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Harsuna Tuu

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harsuna Tuu
Linguistic classification
Glottolog tuuu1241[1]

'Harsuna' 'Xi-Ta'u', ko yarukan Taa-Ui (Taa-Ui, Kwi), iyali ne na harsuna wanda ya kunshi nau'ikan harsuna biyu da ake magana a Botswana da Afirka ta Kudu. Dangantakar da ke tsakanin rukuni biyu ba a shakku ba, amma tana da nisa. Sunan Tuu ya fito ne daga kalmar da aka saba amfani da ita ga rassan biyu na iyali don "mutum".

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kakan harsunan Tuu, Proto-Tuu, ana kyautata zaton ana magana da shi a cikin ko kusa da hamadar Kalahari, kamar yadda kalmar gemsbok ( *!hai ) ke sake ginawa zuwa Proto-Tuu.

Akwai shaidar ƙwaƙƙwaran aron kalmomi tsakanin harsunan Tuu da sauran harsunan Khoisan, gami da ainihin ƙamus. Ana tunanin Khoekhoe musamman yana da Tu (ǃKwi-reshen) substrate. [2]

Misalai na aro daga Khoe zuwa Tuu sun haɗa da 'kirji' (ǃXóõ gǁúu daga Khoe *gǁuu ) da 'chin' (Nǁng gǃann daga Khoe *ǃann ). [3] An ba da shawarar tushen 'louse' wanda wasu harsunan Khoe da Tuu ( ǁxón ~ kx'uni ~ kx'uri ) suka raba kamar yadda ya samo asali daga 'pre-Tuu/pre-Khoe substrate'. [4]

Rabewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaren Tuu ba su da alaƙa da wani iyali, ko da yake suna da kamanceceniya da harsunan iyalin Kxʼa . Ana tsammanin wannan ya kasance saboda dubban shekaru na tuntuɓar juna da tasirin juna (a sprachbund ), amma wasu malaman sun yi imanin cewa iyalai biyu na iya tabbatar da dangantaka.

An taɓa karɓar harsunan Tuu a matsayin reshe na dangin harshen Khoisan da ba a daina amfani da su ba, kuma a cikin wannan tunanin ana kiransa Kudancin Khoisan .

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana tunanin harsunan da alakar su kamar haka. A wurare da yawa babu isassun bayanai don bambance harshe da yare: [5]   Reshen ǃKwi (ǃUi) na Afirka ta Kudu ya cika, yana da yare guda ɗaya kawai, Nǁng, kuma mai magana da tsoho ɗaya kaɗai. Harsunan Kwi sun taɓa yaɗuwa a duk faɗin Afirka ta Kudu; wanda ya fi shahara, ǀXam, shi ne tushen taken ƙasa na zamani na wannan al'umma, ǃke eː ǀxarra ǁke</link> .

Reshen Taa na Botswana ya fi ƙarfin gaske, kodayake kuma yana da yare guda ɗaya kawai, ǃXóõ, tare da masu magana 2,500.

Domin da yawa daga cikin harsunan Tuu sun zama batattu ba tare da ƙaranci ba, an sami ruɗani mai yawa game da wanne cikin sunayensu da yawa ke wakiltar yare dabam dabam ko ma yare. Kalmar "Vaal – Orange" an taɓa amfani da ita don ǂUngkue (wanda a da ake magana da shi a mahaɗin kogunan Vaal da Orange ) haɗe da laccoci na Gabas da yawa, waɗanda tun daga lokacin suka rabu.

Akwai yiwuwar ƙarin harsunan Tuu. Westphal ya yi karatun Taa iri-iri da aka fassara ǀŋamani, ǀnamani, Ngǀamani, ǀŋamasa . Da alama yanzu ya bace. Bleek ya rubuta wani nau'in da ya ɓace yanzu, wanda ta lakafta 'S5', a cikin garin Khakhea; an san shi a cikin adabi da Kakia . Wani kuma a yankin Nossop (mai lakabin 'S4a') ana kiransa Xaitia, Khatia, Katia, Kattea. Vaalpens, ǀKusi, da ǀEikusi a bayyane yake suna nufin iri ɗaya da Xatia. Westphal (1971) ya lissafta su duka biyun a matsayin yarukan Nǀamani, kodayake Köhler ya lissafa Khatia kawai kuma ya sanya shi a matsayin ǃKwi.

Harsunan Tuu, tare da maƙwabta ǂʼAmkoe, an san su da kasancewa kawai harsuna a duniya don samun dannawar bilabial a matsayin sautin magana mai ban sha'awa (ban da tsohuwar al'ada jargon Damin na arewacin Ostiraliya, wanda ba harshen kowa ba ne). Taa, ǂʼAmkoe da Gǀui maƙwabta (na dangin Khoe ) sun samar da sprachbund tare da mafi hadaddun ƙirƙira na baƙaƙe a duniya, kuma a cikin mafi hadaddun ƙirƙira na wasulan . Duk harsunan da ke cikin waɗannan iyalai uku kuma suna da sautin murya .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/tuuu1241 |chapterurl= missing title (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. April Invalid |url-status=Vincent (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Güldemann, T., & Loughnane, R. (2012). The problem of linguistic inheritance and contact in the Kalahari Basin: the case of body parts.
  4. George, S. (2021). Lexicostatistical studies in Khoisan II/1: How to make a Swadesh wordlist for Proto-Tuu (Proto-South Khoisan). Вопросы языкового родства, (2 (19)), 39-75.
  5. Tom Güldemann. 2019. Toward a subclassification of the ǃUi branch of Tuu. Paper presented at Afrikalinguistisches Forschungskolloquium at Humboldt Universiät zu Berlin, 8 January 2019. 10pp.

Sources[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Empty citation (help)
  • . JSTOR Traill. Invalid |url-status=18–34 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help) (MS collections of the Kiǀhazi dialect of Bushman, 1937)

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]