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Harshen Nilotic

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Harshen Nilotic
Linguistic classification
Glottolog nilo1247[1]

Harsunan Nilotic rukuni ne na harsuna masu alaƙa da ake magana a fadin yanki mai faɗi tsakanin Sudan ta Kudu da Tanzania ta Mutanen Nilotic.

Magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar Nilotic tana nufin alaƙa da Kogin Nilu ko yankin Nilu na Afirka.

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Nilotic, waɗanda suke magana da harsuna, sun yi ƙaura daga yankin Gezira a Sudan. Masu magana yaren Nilotic suna zaune a wasu sassan Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo, Habasha, Kenya, Sudan, Sudan ta Kudu, Tanzania da Uganda.

Rarrabawar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar masanin harshe Joseph Greenberg, dangin harshe ya kasu kashi uku:

  • Harsunan Nilotic na Gabas kamar Turkana da Maasai
  • Harsunan Kudancin Nilotic kamar Kalenjin da Datooga
  • Harsunan Yammacin Nilotic kamar su Luo, Nuer da Dinka

sake rarraba Greenberg, an yi amfani da Nilotic don komawa ga Yammacin Nilotic kadai, tare da sauran biyun da aka haɗa su a matsayin harsunan "Nilo-Hamitic"..

Blench (2012) yana bi da yarukan Burun a matsayin rukuni na huɗu na Nilotic . [2] A cikin rarrabuwa da suka gabata, an haɗa harsunan a cikin yarukan Luo. [3]Starostin (2015) yana bi da yarukan Mabaan-Burun a matsayin "West Nilotic" amma a waje da matakin Luo.

Sake ginawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fiye da tushen ƙamus na Proto-Nilotic 200 Dimmendaal ya sake gina su (1988). [4]Dimmendaal ya sake gina sassan proto Nilotic kamar haka:

Labari Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi
Plosive ba tare da murya ba p t c k (q)
murya b d (ɟ) ɡ
Fricative s ʀ
Ba a yarda da shi ba ɓ ɗ ʄ
Hanci m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Hanyar gefen l
Kusanci j w

Lambobin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwatanta lambobi a cikin harsuna daban-daban:

Rarraba Harshe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Gabas, Bari Bari ɡɛ́lɛ́ŋ Mʊ́rɛ́k Sai dai ɪŋwàn Mʊkánat Bunker Búrillo Boudö́k Bʊŋwàn Puwö́k
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxos-Maa, Lotuxon Lopit F/ M nàbóìtóì / lòbóìtóí Hoto, Arik Hanyar da ake kira "LON" Lóŋwán mìyét (litː < 'hannu') Rashin lafiya hatarik (5 + 2) hotohunɪk (5 + 3) hotoŋwan (5 + 4) Tunanin
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxos-Maa, Lotuxon Lotuho (Lotuxo) (1) Abokan hulɗa Arhehehe húníhe Áŋwàn mìyyàt (litː < 'hannu') A cikin shekara Halitmɪk (5 + 2) Shukudu (5 + 3) Shukudu (5 + 4) Tomin
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxos-Maa, Lotuxon Lotuho (Lotuxo) (2) ʌ́bóíté / âbotye ʌ́ríxèy / árrexai xúnixòì / xunixoi Shiƙo míèt < 'hannu' A cikin shekara Xattark (5 + 2) xóttóxúnìk (5 + 3) Hanyar (5 + 4) Tunani
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxos-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Maasai nabô (mata), obô (mask), nebô (wuri) aré (mace), aàre/ɔáre (mask) uní (mace), okúni (mace) oŋwán (mace), oóŋwan (mace) ciki ílɛ̂ / íllɛ̂ naápishana (f.), oópishana (m.) ya kasance < Kalenjin naáudo (mace), oódó (mask) Tunanin < Kalenjin
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxos-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Samburu naɓô (mata), oɓô (mace), noɓô (wuri) aré (mace), waáre (mask) uní (mace), okúni (mace) a kan Qatar (fem), a kan Qatar Ina jin daɗin / Ina jin daɗin ka yi amfani da shi sápâ Ƙasashen waje da Kalenjin Sál: tômôn < Kalenjin
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Teso (Ateso) (1) Rashin lafiya ìɑɾè Iwúní Ivonon íkɑ̀ɲ íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂pè (5 + 1) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂ɾè (5 + 2) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂wùní (5 + 3) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂wòŋòn (5 + 4) hoton
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Teso (Ateso) (2) -diope -arèy - (w) Ainihin -oŋôn -kaɲ < 'hannu' kaɲ kape (5 + 1) kaɲ karey (5 + 2) kaɲ kauni (5 + 3) kaɲ kaoŋon (5 + 4) Tunani
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Karamojong (Dodotho) (1) ɲípéí Jagiyaréí ŋúúní ŋóómwán ŋíkan (< hannu) ŋíkan ka péí (5 + 1) ŋíkan ka arií (5 + 2) ŋíkan ka úní (5 + 3) ŋíkan ko ómwán (5 + 4) ŋítomón
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Karamojong (2) ɛpei Zan yi amfani da shi Marubucin Sai a lõkacin da ya zama ŋikan < hannu ŋíkàn kà-pei (5 + 1) ŋíkàn kà-arei (5 + 2) ŋíkàn kà-uni (5 + 3) ŋíkàn kà-omwɔn (5 + 4) ŋítɔ́mɔ́n
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Nyangatom A-Pey Abin da ya faru Daɗaɗen ƙanƙara Abin da ya faru shi ne ŋa-kànɪ (litː hannu) Maɗaukaki-ka-pey (5 + 1) Maɗaukaki-ka-arey (5 + 2) Maɗaukaki-ka-uni (5 + 3) Maɗaukaki-maɗaukaki ka-omwɔn (5 + 4) Magana-mace
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Toposa Ƙasar Arei Yanayi na yau da kullun Oŋwɔ́n Ya kamata a yi amfani da shi Ya kamata a yi amfani da shi (5 + 1) Ya kamata ya yi amfani da shi (5 + 2) Ya kamata a yi amfani da shi (5 + 3) Ya kamata ya yi niyya (5 + 4) Tunanin
Gabas, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Turkana A-Pey Abin da ya faru Yana da ƙanƙanta Magana-goma Ƙarƙashin ƙanƙara Maɗaukaki-ka-paye (5 + 1) Maɗaukaki-maɗaukaki-Maɗaukaki (5 + 2) Maɗaukaki-ka-uní (5 + 3) Maɗaukaki-maɗaukaki-Maɗaukaki (5 + 4) Magana-mace
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Elgon Kupsabiny (Sebei) aɡeenɡe [yawunːŋkɛ] äyëëny [ɑréːɲ] sömök [sómok] anɡʼwan [aŋwán] müüt [múːt] müüt äk aɡeenɡe [múːt ɑk 1:1́ːŋkɛ] müüt äk äyëëny (5 + 2) müüt äk sömök (5 + 3) müüt äk anɡʼwan (5 + 4) taman [kamar]
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Elgon Sabaot (Yaren Koony) akeenke [aɡɛ́ːŋɡɛ] āyēēnɡʼ [ɑyéːŋ] Jiki [sómok] anɡʼwan [aŋwán] mūūt / mut [múːt] [Lɑ] Tsab [tɪ́sap] [sɪːt] sokool [sɑ́kɑːl] taman [kamar]
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Markweta Cherang'any akɛ́́́́ŋkɛ́ Kayan abinci sauti Aŋwaan Kawai rh̀ tɪsáp Sites sʌ́ɡʌ́l Tamil
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Markweta Endo (Marakwet) Harkokin da za a iya yi amfani da shi Juyanci: son ɒŋwɒn mùːt R8 Tɪ́sɔ́p sisíːt sɔkɔːl Tɒmɒn
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Keiyo akɛŋɡɛ̂ / aɛŋɡɛ́̂ aɛ́ːŋ /aɛ́ːɲ Sa'ad da aka yi amfani da shi aŋwàn mʊːt Rashin jituwa tɪ́sâp sɪ́sɪ́t Sa'ad da aka yi amfani da shi Tamil
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Tugen A cikin harshen Ingilishi da aka yi amfani da shi son aɲwán Kawai Lobo kawuna Sisyit Sovétríkin Taman
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Okiek Akie (Okiek) Bayyanawa Aikin somok Shi'a Mʊt Rashin wuta napíʃana ya kasance abubuwan da ke ciki girman
Kudancin, Kalenjin, Pokot Pökoot (Suk) a cikin shekara Oɣë̀ŋ / òdë̀ŋ Sa'ma'k aŋwân Mushu Muut ŋɡɔ́ zuwa Kkoɔ́ Мәсих (5 + 1) múut ŋɡɔ́ òdë̀ŋ (5 + 2) múut ŋɡɔ́ sä́mä́k (5 + 3) múut ŋɡɔ́ aŋwân (5 + 4) Ya kasance a cikin
Kudancin, Tatoga Asimjeeg Datooga (1) àkàlɛːlɛ̀ / ák / (àqàlɛːɛː) A cikin jituwa sàmòɡw aŋwàn mùːt a nan Isːpo Sires ʃàɡàʃ daaman
Kudancin, Tatoga Datooga (2) Fitar da shi A cikin shekara Sɑ́mɑ́ɡu Ƙarshen Mʊʊt Lɑ́ a cikinta girgizar ƙasa ʃɑ́ɡɛ́ʃ dɑ́nɑ́mʊ́ʊ́ʃ
Kudancin, Tatoga Datooga (3) ʔàɡi Iyerya da Slumin da aka yi ʔàŋwàn mùuti ~ bánàakta mùuti A nan ìsbà ~ isbwà Sires ~ Sires ʃàɡèeʃ ~ ʃà damáná múqùuʃ
Yammacin, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka Dinka Agaar Sunubi rɔ́w dják ŋʊ̀wân ðíɟ ðɛ́em ðɜ́rʊ́w Sunan da ake kira ðɔŋʊ́wàn t̪íjàːr
Yammacin, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka Dinka Padang Ya shafi Row Dayan da aka yi ŋwán d̪yìc d̪etém d̪ɔ́v Tsarin mulki d̪ɔŋwán t̪ɛ́r
Yammacin, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Nuer (1) Kafin: Rashin Rashin Rashi dɪjɔ̂k ŋʊ́wǎn ðɪ́jɛ̀ɟ bakɛ́l (5 + 1) ba'a (5 + 2) bɛdak (5 + 3) bɜ́ŋʊ́wǎn (5 + 4) wɜːl
Yammacin, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Nuer (2) Mashin restaurant dyɔ̌k ŋwán d̪yac Bʌ́kɛ́l (5 + 1) Bʌʹw (5 + 2) Bʌʹṇaʹaʹa (5 + 3) Bʌŋwan (5 + 4) Cutar ta kasance
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Anuak Anuak (Anyua) (1) Acíɛ́l Aríyɔ̀ har ma da aŋwɛ́́́́n Abinci abícìɛ́l (5+ 1) abíríyɔ̀ (5+ 2) abar (5+ 3) abíŋwɛɛ́n (5+ 4) Abincin abinci
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Anuak Anuak (2) ƙarfe / acíɛl Aryanci / Aryanci An yi amfani da shi aŋween / aŋwɛ́ɛn Abíʹc / abíɟ bude / abícíɛl (5+ 1) Abariyya (5+ 2) Baƙo / Abʌ́rʌ́ (5+ 3) Abin da aka yi amfani da shi (5+ 4) apaar / kasaar
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Bor belanda Bor Ya ce: Ya ce: Sa'ad da aka haifa A cikinsa a watan Abinci Abinci kúkɛl (5+ 1) abíc kúrɛ̂w (5+ 2) Aikin ya kwanta (5+ 3) abíc kúŋwɛ̂n (5+ 4) Afaàr
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Jur Luwo Aciɛ́́́́ Sanyi Ya kamata a yi amfani da shi Aŋwɛ̄ːn a cikin shekara ta Abiciɛ̄l (5 + 1) Aberyōw (5 + 2) Sashen waje (5 + 3) Abɛŋwɛ̄ːn (5 + 4) āpāːr
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Mabaan-Burun, Burun Burun (Mayak) Hanyar da za a yi amfani da ita Nayan abinci ɖʌk /ɖʌ̄k ŋan / ŋān d̪oc / dōoc __hau__ Dauka / dauka ŋat̪ukɛl / ŋàtúkɛ́l ŋunu / makirci ɟucukɛl / ɲùcúkɛ́l caac / caac
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan Mabaan c yawun Ojja da sha'awa ɗ ɗ ɗ ɗõõõṍ́́́ ŋáánɔ́ d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ́́́ d̪ɔ́yɔ́lin nè cyɛ́lɔ́ (5 + 1) d̪ɔ́yɔ́́ wítkɛ́n nè ốwɔ́ (5 + 2) d̪ɔ́yɔ́́ wítkɛ́n nè ɗɔ́ɡɔ́ (5 + 3) d̪ɔ́yɔ́ wítkɛ́n nè ŋáánɔ́ (5 + 4) ínyáákkɛ̀n (lit: hannaye biyu)
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Shilluk Shilluk àkjɛ̀l Aɾjɛ̀w A ce akwai wani abu da ake kira Aŋwɛ́n Abis ábîkjɛ̀l (5 + 1) abìɾjɛ̀w (5 + 2) Abidèk (5 + 3) ábîŋwɛ́n (5 + 4) Pjáár
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Thuri Thuri ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta aríòw Aiki Aŋ tare da abííc mai zurfi (5+ 1) Aikin Ibrananci (5+ 2) Aikin Afirka (5+ 3) abíc bə́ŋwɛ́ɛn (5+ 4) Apaàr
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Ba a rarraba su ba Päri (Lokoro) (1) Yankin da aka yi amfani da shi Yankin da ba a yi amfani da shi ba Adoɡó Aŋwɛ́nɔ́ Abìd͡ʒɔ́ Abin da ya fi (5+ 1) Aikin ya fi (5+ 2) ábʌ̄rà (5+ 3) Abunēnɔ́ (5+ 4) Apàr
Yamma, Luo, Arewa, Ba a rarraba su ba Päri (Lokoro) (2) a makarantar sakandare, an dauki aryo, ireek adöɡo, ɡala Shi'a abijo, kunat abicyelo (5+ 1), bukel Abiryo (5+ 2), abidö̈ɡo, aböra (5+ 3), bodök abuŋweno (5+ 4), buŋwan bayyana
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Adhola Adhola (1) Rashin sararin samaniya Rashin jituwa An kashe shi Ƙarshen Farko: c Farko (5+ 1) ɑ́bírîo (5+ 2) ɑbôːrò (5+ 3) ɑbúŋwèn (5+ 4) Ƙarshen Ƙarshen
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Adhola Adhola (2) Acíɛl Arió Adeék Aŋ tare da a cikin ƙasa awúciɛ̄l (5+ 1) abíirò (5+ 2) abɔ́ɔrò (5+ 3) àbúŋwɛ́n (5+ 4) apāar
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Kumam Kumam Yankin da aka yi amfani da shi An cire shi Rashin òŋwɔ́n Rubuce-rubuce Ƙididdigar ƙididdiga (5 + 1) kɑ̄ɲ̀ré (5 + 2) kɑ̄ɲ̀wūní (5 + 3) Tarihin Kristi (5 + 4) Tunanin
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Achoли, Alur Alur a sanarwa Aríɔ́ har ma aŋùén a cikin ƙasa abúcìɛ́l (5+ 1) Abívure (5+ 2) Aboônà (5+ 3) Abúŋwɛ̄n (5+ 4) Apáàr
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Achoли, Acholi (Labwor) a baya Ariò har ma aŋwɛ̂n a cikin ƙasa abícíèl (5+ 1) abíìrɔ́ (5+ 2) aboôrà (5+ 3) àbúŋwɛ́n (5+ 4) Apáàr
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Achoли, Acholi Yarda da ita Rashin jituwa har ma daêk aŋwɛ̂n a cikin ƙasa abícɛ́l (5 + 1) abíryɔ́ (5 + 2) àbórò (5 + 3)?? abóŋwɛ́n (5 + 4) Sai a baya
Yamma, Luo, Kudancin, Luo-Acholi, Luo Dholuo a sanarwa Aríɔ́ har ma aŋùén a cikin ƙasa aúcìɛ́l (5+ 1) abíríɔ (5+ 2) aborô Octociko Apáàr

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙarin karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/nilo1247 |chapterurl= missing title (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Roger Blench (2012) Nilo-Saharan language list
  3. George Starostin (2015) The Eastern Sudanic hypothesis tested through lexicostatistics: current state of affairs (Draft 1.0)
  4. Dimmendaal, Gerrit Jan. 1988.
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Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]