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Gurɓatar muhalli da filaye a Philippines

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Gurɓatar muhalli da filaye a Philippines
Abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli
Ƙasa Filipin

Gurbatar muhalli Filayen haɗari da bala'o'i da ya faru ne saboda wurin da take. Da yake ƙasar da ke cikin Ring of Fire na Pacific, tana da haɗari ga girgizar ƙasa da fashewar volcanic. Bugu da kari, kasar na kewaye da manya-manyan ruwa kuma tana fuskantar Tekun Pasifik inda kashi 60% na guguwa a duniya ake yi.[1][2][3] Daya daga cikin mummunar guguwar da ta afkawa kasar Philippines a shekarar 2013 ita ce guguwar Haiyan, ko kuma "Yolanda," wadda ta kashe sama da mutane 10,000 tare da lalata kadarori na sama da tiriliyan pesos tare da lalata sassa daban-daban.[ana buƙatar hujja] . Sannan Kuma Sauran matsalolin muhalli da kasar ke fama da su sun hada da gurbatar yanayi, hakar ma'adanai ba bisa ka'ida ba, da sare itatuwa ba bisa ka'ida ba, sare itatuwa, kamun kifi, zaftarewar kasa, zaizayar gabar teku, bacewar namun daji, dumamar yanayi[4] da sauyin yanayi.[5][6]

Gurbacewar ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin Pasig a Manila, ɗaya daga cikin koguna mafi ƙazanta a duniya. .

Duk da cewa albarkatun ruwa sun yi karanci a wasu yankuna da yanayi, kasar Philippines gaba dayanta tana da isassun ruwa sama da kasa. Sannan Koyaya, yin watsi da samun daidaiton manufofin muhalli ya haifar da gurɓata kashi 58% na ruwan ƙasa a Philippines. [7] Babban tushen gurbatar yanayi shine ruwan sharar gida da masana'antu da ba a kula da su ba. Kashi ɗaya bisa uku na tsarin kogin Philippine ana ɗaukar dacewa da wadatar ruwan jama'a.[8]

An yi kiyasin cewa a shekarar 2025, samun ruwa zai yi kadan a galibin manyan biranen kasar da kuma a cikin 8 daga cikin manyan rafuka 19. Baya ga matsalolin kiwon lafiya mai tsanani, gurbacewar ruwa kuma yana haifar da matsaloli a masana'antar kamun kifi da yawon bude ido . Gwamnatin ƙasa ta fahimci matsalar kuma tun shekarata 2004 ta nemi bullo da tsarin kula da albarkatun ruwa mai dorewa (duba ƙasa).

Kashi 5% ne kawai na yawan jama'a ke haɗe zuwa hanyar sadarwar magudanar ruwa. Mafi rinjaye na amfani da bandaki masu tarwatsewa da aka haɗa da tankunan ruwa. Sannan Tunda magungunan sludge da wuraren zubar da ruwa ba su da yawa, yawancin masu fitar da ruwa ana fitar dasu ba tare da magani ba. A cewar bankin raya yankin Asiya, kogin Pasig na daya daga cikin gurbatattun koguna a duniya, wanda ke ratsa babban birnin kasar Manila. A cikin Maris 2008, Manila Water ya ba da sanarwar cewa za a gina cibiyar kula da ruwan sha a Taguig . Filin na farko da ya gina dausayi mai dausayi na kusan gidaje 700 an kammala shi a shekara ta 2006 a wani yanki na birni na Bayawan wanda aka yi amfani da shi don sake tsugunar da iyalai da ke zaune a bakin teku a matsugunan da ba na yau da kullun ba kuma ba su da isasshen ruwan sha da wuraren tsafta.

sare itatuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin karni na 20, murfin gandun daji na Philippines ya ragu daga kashi 70 cikin dari zuwa kashi 20 cikin dari.[9] Gabaɗaya, nau'ikan nau'ikan 46 suna cikin haɗari, kuma an kawar da 4 gaba ɗaya. Kashi 3.2 cikin 100 na jimillar gandun daji ya ragu. Dangane da nazarin taswirorin tsarin amfani da ƙasa da taswirar hanya, an yi asarar dazuzzukan dazuzzukan da suka kai kimanin eka miliyan 9.8 daga shekarata 1934 zuwa 1988. Yin sare itace ba bisa ka'ida ba yana faruwa a cikin Filipinas[[Gurɓatar muhalli da filaye a Philippines kuma yana ƙara lalata ambaliyar ruwa a wasu yankuna.

A cewar wata masaniyar Jessica Mathews, manufofin gwamnatin Filipins na gajeren hangen nesa sun taimaka wajen yawan sare itatuwa:

Gwamnati a kai a kai tana ba da rangwamen katako na kasa da shekaru goma. Tunda yana ɗaukar shekaru 30-35 don girma na biyu na gandun daji, masu shuka ba su da wani abin ƙarfafa don sake dasa. Haɓaka kuskuren, ɓangarorin sarauta sun ƙarfafa masu yin katako don cire nau'ikan mafi mahimmanci kawai. Mummunan kashi 40 cikin 100 na itacen da za a girbe bai taɓa barin dazuzzuka ba, amma, ya lalace a cikin dazuzzuka, ya lalace ko kuma ya kone a wurin. Sakamako mai ban mamaki na waɗannan da manufofin da ke da alaƙa shi ne cewa daga cikin kadada miliyan 17 na rufe dazuzzukan da suka bunƙasa a farkon ƙarni miliyan 1.2 kawai ya rage a yau.

Kasar Philippines tana da ma'aunin daidaiton yanayin gandun daji na 2018 yana nufin maki 5.91/10, wanda ke matsayi na 91 a duniya cikin kasashe 172.

Gurbacewar iska[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Saboda sharar masana'antu da motoci, Manila na fama da gurɓataccen iska, yana shafar 98% na yawan jama'a. A kowace shekara, gurɓataccen iska yana haifar da mutuwar mutane fiye da 4,000. Ermita ita ce gundumar Manila da ta fi gurbata iska saboda buɗaɗɗen wuraren juji da sharar masana'antu . A cewar Hukumar Raya Manila (MMDA), ƙasar tana samar da matsakaita na kiloton 41 na datti a kullum tare da kusan kton 10 a rana yana fitowa daga Metro Manila kaɗai. Yayin da akasarin kananan hukumomin ke kafa wani kayan aikin dawo da kayan aiki (MRF), da aiwatar da rarrabuwar kawuna a majiyar, tare da tattarawa da sarrafa duk wasu abubuwan da za a iya sake amfani da su da kuma abubuwan da za a iya gyara su, galibin dattin datti na karamar hukumar ana zubar da su a wuraren juji ko kuma kona su a fili, Kuma wanda hakan ke kara ta’azzara. ingancin iska mai gurbataccen iska a cikin birane. A wani rahoto da aka fitar a shekara ta 2003, kogin Pasig na daya daga cikin kogin da suka fi gurbata muhalli a duniya inda ake zubar da ton 150 na sharar gida da tan 75 na sharar masana'antu a kullum.

Kamun kifi ba bisa ka'ida ba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Philippines tana da al'adar kamun kifi mai ƙarfi saboda tarihinta mai albarka da yanayin yanayin ruwa iri-iri. A cikin shekarata 2018, an ba da rahoton mutane 927,617 bisa hukuma suna da hannu a cikin "Kamun kifi", kuma kifi yana ba da gudummawar kashi 50% na furotin na Filipinos. Wannan dogaron kifin ya taimaka wajen kamun kifin a halin yanzu na kashi 70% na wuraren kamun kifi na Philippine da kusan kashi 40% na kifin da ake kama ana yin su ba bisa ka'ida ba. [10]

Makullin COVID-19 da alama ya ba da damar haɓaka kamun kifi ba bisa ƙa'ida ba. Jiragen sintiri na Karagatan da ke amfani da VIIRS (fitilar infrared da ake iya gani) sun gano karuwar tasoshin kamun kifi na kasuwanci daga 3,602 a watan Fabrairun shekarata 2020 (kafin kulle-kullen COVID-19) zuwa 5,950 a cikin Maris, wanda ya koma 1,666 a watan Mayu lokacin da aka sassauta dokar. An gano waɗannan jiragen ruwa a cikin ruwa wanda ke ba wa ƙananan masuntan sana'a damar yin amfani da hanyoyin kamun kifi na yau da kullun, saboda yankin ya kasance wurin hayayyafa ga yawancin nau'in kifi. [11]

Kwarara kamun kifi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamun kifi na Kwarara, wanda kuma aka fi sani da kamun kifi da bama-bamai, an haramta shi a cikin shekarata 1932. [12] Al'ada ce ta jefa bama-bamai a cikin ruwa don kashe kifin da fashewar ta kama, sannan a kwashe kifin. A cikin wannan tsari, wuraren da ke kewaye da su (murjani reefs), da kuma kashe duka kifin da suka yi ƙanƙanta don sayar da lalata ƙwai a yankin. An kiyasta wannan barnar ta janyo asarar dala biliyan 99.2 a duk shekara, a cewar wani bincike da Rhodora Azanza ta jami’ar Philippines ta yi. Don haka, an ba da rahoton cewa yawan amfanin kifin yana raguwa. Jimely Flores, wani babban masanin kimiyar ruwa na Oceana, ya bayyana halin da ake ciki yana mai cewa, "A wasu wuraren da ke da zafi, idan ka nutse ba kwa ganin kifi ko kadan."

Canjin yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Motsin hana makaman nukiliya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Excerpt

Barazana ga masu kare muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wasu lokuta ana ɗaukar Philippines a matsayin ƙasa mafi haɗari ga masu fafutukar kare muhalli. A cewar kungiyar kare muhalli Global Witness, an kashe akalla filaye 30 da masu kare muhalli a Philippines a cikin shekarata 2018, yawancinsu suna rikici da kungiyoyin kasuwanci masu zaman kansu. Ƙungiyar Jama'ar Kalikasan don Muhalli ta sami rahoton mutuwar mutane 46 a cikin shekarar 2019. Kungiyar ta ce an kuma gallazawa masu fafutuka, da tozarta su, da “ jaja-jajaye ,” da kuma yi musu lakabi da ‘yan ta’adda ko kuma “makiya jihar”. [13] [14]

Kungiyoyin kare muhalli sun nemi Majalisa da ta zartar da dokar kare hakkin dan Adam don taimakawa masu fafutuka da iyalansu.

Manufar gwamnati[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kariyar muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ma'aikatar Muhalli da Albarkatun Kasa ita ce ke da alhakin ƙirƙira, tallafawa, da aiwatar da manufofi kan kare muhalli ta gwamnatin Philippine. Sannan Kuma Sashen kuma yana da alhakin tabbatar da dorewar kula da albarkatun ƙasa na Philippines. Ofishin Kula da Muhalli na Philippine (EMB) ne ke da alhakin kimanta tasirin muhalli, rigakafin gurɓata yanayi da sarrafawa, tare da aiwatar da manyan dokokin muhalli guda shida a cikin Philippines. Philippines ta kuma rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyoyin muhalli da dama na kasa da kasa, tare da CITES na kare nau'ikan daga wuce gona da iri saboda cinikin kasa da kasa, kuma ta amince da yarjejeniyar Paris .

Ci gaba mai dorewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bisa la'akari da bukatar magance matsalolin muhalli da kuma bukatar ci gaba da cigaba, Philippines ta fito da dabarun cigaba mai dorewa. Kasa don Dabarun Ci gaba mai dorewa sun haɗa da daidaita la'akari da Kuma muhalli a cikin gudanarwa, ƙayyadaddun farashin albarkatun ƙasa, kiyaye nau'ikan halittu, gyara yanayin halittu, kula da haɓakar yawan jama'a da haɓaka albarkatun ɗan adam, haifar da haɓaka a yankunan karkara, haɓaka ilimin muhalli, ƙarfafa 'yan ƙasa. Haɗin kai, da haɓaka kanana zuwa matsakaitan masana'antu da ayyukan noma da dazuzzuka masu dorewa. Daya daga cikin tsare-tsaren da aka sanyawa hannu a wani bangare na dabarun shine taron kolin Duniya na 1992.

Bayan sanya hannu kan taron koli na Duniya na shekarar 1992, gwamnatin Philippines ta ci gaba da duba tsare-tsare daban-daban na inganta yanayin kasar.

Rubutun Kalikasan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Excerpt

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Ecoregions a cikin Philippines
  • Jerin wuraren kariya na Philippines

Nau'i:

  • Namun daji na Philippines
  • Jerin barazanar nau'in Philippines

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

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  4. {{Citation |last=Boquet |first=Yves |title=Environmental]]
  5. Bille Larsen, Peter; Le Billon, Philippe; Menton, Mary; Aylwin, José; Balsiger, Jörg; Boyd, David; Forst, Michel; Lambrick, Fran; Santos, Claudelice; Storey, Hannah; Wilding, Susan (2020-12-01). "Understanding and responding to the environmental human rights defenders crisis: The case for conservation action". Conservation Letters. doi:10.1111/conl.12777. ISSN 1755-263X.[permanent dead link]
  6. Holden, William N. (2019-01-02). "Endogenous exacerbation of an exogenous problem: climate change, environmental degradation, and unsustainable development practices in the Philippines". Asian Geographer. 36 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1080/10225706.2018.1483831. ISSN 1022-5706.
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  8. Asian Development Bank; Asia-Pacific Water Forum (2007). Asian Water Development Outlook 2007 (in Turanci). Asian Development Bank. p. 4. ISBN 9789814136068. Archived from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  9. Lasco, R. D.; Visco, R. G.; Pulhin, J. M. (2001). "Secondary Forests in the Philippines: Formation and Transformation in the 20th Century" (PDF). Journal of Tropical Forest Science (in Turanci). 13 (4): 652–670. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
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  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2
  12. University of British Columbia. "Coral reefs suffering in Philippines despite outlawing damaging fishing practices: New research finds dynamite, poison still common fishing methods." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, March 16, 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180316100307.htm>.
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  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :11