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Harshen Dinka

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Harshen Dinka
Thuɔŋjäŋ — Jieng
'Yan asalin magana
1,365,900
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-2 din
ISO 639-3 din
Glottolog dink1262[1]

Dinka (na asali Thuɔŋjäŋ</link> , Thoŋ ë Jieng</link> ko kuma kawai Jieng</link> ) gungu ne na yaren Nilotic da 'yan kabilar Dinka, wata babbar kabila ce ta Sudan ta Kudu . Akwai manyan nau'ikan iri da yawa, irin su Padang, Rek, Agaar, Ciec, Apaak, Aliep, Bor, Hol, Nyarweng, Twic East da Twic Mayardit, waɗanda suka bambanta sosai (ko da yake ana fahimtar juna) don buƙatar rarrabewa. matsayin adabi. Ana amfani da Jaang, Jieng ko Muonyjieng azaman jumla gabaɗaya don rufe duk harsunan Dinka. Kwanan nan Akutmɛ̈t Latueŋ Thuɔŋjäŋ (Ƙungiyar Cigaban Harshen Dinka) ta ba da shawarar rubutaccen nahawu na Dinka.

Harshen da ya fi dacewa da Dinka shine yaren Nuer . Harshen Luo ma suna da alaƙa da juna. Kalmomin Dinka suna nuna kusanci sosai Nubian, wanda mai yiwuwa ne saboda hulɗar zamani tsakanin mutanen Dinka da masarautar Alodia..[2]

Ana samun Dinka galibi a gefen Nilu, musamman a yammacin White Nile, babban kogi da ke gudana a arewa daga Uganda, arewa da kudancin Sudd marsh a jihar Kordofan ta Kudu ta Sudan da kuma yankin Bahr el Ghazal da Upper Nile na Sudan ta Kudu.

Abubuwan harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai alamomi guda 20:

Labari Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Hanci m n ɲ ŋ
Dakatar da p b t d c ɟ k ɡ
Fricative ɣ
Kusanci (Lateral)
j w
l
Rhotic ɾ

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dinka yana da tsarin wasula mai wadata, tare da goma sha uku na gajerun wasula masu banbanci. Akwai halaye bakwai na wasali tare da bambancin hanyoyi biyu a cikin sauti. Ƙananan, suna nuna jerin muryoyin numfashi, wanda aka wakilta a cikin rubutun Dinka ta hanyar diaereses, . Sautin da ba a san su ba suna da salo ko murya mai ƙarfi.

A gaba Komawa
fili numfashi fili numfashi
Kusa i u
Tsakanin Tsakiya da kuma o
Bude-tsakiya ɛ ɛ̤ Owu ɔ̤
Bude a

An bayyana sauti huɗu a cikin wasula na Dinka: muryar modal, muryar numfashi, muryar faucalized, da murya mai tsanani. Jerin modal yana da murya mai ƙarfi ko murya mai tsanani a wasu mahalli, yayin da wasula masu numfashi suna tsakiya kuma an bayyana su a matsayin murya mai zurfi (mai zurfi). Wannan [3] shi da alaƙa da sautin.

[3] saman wannan, akwai nau'ikan wasula guda uku, fasalin da aka samu a cikin harsuna kalilan.Yawancin tushen aikatau na Dinka guda ɗaya ne, ƙayyadaddun kalmomi tare da gajeren ko dogon wasali. Wasu jujjuyawar suna tsawaita wannan wasali:

  • /lèl/ 'keɓe\2sg'
  • /lèːl/ 'keɓewa\3sg'
  • //léːl// 'haɓaka\2sg'
  • /lèːːl/ 'haɓaka\3sg'
gajeren lokaci ràaan ā-lèl "Kana ware mutum (ràaan)."
Tsawon Lokaci ràaan ā-léel "Yana ware mutum".
Tsawon lokaci Lràaan ā-léeel "Yana tayar da mutum".

Sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amfani mai yawa da sautin da hulɗarsa da yanayin jiki alama ce ta dukkan yarukan Dinka. Harsunan Bor duk suna [3] nau'o'i huɗu a matakin syllable: Low, High, Mid, da Fall.

A cikin Bor da ya dace, sautin da ke fadowa ba a samo shi a kan gajerun wasula sai dai a matsayin juyawa don mai wucewa a cikin halin yanzu. Nyaarweng da Twïc ba a samu kwata-kwata ba. A cikin Bor da ya dace, kuma watakila a wasu yaruka, Fall an gane shi ne kawai a ƙarshen kalma. A wani wuri ya zama Babban.

A cikin Bor da ya dace kuma watakila wasu yaruka, sautin Low yana da ƙarancin sauti kawai bayan wani sautin low. A wani wuri yana fadowa, amma ba daidai da Fall ba: Ba ya zama High a tsakiyar jumla, kuma masu magana na iya rarrabe sautunan fadowa guda biyu duk da gaskiyar cewa suna da nau'ikan farar iri ɗaya. Bambancin ya bayyana a cikin lokaci: tare da Fall mutum yana jin sautin matakin da ya fadi, yayin da falling allophone na Low ya fara faduwa sannan ya tashi. [4] (Wato, daya ya fadi a kan mora na farko na wasali, yayin da ɗayan ya fadi a cikin mora na biyu.) Wannan ba sabon abu ba ne saboda an yi la'akari da cewa irin waɗannan bambance-bambance na lokaci ba su da sauti.

Yanayin Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wannan harshe yana nuna sautin sautin ko apophony, canjin sautin ciki (kamar Turanci goose / geese): [5]

Mai banbanci Yawancin mutane gloss sauya sautin
dom dum 'Yankin / filayen' (o–u)
kat kɛt 'Frams/Frams' (a–ɛ)

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana ilimin harshe sun raba Dinka zuwa harsuna biyar ko tarin yaruka daidai da wurin da suke dangane da juna:

Arewa maso gabas da yamma:

  • Padaŋ na Ayuël jiel (Abiliang, Nyiël, Ageer, D Disney).
  • Luäc (Akook, Wieu, Aguer)
  • Ŋɔŋ na Jok (Upper Nile)
  • Rut
  • Thoi

Yammacin Turai:

  • Ŋɔŋ daga Jok Athuorkok (Abiei)
  • Ŋ da Jok de Awet
  • Kuel na Ruweeng (Panaru, Aloor ku Paweny)

Kudancin Tsakiya:

  • Aliap
  • Ciëc (Jang)
  • Rubuce-rubuce
  • Agaar
  • Yirol ya yamma.

Kudu maso gabas:

  • Bor
  • Twic (Biyu)
  • Nyarweng
  • Hol

Kudu maso yamma:

  • Malual-Jinyaaɛrŋ (Abiëm, Pali %, Aroyo, Paliëupiny ku Pajok)
  • Luänyjäŋ
  • Twic Bol

Rek

  • Ruwa da kuma
  • Apuk
  • Awan Cän ku Awan Mɔ̈u
  • Kwac Aiki
  • Abiëm Mayar
  • Abubuwan da suka faru
  • Nöi Ayii
  • Nyaŋ Aköc
  • Atok Buk
  • Ler Akën
  • Awan Parek
  • Lɔn Ariik
  • LON LOKWAN
  • Kɔŋgör Arop
  • Apuk Padɔc
  • Muɔk Aköt Wut
  • Yär Ayiɛɛi
  • Apuk Jurwiir
  • Ya yi amfani da shi
  • Luäny Malek
  • Ya kamata ya zama mai suna "Kyakkyawan"
  • Thïïk / Thïŋ Majɔk
  • Kɔŋ-ŋör Akuëcbɛ̈ny
  • Birni ya kasance
  • Adöör Mabior
  • Bäc


Wadannan za su kasance masu fahimta da juna idan ba don muhimmancin sautin a cikin juyin halittar ba, kamar yadda aikin sautin ya bambanta daga iri zuwa wani.

Dubi taswirar kan layi na Ethnologue na Sudan don wuraren yaruka.

Tsarin rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An rubuta Dinka tare da haruffa Latin da yawa tun farkon karni na 20. Harshen haruffa na yanzu shine:

a ä b c d dh e ë ɛ̈ g ɣ i ï j k l m n nh ny ŋ t th u w o ö ɔ̈ p r y

Bambance-bambance a wasu haruffa sun hada da:

Harafin yanzu Sauran hanyoyin
ɛ
ė ("e" tare da maɓalli a saman)
ɣ
h, x, q
ŋ
ng
ɔ
Xi ("o" tare da maɓalli a saman)

Aleu Majok Aleu ya kirkiro haruffa na Dinka wanda ya danganci Rubutun Nilerian

A cikin 2020 Deng Chol ya gabatar da sabon tsarin rubuce-rubucen Dinka (Nilotic Script), an haɓaka sabon rubutun daga tsohuwar tsarin rubucewar Meroëtic,

Rubutun samfurin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mataki na 1 na Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Dinka: Rana a cikin N'Abin da ke cikin N'abin da ke da alaƙa da N'afin da ke cikin n'abin. 

Turanci: Dukkanin 'yan adam an haife su da 'yanci kuma daidai da mutunci da haƙƙoƙi.  Suna da hankali da lamiri kuma ya kamata suyi aiki da juna cikin ruhun 'yan uwantaka.

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  • Mutanen Dinka
  • Harsunan Nilo-Sahara

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Dinka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Beswick 2004.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Remijsen" defined multiple times with different content
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. After Bauer 2003:35

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]