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Hakkin Zamantakewar Jama'a

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Hakkin Zamantakewar Jama'a
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Hakkin Zamantakewa

An yarda da haƙƙin zamantakewar jama'a a matsayin haƙƙin ɗan adam, kuma an kafa haƙƙin taimakon zamantakewar al'umma ga waɗanda ba sa iya aiki saboda rashin lafiya, nakasa, haihuwa, rauni na aiki, rashin aikin yi ko tsufa. Tsarin tsaro na zamantakewar al'umma da jihohin da ke bayarwa sun hada da shirye-shiryen inshorar zamantakewar al'umma, wanda ke samar da fa'idojin ga ma'aikata da dangin su ta hanyar gudummawar aiki, da sauran su ko shirye-shiryen taimakon jin kai wanda ke samar da fa'idodin ba da gudummawa wanda aka tsara don samar da mafi karancin matakan tsaro ga zamantakewar mutane samun damar inshorar zamantakewa.

Sanarwar Duniya Game Da 'Yancin Dan Adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan 'Adam ta amince da haƙƙin zamantakewar jama'a a cikin labarai ashirin da biyu 22, wanda ke cewa:

"Kowane mutum, a matsayin memba na al'umma, yana da 'yancin walwala kuma yana da Kuma hakkin a tabbatar da shi, ta hanyar kokarin kasa da hadin kan kasa da kasa bisa tsari da albarkatun kowace Jiha, na tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu ba makawa dan mutuncinsa da kuma cigaban mutuntaka kyauta ba kosisi."

Da kuma labarai na ashirin da biyar 25, wanda ke ba da haƙƙin samun daidaito na rayuwa, yana mai faɗi cewa:

"(1) Kowane mutum na da haƙƙin rayuwa daidai gwargwado don ƙoshin lafiyar sa da jin daɗin kansa da na danginsa, gami da abinci, tufafi, muhalli da kula da lafiya da kuma hidimomin zamantakewar da ake buƙata, da kuma haƙƙin tsaro na rashin aikin yi, rashin lafiya, nakasa, zawarawa, tsufa ko kuma wasu abubuwan rashin abin yi a cikin yanayin da ya fi karfinsa. (2) Uwa da yara suna da hakkin a ba su kulawa ta musamman da taimako. Duk yara, walau an haife su a cikin aure ko ba su aure ba, suna da irin wannan kariya ta zamantakewar."

Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mataki na 9 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, kuma Zamantakewa da Al'adu (ICESCR) ta amince da 'yancin kowa da kowa ga tsaron rayuwa, gami da inshorar zamantakewar jama'a." Hakkin tabbatar da walwala da jin dadin jama'a an kara amincewa da shi a cikin Mataki na 10, wanda ya ce, "ya kamata a bai wa iyaye mata kariya ta musamman a lokacin da ya dace kafin haihuwa da bayan haihuwa. A lokacin da irin wannan lokaci na aiki iyayensu ya kamata ace ke biya izinin ko tare da isasshen jindadin jama'a amfanin." kungiyoyin jihohi na ICESCR suna da alhakin girmamawa, kiyayewa da cika haƙƙin zamantakewar jama'a. A cikin Babban Magana ba 19 (2007) Akan Hakkin Tsaro na Jama'a kwamitin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Yanci da Al'adu ya fayyace cewa 'yancin tabbatar da zamantakewar al'umma kamar yadda yake a cikin ICESCR take kunshi:

''yancin samun dama da kuma kiyaye fa'idodi, walau a cikin kudi ko kuma iri, daga (a) rashin samun kudin shiga da ya shafi aiki sakamakon rashin lafiya, nakasa, haihuwa, raunin aiki, rashin aikin yi, tsufa, ko kuma mutuwar wani dangi; ( b) rashin samun damar kulawa da lafiya; (c) rashin isassun tallafi na iyali, musamman yara da manya masu dogaro da kai."

Cigaban zamani na kasa da kasa

An fahimci tsaro na zamantakewa ya ƙunshi rassa tara masu zuwa: isasshen sabis na kiwon lafiya, fa'idodin nakasa, amfanin tsufa, fa'idodin rashin aikin yi, inshorar rauni na aiki, tallafi na iyali da na yara, fa'idodin haihuwa, kariyar nakasa, da tanadi ga masu tsira da marayu. Bangarorin jihohi na ICESCR suna da aikin cika hakkin kula da zamantakewar al'umma ta hanyar daukar "matakan da suka dace, gami da aiwatar da tsarin tsaro na zamantakewar al'umma." Dole ne jam'ian jihohi su tabbatar da cewa, "tsarin tsaro na zamantakewar jama'a zai wadatar, ya kasance mai sauki ga kowa kuma zai rufe kasada da abubuwan da ke faruwa." Har ila yau, jami'an jihohi suna da wani nauyi na sauƙaƙa haƙƙin tabbatar da tsaro ta zamantakewar jama'a ta hanyar "yarda da wannan haƙƙin a cikin tsarin siyasa da na ƙasa, zai fi dacewa ta hanyar aiwatar da dokoki" da "yin amfani da dabarun zaman lafiyar ƙasa."

Sauran abubuwan kare hakkin dan Adam na duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hakkin tabbatar da zaman lafiyar an kuma amince da shi a cikin Yarjejeniyar kawar da Duk wasu nau'ikan nuna wariyar launin fata wanda a cikin labarin na biyar ya bukaci bangarorin Jihohi dole ne su hana tare da kawar da nuna bambancin launin fata a cikin dukkan nau'ikansa, da kuma tabbatar da hakkin kowa "ba tare da bambanci ba kamar launin fata, launi, ko asalin ƙasa ko ƙabila, zuwa daidaito a gaban doka, musamman cikin jin daɗin haƙƙin lafiyar jama'a, kula da lafiya, tsaro na zamantakewa da sabis na zamantakewar jama'a." Yarjejeniyar kan kawar da duk wasu nau'ikan nuna wariya ga mata ta kunshi 'yancin tabbatar da tsaro ga mata a cikin labarin na 11, inda ya bayyana cewa mata suna da "yancin walwala da jin dadin jama'a, musamman a batun ritaya, rashin aikin yi, rashin lafiya, rashin inganta rayuwa da tsufa da sauran rashin iya aiki, da kuma 'yancin biyan hutu."

Yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Yaro ta sanya haƙƙin haƙƙin yara na zamantakewar al'umma a cikin labarin 26, yana mai faɗi cewa:

"(1) jam'iyun Jihohi za su amince wa kowane yaro haƙƙin cin gajiyar zamantakewar al'umma, gami da inshorar zamantakewar jama'a, kuma za su ɗauki matakan da suka dace don cimma cikakken haƙƙin wannan haƙƙin bisa ga dokar ƙasarsu. (2) Amfanin, inda ya dace, a ba da, la'akari da albarkatu da yanayin yaro da kuma mutanen da ke da alhakin kula da yaron, da kuma duk wani abin da ya dace da aikace-aikacen don fa'idodin da aka yi ko a madadin yaron."

Yarjejeniyar ta kara yin bayani kan hakkin yara na tsaro na zamantakewar al'umma a cikin doka ta 18 dangane da iyaye masu aiki, tana mai cewa, "Jihohin za su bayar da taimakon da ya dace ga iyaye da masu kula da harkokin shari'a wajen gudanar da ayyukan tarbiyyar yaransu kuma su tabbatar da ci gaban cibiyoyi, cibiyoyi da aiyuka don kula da yara." A cewar Yarjejeniyar "Bangarorin Jihohi za su dauki duk matakan da suka dace don tabbatar da cewa 'ya'yan iyayen da ke aiki suna da' yancin cin gajiyar ayyukan kula da yara da wuraren da suka cancanta." Mataki na 20 na Yarjejeniyar ya yi tanadi kan haƙƙin zamantakewar yara ba tare da iyaye ba, yana mai cewa "Yaro na ɗan lokaci ko na dindindin daga muhallin danginsa, ko kuma wanda ba za a bar shi ya ci gaba da zama a wannan yanayin ba, suna da damar samun kariya ta musamman da Jiha ta bayar. " Kuma cewa "Statesungiyoyin Jihohi daidai da dokokin ƙasarsu zasu tabbatar da madadin kulawa da irin wannan yaron."

Dangantaka da wasu hakkoki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hakkin tabbatar da walwala da jin dadin jama'a yana da alaqa da kuma dogaro da wasu hakkoki na tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu, musamman 'yancin samun wadataccen tsarin rayuwa, gami da 'yancin cin abinci da ' yancin mallakar gidaje 'yancin yin aiki, da 'yancin kariya na iyali. Dangane da Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya labarin 26 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa ta 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa kan nuna wariya ya shafi hakkin tsaro na zamantakewa. A cikin Babban Sharhi daga 2000 Kwamitin ya nuna haƙƙin tabbatar da zamantakewar al'umma a matsayin yanki inda mata ke yawan fuskantar wariya.

Aiwatarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya a duniya samun damar tsaro na zamantakewa yayi ƙasa kuma kashi 80 cikin ɗari na yawan mutanen duniya ba su da wata damar samun kowace irin kariya ta zamantakewar yau da kullun.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

1. Weissbrodt, David S; de la Vega, Connie (2007). International human rights law: an introduction. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8122-4032-0.

2. Weissbrodt, David S; de la Vega, Connie (2007). International human rights law: an introduction. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8122-4032-0.

3. Weissbrodt, David S; de la Vega, Connie (2007). International human rights law: an introduction. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8122-4032-0.

4. "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1966. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012.

5. Felice, William F. (2010). The global new deal: economic and social human rights in world politics. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-7425-6727-6. right to social security.