Maganin shara a ruwa

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Wikidata.svgMaganin shara a ruwa
economic concept (en) Fassara
Wonga wetlands sewage plant.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na water treatment (en) Fassara, economic activity (en) Fassara, engineering process (en) Fassara, sanitary engineering (en) Fassara da waste management (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara wastewater (en) Fassara
Kamfanin sarrafa najasa (wani nau'in masana'antar sarrafa ruwa) a Cuxhaven, Jamus

Maganin sharar ruwa wani tsari ne da ake amfani da shi don kawar da gurɓataccen ruwa daga ruwan datti da kuma mayar da shi gurɓataccen ruwa wanda za'a iya mayar da shi cikin zagayowar ruwa .[1] Da zarar an dawo da sake zagayowar ruwa, ƙazanta yana haifar da tasiri mai karɓuwa akan yanayi ko kuma an sake yin amfani da shi don dalilai daban-daban (wanda ake kira reclamation ruwa ). Tsarin jiyya yana faruwa a cikin injin tsabtace ruwa.[2] Akwai nau'ikan ruwan sha da yawa waɗanda ake kula da su ta hanyar da ta dace ta hanyar sarrafa ruwan sha. Ga ruwan sharar gida (wanda kuma ake kira da ruwan sha na birni ko najasa ), ana kiran wurin sarrafa najasa wurin sarrafa najasa . Don ruwan sharar masana'antu, jiyya ko dai yana faruwa a cikin wani wurin sarrafa ruwan sharar masana'antu daban, ko kuma a cikin injin sarrafa najasa (yawanci bayan wani nau'i na riga-kafi). Sauran nau'ikan masana'antar sarrafa ruwan datti sun haɗa da masana'antar sarrafa ruwan sha da aikin gona da masana'antar sarrafa shara leach.[3]

Hanyoyin da aka saba amfani da su sun haɗa da rabuwa lokaci (kamar lalatawa), tsarin ilimin halitta da sinadarai (kamar oxidation) ko gogewa. Babban abin da ake samu daga masana'antar sarrafa ruwan datti shine nau'in sludge wanda galibi ana yin magani a cikin iri ɗaya ko wata masana'antar sarrafa ruwa. :Ch.14Biogas na iya zama wani samfurin idan aka yi amfani da hanyoyin jiyya na anaerobic. Wasu ruwan sharar gida na iya zama da amfani sosai kuma a sake amfani da su azaman ruwan da aka kwaso. Anan Babban manufar maganin ruwan datti shine don a sami damar zubar da ruwa ko sake amfani da shi cikin aminci. Duk da haka, kafin a yi amfani da shi, dole ne a yi la'akari da zaɓuɓɓukan zubarwa ko sake amfani da su don haka ana amfani da tsarin jiyya daidai akan ruwan datti.

Kalmar "maganin shara" tana cikin wallafe-wallafen da aka saba amfani da su don nufin "maganin najasa". A taƙaice, maganin sharar gida ya fi na najasa girma da ƙarfi.

Nau'in tsire-tsire masu magani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za a iya bambanta masana'antar sarrafa ruwan sha da nau'in ruwan da za a kula da shi. Akwai matakai da yawa da za a iya amfani da su don magance ruwan sha ya danganta da nau'i da girman gurɓataccen abu. Matakan jiyya sun haɗa da hanyoyin jiyya ta jiki, sinadarai da halittu.

Nau'o'in masana'antar sarrafa ruwa sun haɗa da:

  • Tsire-tsire masu kula da najasa
  • Cibiyoyin kula da ruwan sharar gida na masana'antu
  • Cibiyoyin sarrafa ruwan sharar gona na noma
  • Tsire-tsire masu magani na Leachate

Tsire-tsire masu kula da najasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tankin iska na aikin sludge mai kunnawa a masana'antar sarrafa ruwan sha a Dresden-Kaditz, Jamus

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Cibiyoyin kula da ruwan sharar gida na masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Cibiyoyin sarrafa ruwan sharar gona na noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Tsire-tsire masu magani na Leachate[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da tsire-tsire masu magani na leachate don magance leach daga wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa . Zaɓuɓɓukan jiyya sun haɗa da: jiyya na ilimin halitta, magani na inji ta ultrafiltration, jiyya tare da matatun carbon mai aiki, jiyya na electrochemical gami da electrocoagulation ta wasu fasahohin mallakar da juyawa osmosis membrane tacewa ta amfani da fasahar bututun diski.

Tsarin naúrar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jadawalin kwandon ruwa mai iskar ruwa na yau da kullun don kula da ruwan sharar gida.

Tsarin naúra mai ƙwakwalwa da ke cikin sharar ruwan sha sun haɗa da tafiyar matakai na zahiri kamar daidaitawa ko flotation da tsarin nazarin halittu kamar iskar oxygen ko jiyya anaerobic. Wasu ruwan sharar gida suna buƙatar hanyoyin magani na musamman. A mataki mafi sauƙi, ana gudanar da maganin yawancin ruwan sharar gida ta hanyar rabuwa da daskararru daga ruwa, yawanci ta hanyar lalatawa . Ta hanyar ci gaba da juyar da abubuwan da suka narkar da su zuwa daskararru, yawanci floc na halitta ko biofilm, wanda daga nan aka daidaita ko kuma a raba, ana samar da magudanar ruwa na ƙara tsaftar su.[1][4]


Rabuwar mataki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da clarifiers sosai don maganin sharar gida.

Rabuwar mataki yana canza ƙazanta zuwa wani lokaci mara ruwa . Rabuwar lokaci na iya faruwa a kashi-kashi a cikin jerin jiyya don cire daskararrun da aka samar yayin iskar oxygen ko gogewa.[5] Ana iya samun mai da mai don mai ko saponification . Ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan sau da yawa yana buƙatar dewatering na sludge a cikin masana'antar sarrafa ruwan datti . Zaɓuɓɓukan zubar da daskararrun busassun sun bambanta da nau'in da tattarawar ƙazanta da aka cire daga ruwa.

Tankin kafa na farko na masana'antar sarrafa ruwan sha a Dresden-Kaditz, Jamus

Lalacewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za'a iya cire tsattsauran tsaunuka kamar duwatsu, datti, da yashi, tarkace daga ruwan sharar ƙasa ta wurin nauyi lokacin da bambance-bambancen yawa ya wadatar don shawo kan tarwatsewa ta tashin hankali . Ana samun wannan yawanci ta amfani da tashar grit da aka ƙera don samar da madaidaicin magudanar ruwa wanda ke ba da damar grit don daidaitawa da sauran ƙananan daskararrun da za a ɗauka gaba zuwa mataki na gaba na jiyya. Rarraba nauyi na daskararru shine jiyya na farko na najasa, inda ake kiran tsarin naúrar "tankuna na farko" ko "tankunan tankuna na farko." Hakanan ana amfani da shi sosai don maganin sauran nau'ikan ruwan sha. Daskararrun da suka fi ruwa yawa za su taru a kasan kwandon shara . Ƙarin hadaddun fayyace kuma suna da skimmers don cire mai mai yawa lokaci guda kamar sabulu da daskararru kamar fuka-fuki, guntun itace, ko kwaroron roba . Kwantena kamar API mai raba ruwa-ruwa an ƙera su musamman don raba ruwaye marasa iyaka. :111–138

Hanyoyin Halittu da sunadarai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Oxidation[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Oxidation yana rage buƙatun iskar oxygen biochemical na ruwan sharar gida, kuma yana iya rage gubar wasu ƙazanta Ko tarkace, Magani na biyu yana jujjuya mahaɗan kwayoyin halitta zuwa carbon dioxide, ruwa, da biosolids ta hanyar iskar oxygen da rage halayen. Ana amfani da iskar oxygen da iskar shaka sosai don kashe kwayoyin cuta.

Biochemical oxidation (jiyya na biyu)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Chemical oxidation[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da ingantattun matakai na iskar oxygen don cire wasu gurɓatattun kwayoyin halitta masu dagewa da yawa da suka rage bayan iskar oxygenation na biochemical. .[6]:363–408 Disinfection by chemical oxidation kills bacteria and microbial pathogens by adding hydroxyl radicals such as ozone, chlorine or hypochlorite to wastewater.[1] :363–408Kashewa ta hanyar iskar oxygen da iskar shaka tana kashe ƙwayoyin cuta da ƙwayoyin cuta ta hanyar ƙara radicals na hydroxyl kamar ozone, chlorine ko hypochlorite zuwa ruwan sharar gida. :1220Wadannan hydroxyl radical sai su rushe hadaddun mahadi a cikin kwayoyin gurɓataccen yanayi zuwa mahalli masu sauƙi kamar ruwa, carbon dioxide, da gishiri[7] .

Anaerobic magani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da hanyoyin sarrafa ruwan sharar anaerobic (misali UASB, EGSB ) kuma ana amfani da su sosai wajen kula da ruwan sharar masana'antu da sludge na halitta.

goge baki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Polishing yana nufin jayayya da aka yi a cikin ƙarin matakan jiyya na ci gaba bayan hanyoyin da ke sama (wanda kuma ake kira jiyya "mataki na huɗu"). Hakanan ana iya amfani da waɗannan jiyya daban-daban don wasu ruwan sharar masana'antu. Rage sinadarai ko daidaita pH yana rage aikin sinadarai na ruwan sharar gida sakamakon iskar oxygen. :439Tace carbon yana kawar da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa da ƙazanta ta hanyar tsotse sinadarai zuwa carbon da aka kunna. :1138Tace ta yashi (calcium carbonate) ko tace masana'anta ita ce hanyar da aka fi amfani da ita wajen kula da ruwan sha na birni.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin manyan wuraren sarrafa ruwan sharar gida
  • Jerin fasahar sarrafa ruwan sharar gida
  • Maganin ruwa

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (2003). Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-112250-8.
  2. "wastewater treatment | Process, History, Importance, Systems, & Technologies". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). October 29, 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
  3. Tchobanoglous, George; Burton, Franklin L.; Stensel, H. David; Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (2003). Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-112250-4.
  4. Primer for Municipal Waste water Treatment Systems (Report). Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2004. EPA 832-R-04-001..
  5. Ajay Kumar Mishra Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications, Wiley-Scrivener 2016 08033994793.ABA https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781119041214
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2
  7. Deng, Yang; Zhao, Renzun (2015-09-01). "Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) in Wastewater Treatment". Current Pollution Reports (in Turanci). 1 (3): 167–176. doi:10.1007/s40726-015-0015-z. ISSN 2198-6592.