-rubucen kadarorin
Afirka 56 42 5 103 8.6% 36
Kasashen Larabawa 84 6 3 93 7.8% 18
Asiya da Pacific 205 72 [lower-alpha 4] 12 289 24.1% 36
Turai da Arewacin Amurka 485 [lower-alpha 5] 69 11 565 47.1% 50
Latin Amurka da Caribbean 103 38 8 149 12.4% 28
Jimlar 933 227 39 1,199 100% 168

Ƙasashe masu shafuka 15 ko fiye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wannan bayyani ya lissafa ƙasashe 23 da ke da 15 ko fiye da wuraren Tarihi na Duniya:

List of World Heritage Sites in SwedenList of World Heritage Sites in South KoreaList of World Heritage Sites in BelgiumList of World Heritage Sites in PortugalList of World Heritage Sites in PolandList of World Heritage Sites in the Czech RepublicList of World Heritage Sites in GreeceList of World Heritage Sites in AustraliaList of World Heritage Sites in TurkeyList of World Heritage Sites in CanadaList of World Heritage Sites in BrazilList of World Heritage Sites in the United StatesList of World Heritage Sites in JapanList of World Heritage Sites in IranList of World Heritage Sites in RussiaList of World Heritage Sites in the United KingdomList of World Heritage Sites in MexicoList of World Heritage Sites in IndiaList of World Heritage Sites in SpainList of World Heritage Sites in GermanyList of World Heritage Sites in FranceList of World Heritage Sites in ChinaList of World Heritage Sites in Italy
  • GoUNESCO - yunƙuri don haɓaka wayar da kan jama'a da samar da kayan aiki ga masu zaman kansu don yin aiki da al'adun gargajiya
  • Fihirisar abubuwan kiyayewa
  • Jerin Rukunan Tarihi na Duniya
  • Tsoffin wuraren tarihi na UNESCO
  • Tunawa da Shirin Duniya
  • Jerin Al'adun Al'adu Mara-girma na UNESCO
  • Yarjejeniyar Ramsar – Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan sanin wuraren dausayi

Bayanan kafa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. In 1978, two entire cities have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site: first Quito in Ecuador, and later Kraków in Poland.[1][2]
  2. This type of recognition exists since 1992.[7]
  3. The World Heritage Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria.[7]
  4. Includes the sites Uvs Nuur Basin and Landscapes of Dauria located in Mongolia and Russia.
  5. Includes the site The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement located in Argentina, Belgium, France, Germany, India, Japan, and Switzerland.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hetter, Katia (16 June 2014). "Exploring the world's first 12 heritage sites". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  2. "World Heritage List (ordered by year)". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
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  7. 7.0 7.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SelectionCriteria
  8. 8.0 8.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WHS Guidelines
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  11. O'Keefe et al. 2016.
  12. Eliot, et al (2012). World heritage: Constructing a universal cultural order. Poetics Journal.
  13. Djurberg, et al (2018). Reforming UNESCO's World Heritage. The Globalist.
  14. Keough (2011). Heritage in Peril: A Critique of UNESCO's World Heritage Program. Global Studies Law Review.
  15. Steiner, et al (2011). Imbalance of World Heritage List: "Did the UNESCO Strategy Work?". University of Zurich.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]