Jump to content

Harshen Ta

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harshen Ta
'Yan asalin magana
4,200
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 nmn
Glottolog taaa1242[1]
Samfurin rubutun

Yau /ˈtɑː/ TAH, wanda aka fi sani da ːXóõ /ˈkOʊ/ [2] KOH (kuma an rubuta shi ːKhong da ːCoon;   pronunciation: [1] yaren Tuu ne wanda aka fi sani da yawan sautin sa, watakila mafi girma a duniya. [3]  Har ila yau sanan[4] ne don samun watakila nauyin aiki mafi nauyi na ƙididdigar dannawa, tare da ƙididdiga ɗaya gano cewa kashi 82% na abubuwan ƙamus na asali sun fara da dannawa. Yawancin masu magana suna zaune a Botswana, amma 'yan daruruwan suna zaune a Namibia. Mutanen suna kiran kansu ŌXoon (pl. ŌXooŋake) ko ʼNõhan (pl. Nõumde), dangane da yaren da suke magana. Harsunan Tuu suna ɗaya daga cikin iyalai uku na gargajiya waɗanda suka zama yarukan Khoisan. A shekara ta 2011, akwai kusan masu magana da Taa 2,500.

[5]Taa ita ce kalmar 'mutum'; ǃXoon yankin na yaren shine Taa Ōaan (Tâa Ōã), daga Ōaan 'harshe'. Shaan wani suna ne da ake amfani da shi a bangarorin da ke tsakanin yankin Taa, amma ba masu magana da Taa ba. Yawancin masu magana da harshen Taa sune kabilanci (da yawa) ko 'N'hanhan (da yawa). [6]

Taa tana da halaye da yawa tare da Yammacin Yamma da Gī, waɗanda tare ake la'akari da su wani ɓangare na Kalahari Basin sprachbund .

Har zuwa lokacin da aka sake gano wasu tsofaffin masu magana da yaren Nīng a cikin shekarun 1990, an yi la'akari da Taa a matsayin memba na ƙarshe da ya tsira na dangin yaren Tuu.

Wata yarinya 'yar Namibia, tana magana a Taa, tana tattauna bikin farawa

Akwai isasshen bambancin yare a cikin Taa cewa ana iya bayyana shi da kyau a matsayin ci gaba da yaren fiye da yare ɗaya. Harsunan Taa sun fada cikin kungiyoyi biyu, suna ba da shawarar yaduwar tarihi daga yamma zuwa gabas: [7]

  • Yammacin Taa: Yammacin Anthony Traill da Yammacin Dorothea Bleek
  • Gabas Taa
    • An yi amfani da ita a Yamma
    • (Gabas)
      • Gabas ta Tsakiya
      • Tsaasi-Huan
        • Tsaasi
        • Wannan shi ne Huan

Traill ya yi aiki da farko tare da Gabas, kuma aikin DoBeS yana aiki tare da ʼNāhan (a Gabas Taa) da Yamma.

Sauran sunaye

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harsuna daban-daban da kungiyoyin zamantakewa na Taa, sunayensu da yawa, rashin amintaccen rubutun da aka samu a cikin wallafe-wallafen, da kuma gaskiyar cewa ana iya raba sunaye tsakanin harsuna kuma an rarraba yarukan, ya haifar da rikice-rikice mai yawa. (1974), alal misali, ya shafe surori biyu na Cikakken Jagoransa zuwa Koon [sic] yana rarraba sunaye da yaruka.

Ana amfani da Sunuin ne kawai a Aminius Reserve a Namibia, a kusa da itacen Lone inda Traill ya fara aiki, da kuma a Dzutshwa (Botswana). Duk da haka, ana amfani da shi ta hanyar XiXoon ga duk masu magana da Taa. An rubuta shi a hanyoyi daban-daban, Khong, da kuma Koon.

An rubuta yaren Bleek a cikin yaren, a cikin yarin, a cikin, a cikin. Har ila yau, an kira shi da kalmar Khoekhoe mai rikitarwa Nīusan (Nīu-san, Nīu, Nīhu, Nīhusi), wani lokacin ana fassara shi Nusan ko Noosan, wanda aka yi amfani da shi ga wasu harsuna a yankin. An san wani rukuni da suna Koon [kɔ̃ː]. Wannan yaren a bayyane ya ƙare.t [kɔ̃ː]

Westphal ya yi nazarin yaren yaren yarin yaren yaron yaren yarun yaren yaran yaren yarens yaren yarn yaren yarensu yaren yar yaren yarensa yaren yarinyar yaren yares yaren yarense yaren yarel yaren yar. Koyaya, kalmar ba ta da tabbas tsakanin Taa (Yammacin) da kuma East), kuma saboda wannan dalili Traill ya zaɓi kiran yaren.

Yaren Tsaasi yayi kama da na Xihu, kuma kamar na Xihuhu, ana amfani da sunan a bayyane don yaren Xihuhuhu. Wannan sunan Tswana ne, wanda aka fassara shi daban-daban Tshasi, Tshase, Tʃase, TSase, Sasi, da Sase.

Kalmar Tswana ga Bushmen, Masarwa, ana haɗuwa da ita akai-akai. Mafi takamaiman ga Taa sune Magon (Magong) da Tshasi da aka ambata a sama.

Taa sun bambanta kansu tare da aƙalla wasu ƙungiyoyin da ke sama. Kamar yawancin mutanen San, suna kuma bambanta kansu ta yanayin da suke zaune a ciki (mutane na fili, mutanen kogi, da sauransu), da kuma ta hanyar shugabanci. Trail yana ba da rahoto kamar haka: :

ǃama ʘʔâni "masu yamma"
Shahã "masu kudu"
ʘqhōa ʘʔâni "a tsakanin"
"Mutanen da ke da tsarki"

Heinz ya ba da rahoton cewa Sagan Sashin SalanAn yi amfani da shi a matsayin mai ǃxoia.

Taa suna magana ne game da yarensu a matsayin tâa Ōã "harshen mutane". Westphal (1971) ya karɓi kalmar tâa "mutum" a matsayin sunan dangin yaren Kudancin Khoisan, wanda yanzu ake kira Tuu . [8] [9] Gabas don yaren ce ta Ibrananci. 

Fasahar sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taa yana da aƙalla ƙamus 58, wasula 31, da sautuna huɗu (Traill 1985, 1994 a Gabas), ko aƙalla 87 consonants, wasula 20, da sautunan biyu (DoBeS 2008 a Yamma), ta hanyar mutane da yawa sun ƙidaya mafi yawan kowane sanannen harshe idan wasula ban da wasula na baki an ƙidaya kamar yadda ya bambanta da wasula masu dacewa na baki. [Littafi na 1]Wadannan sun hada da 20 (Traill) ko 43 (DoBeS) danna consonants da kuma sauti wasali da yawa, kodayake ra'ayoyi sun bambanta game da wane daga cikin 130 (Traill), ko 164 (DoBe S) sautunan sautunan sassan ne guda ɗaya kuma waɗanda su ne tarin sautunan.

[á]Anthony Traill ya bayyana sautuna huɗu don yaren Gabas: high [á], mid [ā], low [à], da [à] tsakiyar faduwa [â]. Alamu don tushe na bisyllabic sun haɗa da high-high, tsakiyar-tsakiya, tsakiyar-takiya, da low-low. DoBeS ya bayyana kawai nau'o'i biyu, sama da ƙasa, don yaren Yamma. Ta hanyar nazarin kowane tushe a matsayin bimoraic, ana tsara sautunan Traill guda huɗu a kan [á], [àá], [à], da [á]. kamar Traill ba, Naumann bai sami bambancin hanyoyi huɗu a kan siffofin harshe na monomoraic a cikin bayanan Gabas ba.

Baya [9] sautin ƙamus, Traill ya bayyana sunayen Gabas kamar yadda suka fada cikin nau'ikan sautin guda biyu bisa ga waƙoƙin da aka haifar a kan morphemes na kwaskwarima da kalmomin wucewa: ko dai matakin (Tone Class I) ko faɗuwa (Tone class II). Sunayen abu mai wucewa daga Tone Class I suna haifar da sautin tsakiya / tsakiya a cikin kalmomin wucewa, yayin da abubuwa na Tone Class 2 ke da alaƙa da kowane sautin sautin. Naumann ya sami sakamako iri ɗaya a cikin yaren gabas na ʼNāhanhan .

Sautin sautin

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taa yana da halaye biyar na wasali, [[a e i o u]]. Bayanan Traill da DoBeS sun bambanta a cikin sauti na waɗannan wasula; ba a bayyane yake ba idan wannan yana nuna bambancin yare ko bambancin bincike.

Gabas ta Tsakiya

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Traill ya bayyana sautin yaren Gabas kamar yadda yake a fili, murmured, ko kuma Glotalized. [a o u] kuma Sanya iya yin amfani da shi da kuma murmushi, da kuma faringealized 意a o o o strident ('sphincteric') 意a. [a u] na iya zama duka pharyngealized da glottalized, don wasula 26 ba tare da ƙidaya nasalization ko tsawon ba.

Sautin murmushi bayan sautin da aka bayyana ya bambanta da sautin da ba a bayyana ba bayan sautin masu son, da kuma sautin da ya dace da sautin, don haka waɗannan sautin sautin ne kuma ba daidaitawa da sautin saurin ba.

Sautin na iya zama tsawo ko gajere, amma sautin tsawo na iya zama jerin maimakon sautin daban-daban. Sauran jerin sautin - wanda aka fi sani da diphthongs - ba tare da la'akari da ƙarin rikitarwa na phonation ba, sune [ai, ae, ao, au, oi, oe, oa, ou, ui, ue, ua].

Duk sautunan da ba a bayyana ba za a iya yin amfani da su. Babu wani sauti da za a iya sanya shi a cikin nasa, amma nasalization yana faruwa a hade tare da wasu phonations a matsayin wasali na biyu na jerin ("tsawon wasali" ko "diphthong"). Wadannan jerin suna canzawa ta hanyar yaren tare da wasula tare da hanci. Wato, sunan na iya zama a cikin yaren, kuma wannan na iya zama phonemically /kōxóɲ/, tunda [ɲ] ba ya faruwa a ƙarshe. Koyaya, wannan ba zai iya bayyana gajerun wasula na hanci ba, don haka Taa yana da aƙalla wasula 31.

An rubuta do lokaci, mai laushi, mai murmushi, mai launi tare da sautin da ke fadowa. An rubuta do lokaci, mai tsayi mai tsayi tare da sautin ƙasa, tun da yake Traill yayi nazarin tsayi kamar yadda ake murmushi. (Lura cewa phonetically wadannan ne daban-daban phonations.)

Yammacin Yamma (DoBeS)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

DoBeS ya bayyana sautin yaren Yammacin Xoon a matsayin bayyane, a e i o u; nasalized, an en a kan un; epiglottalized ko pharyngealized, aq eq aq iq uq;; strident, aqh eqh iqh oqh uqh; da glottalized ko 'tense', aʼ eʼ iʼ oʼ uʼʼʼʼ.

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taa ba sabon abu ba ne a ba da izinin yin amfani da murya a cikin sassanta. Wadannan an bincika su a matsayin masu ba da labari, amma kuma a matsayin tarin ƙamus. Lokacin da homorganic, kamar a cikin [dt], irin waɗannan tarin an jera su a cikin ginshiƙi da ke ƙasa.

Harshen Taa yana da rikitarwa, kuma ba a bayyana yadda yawancin bambancin da ke tsakanin yarukan yake da gaske ba kuma yadda kayan tarihi ne na bincike.

Gabas ta Tsakiya

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Yaren Gabas: Ba a danna su ba (Traill 2018) [10]
Labari Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri
Dakatar da / Africate
Afríku
murya b dz (ɟ) ɡ Wannan shi ne[yanki]
An yi amfani da shi (p) ts k q ʔ
murya mara murya (ph) t̪h tsh kh A farkon shekara
mai son rai Ƙarshen ƙira Tunatarwa (Guyyar da za a yi amfani da ita) (Shin)
ya lalace () t̪χ tsχ
da aka yi amfani da shi ˬd̥χ ˬd̥sχ
murya mara murya (t̪ʼ) tsʼ (kʼ) (qʼ)
Rukunin fitarwa[note 1] (pʼkχʼ) t̪ʼkχʼ tsʼkχʼ kxʼ
mai fitarwamurya mai fitarwa ˬd̪̊'kχ' ˬd̥s'kχ' ˬɡ̊x'
Fricative (f) s x (h)
Hanci murya m -ɲ-
Glotalized Sanya An tsara shi
Sauran -β- -l- -j-

Consonants a cikin parentheses suna da wuya.

Hanci [ɲ] kawai yana faruwa tsakanin wasula, kuma [ŋ] kawai kalma a ƙarshe (kuma kawai a wasu yaruka, don abin da wasula na hanci suke a wasu wurare), don haka waɗannan na iya zama allophones. [β], [l], [j] kuma yana faruwa ne kawai a matsayi na tsakiya, sai dai cewa na ƙarshe shine allophone na farko mai ban mamaki [ɟ]. [dʒ] da [w] (ba a cikin teburin ba) suna faruwa a cikin rance, galibi Turanci.

Taa ya zama abin mamaki a cikin samun maganganun murya. , wanda yake wani ɓangare na wannan sprachbund kamar Taa, yana da murya mai gauraye a cikin [d͡tʰ, d͡tʃʰ, d͡tsʼ] .

Taa na iya samun sautuna 83 da suka fi rikitarwa, idan aka bincika dannawa masu rikitarwa a matsayin tarin. Idan aka ba da rikitarwa da aka nuna a cikin ma'anar da ba a danna ba, ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa ya kamata a bincika yawancin dannawar Taa a matsayin ma'aurata. Koyaya, akwai wasu muhawara ko waɗannan ainihin tarin ne; duk harsunan da ba na Khoisan ba a duniya waɗanda ke da tarin suna ba da damar tarin tare da sonorants kamar r, l, w, j (kamar yadda yake a cikin itacen Ingilishi, barci, sauti, alama), kuma wannan ba ya faruwa a Taa.

Akwai maganganu guda biyar: Bilabal, dental, lateral, alveolar, da palatal. Akwai jerin goma sha tara, sun bambanta da sauti, hanya, da rikitarwa (duba Yanayin iska). Wadannan cikakkun ma'anar al'ada ne a cikin Taa, kuma hakika an fi son su fiye da wadanda ba dannawa ba a matsayin farko na kalma.

Yaren Gabas: Danna ma'anar (Traill 2018) [10]
Sautin murya 'soki' dannawa' hanya, tare da mai magana ko bambancin yare Nazarin rukuni na DoBeS
[11] Miller (2011) [1]
Bilabal hakora gefen alveolar baki
Ya ce: Ya ce: Ya ce: Ya ce: Ya ce: Rashin ƙarfi [k] saki kꞰ
Aiki ne Aiki ne Aiki ne Aiki ne Aiki ne Muryar murya [ɡ] a duk lokacin da aka riƙe danna ɡꞰ ᶢꞰ
ʘq ǀq ǁq ǃq ǂq An sake shi azaman tsayarwa na tenuis uvular [q] wanda aka jinkirta sosai fiye da sakin dannawa kꞰ + q Ʞ͜q
ɴʘɢ ɴǀɢ ɴǁɢ ɴǃɢ ɴǂɢ Prenasalized, tare da fitowar uvular da aka yi amfani da ita[Sanya] kꞰ + ɢ ᶢꞰ͜ɢ
ɡʘh ɡǀh ɡǁh ɡǃh ɡǂh Jagoran murya tare da jinkirin burin (jagoran murya mai sauƙi) ɡꞰ + qʰ ᶢꞰʱ
ʘqʰ ǀqʰ ǁqʰ ǃqʰ Cineradiology ya nuna cewa magana da gaske uvular ne [qʰ] Sanya + qh ? * Ʞ͜qʰ
(Sai) (Sai) (Sai) (Sai) "Prenasalization tare da uvular nasal da kuma taƙaitaccen dakatarwar uvular kafin dannawa, [Sanya] ya biyo bayan dakatarwar uvuular mai aspirated" ɡꞰ + ɢqʰ ᶢꞰ͜ɢʱ
ʘx kǀχ kǁχ kǃχ kǂχ Rashin murya mai suna [kx] release, mai yawa fricative kꞰ + x Ʞ͜qχ
ɡʘχ ɡǀχ ɡǁχ ɡǃχ ɡǂχ Jagoran murya wanda ya ƙare kafin a saki danna, kamar ɡkx. A wasu yaruka, ana furta su a ko'ina: ɡꞰ + x ᶢꞰ͜ɢʁ
ʘkχʼ ǀkχʼ ǁkχʼ ǃkχʼ ǂkχʼ An sake shi cikin [kχʼ] ko [kʼq], dangane da yaren kꞰ + kxʼ Ʞ͜kxʼ
ɡʘkχʼ ɡǀkχʼ ɡǁkχʼ ɡǃkχʼ ɡǂkχʼ Jagoran murya, [kχʼ] ko [kʼq] saki ɡꞰ + kxʼ ᶢꞰ͜kxʼ
kʘˀ kǀˀ kǁˀ kǃˀ kǂˀ Saki shiru, sannan bayan jinkiri ta hanyar sakin dakatarwar ƙuƙwalwa [ʔ] kꞰ + ʔ ᵑꞰˀ
ʘqʼ ǀqʼ ǁqʼ ǃqʼ ǂqʼ An sake shi a matsayin wanda ba a buga shi ba [qʼ] Ʞ͜qʼ
n̥ʘ n̥ǀ n̥ǁ n̥ǃ n̥ǂ Rashin iska na hanci [ŋ̊] a duk lokacin da aka riƙe danna ŋ̊Ʞ ᵑ̊Ʞ
Muryar iska ta hanci [ŋ] a duk lokacin da aka riƙe danna ŋꞰ ᵑꞰ
ʔnʘ ʔnǀ ʔnǁ ʔnǃ ʔnǂ Preglottalized nasal [[[[[[[[[]]], "mafi kyawun an bayyana shi azaman dannawa da aka ɗora akan jerin [ʔŋ] ... sakin dannawa nan da nan bayan ɗan gajeren lokaci na [ŋ]" kꞰ + mˀ/nˀ ˀᵑꞰ
ɴ̥ʘh ɴ̥ǀh ɴ̥ǁh ɴ̥ǃh ɴ̥ǂh [12] jinkiri: saki marar ji ya biyo bayan burin karuwa. kꞰ + h ᵑ̊Ʞʰ

Aikin DoBeS yana ɗaukar nazarin tarin Traill don nufin cewa kawai sautin tenuis ashirin, murya, hanci, da sautin hanci marasa murya sune na asali, tare da sauran su ne tarin tenuis da sautin murya tare da x, kxʼ, q, qh, ː, qʼ, ʔqh da ko dai mː ko nː. Aiki a kan yaren 'yar'uwar Taa Nīng ya nuna cewa duk dannawa a cikin harsuna biyu suna da uvular ko haɗin baya, kuma cewa dannawa da aka ɗauka a matsayin uvular a nan a zahiri suna da ƙirar harshe-pulmonic da harshe-glottalic airstream. Yana iya zama cewa 'yan majami'ar' na Taa, gami da dannawa, ana iya nazarin su azaman ma'anar ƙira, a wannan yanayin tare da murya.

* DoBeS kawai ya dace da jerin 17 zuwa Traill, kamar yadda bambance-bambance da ya gano ba a buga su ba tukuna. DoBeS da kuma, bi da bi, sun dace da tsoffin biyun, yayin da kuma (watakila a cikin wannan tsari, kamar yadda dannawa na uvular ke da jinkirin saki) sun dace da biyun na ƙarshe.

Labarin Traill na Gabas ya bar jerin dannawa marasa murya ba tare da daidaituwa ba tare da jagorancin murya. Labarin DoBeS na Yamma, wanda ke amfani da murya don samo asali na morphological zuwa mafi girma fiye da Gabas, yana da ƙarin jerin hudu, an rubuta su, g, g da n'hh a cikin rubutun su na aiki. Wasanni uku na farko sun yi daidai da jerin abubuwan da ba a taɓa gani ba na Traill, Idan jerin Traill sun yi daidai da muryar da ake nema, maimakon jinkirin da ake nema.

Dukkanin danna hanci suna da iska biyu, tunda iska da ke wucewa ta hanci ta wuce harshe. Yawancin lokaci wannan yana da ƙarancin huhu. Koyaya, jerin ↓ŋ̊↓ŋ̊Ʞh cikin Taa ana nuna su ta hanyar iskar hanci ta huhu. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:268) sun bayyana cewa "Wannan dannawa mai yiwuwa na musamman ne tsakanin sautunan harsunan duniya wanda, har ma a tsakiyar jumla, yana iya samun iska mai shigowa na huhu. " Taa ita ce kawai harshen da aka sani don bambancin hanci da hanci mara murya (watau jinkirta aspirated) dannawa (Miller 2011).

Yammacin Yamma (DoBeS)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yammacin China yana da ƙwayoyin 164 a cikin ƙididdigar ƙididdiga, gami da dannawa 111 a cikin jerin 23, wanda a ƙarƙashin ƙididdigat ɗin ƙididdiga ya rage zuwa ƙwayoyin 87.

Wadannan an rubuta su a cikin rubutun da aka yi amfani da su (Naumann 2008). Ba a yi amfani da ma'anar ma'anar marginale kamar haka ba.

Yammacin Yamma (DoBeS 2008): Consonants
Labari Alveolar Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri Danna
Dakatar da / Africate
Afríku
murya b d d͡z ɡ Sanya Gishiri
An yi amfani da shi p t t͡s k q ʔ Sanya
da ake nema ph th t͡sh kh A farkon shekara Sanya
murya mai burin d͡zɦ ɡɦ Wannan shi ne abin da ya faru Gishiri
fitarwa t͡sʼ q͡χʼ Yanayi
murya 'ejective' Tun da daɗewa Aiki ne Sanya Sanya da kuma ciki
Fricative f s χ Hakan ya sa
Hanci murya m n ɲ ŋ Ya kasance a cikin
ba tare da murya ba Yanayi
Glotalized Sanya An tsara shi An yi amfani da shi
Kusanci w l j
"Matsayi" ɾ

Sautin sautin sautin ne kawai a kan sautin na biyu (a cikin CCV da dai sauransu), saboda tasirin sautin saurin sautin saitin sautin sa na farko. Sautin da ke cikin sautin ba ya yin numfashi na sautin da ke biyowa, yana riƙe da bambanci tsakanin sautin da sautin. Hakazalika, yayin da dannawa ke sa sa sautin da ke biyowa ya zama mai saurin sauti, akwai jinkirin farawa ga sautin kuma girman sautin sautin saurin sautin sa na sautin sabili sautin saiti sautin sa.

A cikin ƙoƙari na ci gaba da adana kayan sauti kamar yadda ya yiwu, ƙungiyar DoBeS ta bincika a matsayin ɓangarori biyu na nau'ikan dannawa waɗanda Traill ya bincika a matsayin ɗakunan. Waɗannan su ne dannawar hanci da aka riga aka yi amfani da ita, ʼnʹ, wanda Traill ya bincika a matsayin /ʹ/ + /ʼn/, da kuma dannawar da aka yi amfani le ita, gʹh, wanda Trail ya bincika a cikin /ɡʹ/ + + /qh/.

Fatawar, daga yanayin yanayin Xoon, don nau'i-nau'i marasa murya na rukunin dannawa ya haifar da gano jerin da yawa waɗanda ba a rarrabe su ba. (Wannan yanayin ya fi yaduwa a Yammacin China fiye da yaren Gabas wanda Traill ya yi aiki a kai.) Waɗannan nau'ikan dannawa ne waɗanda ƙila ba su wanzu a Gabas ba, wato, da kuma g. Har ila yau, ya haifar da sake gano jerin biyu da Traill bai iya bugawa ba kafin mutuwarsa. Ta haka ne ƙungiyar DoBeS ta bambanta jerin biyu, Ōqh da Ōkh, don Trail's Ōqh, da kuma Ōqh' da Ōk' na Traill's ̆k' (ko watakila akasin haka). Idan za a bincika jerin Traill a matsayin k + h, to wannan zai buƙaci kimantawa daban-daban na jerin jinkirin Traill.

A karkashin nazarin layi na Miller (2009), bambancin tsakanin dannawa masu sauƙi da ƙira ya fi dacewa da ganowar DoBeS na ɗakunan, ban da layuka huɗu na ƙarshe ([[[[[[[[]]]]), waɗanda ake la'akari da dannawa masu sauki.

Fonotactics

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin syllable na Taa, kamar yadda DoBeS ya bayyana, na iya zama ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan:

  • CVV
  • CCVV
  • CVC2V
  • CCVC2V
  • CVN
  • CCVN

inda C shine ma'ana, V shine wasali, kuma N shine tashar hanci. Akwai iyakantaccen adadin consonants wanda zai iya faruwa a matsayi na biyu (C2) kuma wasu jerin wasula (VV da V...V) ne kawai suka faru. Ana iya rufe tarin ƙwayoyin (CC) a sama; C2 na iya zama [b~βʹ], [dj~j], [l], [m], [n], [ɲ].

Harshen harshe

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Taa yare ne na batun-kalma-abu tare da kalmomi masu yawa da kuma juyawa prepositions. Genitives, adjectives, sassan dangi, da lambobi sun zo bayan sunayen da suke amfani da su. Ana amfani da reduplication don samar da causatives. Akwai nau'o'in yarjejeniya guda biyar da kuma ƙarin ƙungiyoyin sautin guda biyu. Yarjejeniya tana faruwa a kan sunayen suna, aikatau masu wucewa (tare da abu), adjectives, prepositions, da wasu barbashi.

Taa has only three native numbers. All numbers above three are loans from Tswana or Kgalagadi.

  1. Sanya
  2. An samo asali ne daga wannan
  3. An yi amfani da shi

Anthony Traill ne ya tattara kalmomin daga Gabas:   

  1. The final element of all of these varies dialectically between [kxʼ] and [kxʼq].
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Ta". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Alan Barnard (…) Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa, p.xxii.
  3. The Taa pronunciation of "ǃXóõ" can be heard in this recording, repeated from 0′16″ to 0′24″.
  4. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." In Clem et al. (eds), Theory and Description in African Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 47th Annual Conference on African Linguistics. Language Science Press, Berlin, pp. 703–724.
  5. DoBeS, "Taa".
  6. Gertrud Boden, 2007, ǃQamtee ǀaa ǂXanya: 'the Book of Traditions' : Histories, Texts and Illustrations from the ǃXoon and 'Nǀohan People of Namibia
  7. Naumann (2011) "A preliminary classification of Taa dialects".
  8. Yvonne Treis, 1998, "Names of Khoisan Languages and their Variants"
  9. 9.0 9.1 Traill 1994.
  10. 10.0 10.1 William Bennett (forthcoming) 'Click Phonology', in Sands (ed.) Click Consonants, Brill, p. 102 ff.
  11. (C. ed.). Invalid |url-access=Rice (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. Inaudibility achieved "by a complex venting of the pulmonic pressure (Traill 1992). In fast speech the venting may sometimes be accompanied by a brief period of nasalization of the vowel and an intrusive velar nasal preceding the click." Ladefoged characterized them as ingressive voiceless nasal airflow [↓ŋ̊] with delayed aspiration.

Bayanan littattafai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  •  
  •  
  • Empty citation (help)

Haɗin waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Media related to Taa language at Wikimedia Commons