Hamadar Kalahari

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Kalahari in Namibia
Bird's eye view of the Kalahari in Namibia: the darker dots are camel thorns
Kalahari Clay Pan near Onderombapa

Hamadar Kalahari babbar savannah ce mai bushiyoyi masu tsayi a Kudancin Afirka wanda ya kai kilomita murabba'i 900,000 (sq mi 350,000), wanda ya mamaye yawancin kasashen Botswana, da wasu sassan Namibia da Afirka ta Kudu.

Bai kamata a rude shi da hamadar bakin teku ta Angola, Namibia, da Afirka ta Kudu ba, wanda sunansa asalin Khoekhoegowab kuma yana nufin "babban wuri".

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalahari ya samo asali ne daga kalmar Tswana ta Kgala, ma'ana "babban ƙishirwa", ko Kgalagadi, ma'anar "wuri mara ruwa";[1] Kalahari yana da faffadan yankuna da jan yashi ya rufe ba tare da wani ruwa mai dindin ba.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hamadar Kalahari ba ko yaushe busasshiyar hamada ba ce. Burbushin fure da dabbobi daga Gcwihaba Cave, Botswana, ya nuna yankin ya kasance yana da ruwa da sanyi aƙalla daga 30 zuwa 11,000 BP, musamman bayan 17,500 BP.[2]

Casar magabata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ruwa na kwararowar hamada ta hanyar kwarin busassun kwari ne, kwanon ruwansha na lokaci-lokaci da kuma manyan kwanukan gishiri na Makgadikgadi Pan a Ƙasar Botswana da Etosha Pan a Namibia. Kogin da yake din-din ne, mai suna Okavango, ya kwarara zuwa wani yanki da ke yankin arewa maso yamma, inda ya samar da fadama wadanda ke da albarkatun namun daji. Tsohon busassun kogunan ruwa-wanda ake kira omuramba-ya ratsa tsakiyar arewacin arewacin Kalahari tare da samar da wuraren tsafta na ruwa lokacin damina.

Yankin hamada, tare da manyan filaye na kyakkyawan kiwo bayan ruwan sama mai kyau, Kalahari yana tallafawa dabbobi da tsire-tsire fiye da hamada ta gaske, irin su Namib Desert da yamma. Akwai ruwan sama kadan kuma yanayin zafi yana da yawa sosai. Yankunan da suka bushe galibi suna karɓar milimita 110-200 (4.3-7.9 a) na ruwan sama a kowace shekara,[1] kuma mafi ƙanƙan ruwa sama da milimita 500 (20 a). Tafkin Kalahari da ke kewaye ya mamaye sama da murabba'in kilomita 2,500,000 (970,000 sq mi) wanda ya zarce zuwa Botswana, Namibia da Afirka ta Kudu, kuma ya kutsa cikin sassan Angola, Zambiya da Zimbabwe.

Akwai kwanon rufi da yawa a cikin Kalahari, gami da Groot-vloer Pan da Verneukpan inda shaidar akwai wani yanayi mai ƙamshi wanda ya kasance a cikin tsohuwar tsarin ɗaukar ruwa. Wannan da sauran kwanon rufi, har da gindin kogi, an rubuta su sosai a Sciforums ta hanyar labarin da Walter Wagner ya yi game da manyan wuraren da ke da ruwa na Kalahari. Kalahari yana da fadi kuma ya fadada arewa sosai inda kuma akwai wadatattun tituna masu yawa.[3]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Arewa da gabas, kusan inda busassun gandun daji, savannahs da tabkuna masu gishiri suka fi rinjaye, canjin yanayin yana da danshi-danshi maimakon na dausayi. Kudu da yamma, inda yawanci ciyayi ke da tsibirin savanna ko ma na yankin hamada ne, canjin yanayin shine "Kalaharian" mai bushe bushe. Yanayin Kalaharian yana da karko (matsakaita na shekara-shekara wanda ya fi girma ko daidai da 18 ° C, a kololuwa ya kai 40 ° C zuwa sama, tare da ma'anar zafin wata-wata na watan mafi tsananin sanyi a ƙasa da 18 ° C), kuma yana da bushe-bushe tare da bushewa lokaci a lokacin "sanyi", mafi tsananin sanyi watanni shida na shekara. Yankin kudu ne mai kwatankwacin yanayin Sahelian tare da lokacin damuna a lokacin bazara. An sanya tsawan matsayin bayanin dalilin da yasa yanayin Kalaharian baya zama na wurare masu zafi; tsayinta ya fara daga mita 600 zuwa 1600 (kuma gaba daya daga mita 800 zuwa 1200), wanda hakan ke haifar da yanayi mai sanya hankali fiye da na Sahel ko Sahara. Misali, sanyin hunturu ya zama ruwan dare daga watan Yuni zuwa Agusta, wani abu da ba kasafai ake gani a yankunan Sahelian da ke da dumi ba.[4] A saboda wannan dalili, yanayin zafi na bazara na iya zama mai zafi sosai, amma ba a kwatanta shi da yankuna masu ƙarancin tsawo a cikin Sahel ko Sahara ba, inda wasu tashoshi ke yin rikodin matsakaicin yanayin watan da ya fi zafi a kusan 38 ° C, yayin da matsakaicin zafin wanda ya fi zafi wata a cikin kowane yanki a cikin Kalahari bai taɓa wuce 29 ° C ba, kodayake yanayin zafi na wani lokaci yakan kai kusan 45 ° C (113 ° F) (44.8 ° C a Twee Rivieren Rest Camp a 2012).[5]

Babban tsawa kusa da Stampriet

Lokacin rani yana ɗaukar watanni takwas ko sama da haka, kuma lokacin damina yawanci daga ƙasa da wata ɗaya zuwa watanni huɗu, ya dogara da wuri. Yankin kudu maso yammacin Kalahari yanki ne da ya fi bushe, musamman wani karamin yanki da ke yamma da kudu maso yamma na Tsaraxaibis (Kudu maso Gabashin Namibia). Matsakaicin ruwan sama na shekara-shekara wanda ya fara daga kusan 110 mm (kusa da danshi) zuwa fiye da 500 mm a wasu yankuna na arewa da gabas. A lokacin bazara a duk yankuna ruwan sama na iya zuwa da tsawa mai karfi. A cikin busassun busassun wurare na Kalahari, sama da awanni 4,000 na hasken rana ana yin rikodin kowace shekara a kan matsakaita.

A cikin Kalahari, akwai manyan abubuwa guda biyu na yanayin sararin samaniya, wanda Kalahari High anticyclone ya mamaye:[6]

  • Arewa da Arewa maso yamma na Kalahari na fuskantar canzawa "Yankin Haɓakawa Tsakanin Yankuna (ITCZ) /" Yankin Kasuwancin Nahiyar. "ITCZ yanki ne na haɗuwa da iskar kasuwanci tare da takwarorinsu na ƙira waɗanda masu binciken yanayi ke kira" Mitar yanayin yanayi " da kuma masu jirgin ruwa "Doldrum" ko "Pot-au-noir": ITCZ ​​na samar da ruwan sama a lokacin damina, yayin da iskar kasuwanci ta nahiyar ke haifar da rani;
  • Sauran Kalahari suna karkashin iskar kasuwanci ta teku, wanda yawanci ya zubar da danshinsu yayin da suke tsallakawa da kuma haye Babban Kasan Kudancin Afirka kafin su iso kan Kalahari.

Akwai manyan wuraren ajiyar ruwa a ƙarƙashin ƙasan Kalahari; Kogon Numfashin Maciji, alal misali, shine mafi girma daftarin rubuce-rubuce marasa tafkin ƙarƙashin ƙasa. Irin waɗannan wuraren ajiyar na iya kasancewa wani ɓangare na ragowar tsoffin tafkuna; Hamadar Kalahari ta kasance wani wuri mai dausayi sosai. Tsohuwar Tafkin Makgadikgadi ta mamaye yankin, ta rufe Bankin Makgadikgadi da kewayensa, amma ya kafe ko ya bushe kimanin shekaru 10,000 da suka gabata. Wataƙila ya taɓa rufewa kusan tsawon kilomita murabba'i 120,000 (46,000 sq mi).[7] A zamanin da, akwai wadatar danshi don noma, tare da dikes da madatsun ruwa ke tara ruwan. Wadannan yanzu suna cike da laka, ɓata, ko ba a amfani da su, kodayake ana iya ganin su ta hanyar Google Earth.[8]

Kalahari yana da tarihin canjin yanayi mai rikitarwa a cikin shekaru miliyan da suka gabata ko makamancin haka, daidai da manyan canje-canje na duniya. Canje-canje a cikin shekaru 250,000 na ƙarshe an sake sake su daga maɓuɓɓuka na bayanai daban-daban, kuma suna ba da shaidar duka manyan tafkuna masu yawa da lokutan bushewa fiye da yanzu. Yayin karshen yankin na Kalahari ya fadada ya hada da wasu sassan yammacin Zimbabwe, Zambiya da Angola.[9]

Kayan lambu da furanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Furen ƙaya na Iblis (Tribulus zeyheri) yana girma a cikin Hamadar Kalahari
Thoraya ta raƙumi ta warwatse a kan dunes a cikin Hamadar Kalahari

Saboda karancin danshi, Kalahari yana tallafawa nau'ikan fure iri-iri. Rasar flora ta ƙasar ta haɗa da bishiyoyin acacia da sauran ganye da ciyawa da yawa.[10] 'Ya'yan itacen kiwano, wanda aka fi sani da ƙahon ƙaho, melano, kokwamba mai ƙahon Afirka, jelly melon, ko gourd mai shinge, yana da matukar damuwa ga wani yanki a cikin Hamadar Kalahari (takamaiman yankin da ba a san shi ba).[11]

Ko da inda "hamadar" Kalahari ya bushe ya isa ya zama hamada a ma'anar saukar ruwa, bawai yana maganar hamada sosai saboda tana da murfin ƙasa sosai. Babban yankin da bashi da murfin ƙasa shine a kudu maso yamma Kalahari (kudu maso gabashin Namibia, arewa maso yamma na Afirka ta kudu da kudu maso yamma na Botswana) a kudu da Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Misali a cikin gundumar gundumar ZF Mgcawu ta Afirka ta Kudu, yawan adadin ciyayi na iya zama ƙasa da 30.72% a kan mara kariya (daga kiwo) gonakin gona a kudu da Twee Rivieren Rest Camp da 37.74% a cikin kariya (daga kiwon shanu) Kudu Yankin Afirka na Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park:[12] wadannan yankuna da ke kudu maso kudancin Kalahari xeric savanna sune hamadar hamada. Koyaya, a cikin sauran Kalahari da suka rage, banda kwanon gishiri a lokacin rani, murfin ciyayi na iya zama mai yawa a fili, har zuwa kusan 100% a wasu yankuna masu iyaka.

A yankin kusan 600,000 km2 a kudu da yamma da Kalahari, ciyawar itace mafi yawan savanna. Wannan yankin shine ecoregion da Asusun Duniya na Yanayi ya bayyana a matsayin Kalahari xeric savanna AT1309. Hankula irin ciyawar savanna sun hada da Schmidtia, Stipagrostis, Aristida, da Eragrostis; wadannan suna cakude da bishiyoyi kamar su rakumi (Acacia erioloba), grey camelthorn (Acacia haematoxylon), bishiyar makiyaya (Boscia albitrunca), blackthorn (Acacia mellifera), da kuma ganye mai tarin azurfa (Terminalia sericea).

A wasu yankuna inda yanayi ke bushewa, ya zama hamada ta hamada ta gaskiya tare da kasa wacce ba ciyawa ta rufe ta gaba daya: "bude" sabanin "rufaffiyar" ciyayi. Misalan sun hada da arewacin Hukumar Gundumar ZF Mgcawu,, kanta a arewacin Afirka ta Kudu, da Keetmanshoop Karkara a kudu maso gabashin Namibia. A arewa da gabas, akwai busassun dazuzzuka da suka mamaye yanki sama da 300,000 km2 wanda tekun Rhodesian da nau'ikan itaciya da yawa sun yi fice. Ana kiran waɗannan yankuna Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands AT0709.[13]

A waje da "hamada" ta Kalahari, amma a cikin tafkin Kalahari, wani ciyayi mai cutar halophytic a arewa ya dace da kwanon rufi, tabkuna wadanda suka bushe gaba daya a lokacin rani, kuma wataƙila na tsawon shekaru a lokacin fari, kamar a Etosha (Etosha Pan halophytics AT0902 ) da Makgadikgadi (Zambezian halophytics AT0908).[13]

Daban-daban ciyayi sun dace da ruwan sha mai kyau na Okavango Delta, wani yanayi da ake kira Zambezian da ambaliyar ruwa ta mamaye AT0907.[13]

Fauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalahari yana da gida ga tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu ƙaura da yawa. A da wuraren hutu ne na namun daji tun daga giwaye zuwa rakumin dawa, da kuma masu farauta irin su zakuna da cheetah, a yanzu bakin kogin galibi wuraren kiwo ne, duk da cewa ana iya samun damisa cheetahs. Yankin yanzu yana da ciyayi sosai kuma shingen shanu sun hana cunkoson namun daji. Daga cikin hamada na Kudancin duniya, Kalahari ya fi kama da wasu hamadar Ostiraliya a cikin yanayin latitude da yanayin yadda yake.

Ko da yake akwai speciesan ƙananan cututtukan gargajiya, ana samun nau'ikan nau'ikan iri daban-daban a yankin, gami da manyan masu lalata irin su zaki (Panthera leo), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), damisa (Panthera pardus), hyena mai hangowa (Crocuta crocuta), launin ruwan kasa hyena (Hyaena brunnea), da karen daji na Cape (Lycaon pictus pictus). Tsuntsayen ganima sun hada da tsuntsayen sakatare (Sagittarius serpentarius), dorinar mikiya (Polemaetus bellicosus) da sauran mikiya, katuwar mujiya (Bubo lacteus) da sauran mujiya, falcons, goshawks, kestrels, and kites. Sauran dabbobin sun hada da wildebeest, springbok da sauran dabbobin ruwa, na kwalliya (Hystrix africaeaustralis) da jimina (Struthio camelus).[14]

Wasu daga cikin yankuna a cikin Kalahari yankuna ne masu dausayi, kamar su Makgadikgadi Pans na Botswana. Wannan yanki, alal misali, yana tallafawa nau'ikan nau'ikan halophilic, kuma a lokacin damina, dubun dubatan flamingos sukan ziyarci wadannan kwanukan.[15]

Babbar barazanar da ke tattare da rayuwar namun daji ita ce shingen da aka gina don kula da garken shanun kiwo, aikin da ke kuma cire murfin tsiren na savanna kanta. Hakanan masu kiwon shanu za su ba da guba ko farautar masu farauta daga yankin kewayen, musamman masu kai hari ga diloli da karnukan daji.

Yankunan da aka kare[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa waɗannan yankuna masu kariya a cikin Kalahari irin su:

  • Central Kalahari Game Reserve
  • Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
  • Khutse Game Reserve
  • Tswalu Kalahari

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutumen San yana tattara tafin shedan (2017)

Mutanen San sun rayu cikin Kalahari tsawon shekaru 20,000 a matsayin masu tara farauta.[16] Suna farautar daji tare da baka da kibau masu guba kuma suna tattara tsire-tsire masu cin abinci, kamar su 'ya'yan itace, kankana da goro, da ƙwari. 'Yan San suna samun yawancin bukatunsu na ruwa daga tushen tsire-tsire da guna na hamada da aka samo a kan ko ƙarƙashin ƙasan hamada. sau da yawa yana adana ruwa a cikin ɓawon ƙwaryar ƙwai na jimina. 'Yan San suna zaune a bukkoki da aka gina daga kayan gida - an yi firam ɗin da rassa, kuma an yi rufin da ciyawa da dogon ciyawa. Yawancin dabarun farautarsu da dabarun tattara su sun yi kama da kabilunmu da suka gabata. Tarihinsu ya hada da almara na allahn Chikara, yana kare su daga yunwa da mutuwa ta hanyar sadaukar da ransa ta hanyar farautar su a cikin silar barewa da sauran naman daji da suke farautar abinci. Bux makiyin Chikara ne kuma yana cikin macizai waɗanda ake samunsu da adadi mai yawa a yankin hamadar Kalahari. Tswana, Kgalagadi, da Herero da ke magana da Bantu da wasu tsirarun Turawa ma da ke zaune a cikin hamada Kalahari. Birnin Windhoek yana cikin Kogin Kalahari.

Kalahari, San da lu'ulu'u[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1996, De Beers ya kimanta yiwuwar hakar lu'u-lu'u a Gope. A shekarar 1997, fara fatattakar 'yan kabilar San da Bakgalagadi da ke cikin babban Game na Kalahari daga yankinsu.[17] A cikin 2006, wata Babbar Kotun Botswana ta yanke hukunci a kan kabilun San da Bakgalagadi da ke wurin, ganin cewa korar da aka yi musu ya saba wa doka. Gwamnatin Botswana ta ba da izini ga De Beers 'Gem Diamonds/Gope Exploration Company (Pty) Ltd. don gudanar da ayyukan hakar ma'adinai a cikin ajiyar.[18]

Mazauna tsakanin Kalahari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Botswana:

Namibia:

  • Gobabis
  • Mariental

Afirka ta Kudu:

  • Noenieput
  • Rietfontein

Duba Kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Karoo
  • Kgalagadi (disambiguation)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "The Kalahari-Basin". 15 July 2010. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015.
  2. Robbins, L. H.; Murphy, M. L.; et al. (1996). "Paleoenvironment and Archaeology of Drotsky's Cave: Western Kalahari Desert, Botswana". Journal of Archaeological Science. 23 (1): 7–22. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0002.
  3. "Ancient Namibian Freeway overlays Ancient Agriculture System". www.sciforums.com.
  4. (in French) Les milieux désertiques, Jean Demangeot, Edmond Bernus, 2001. Editor: Armand Colin. 08033994793.ABA, page 20 in particular.
  5. "World Record Temperatures -Highest Lowest Hottest Coldest temperatures-". www.mherrera.org.
  6. (in French) Tropicalité Jean Demangeot Géographie physique intertropicale, pages 44–45, Figure 19, source: Leroux 1989.
  7. Goudie, Andrew (2002). Great Warm Deserts of the World: Landscapes and Evolution. Oxford University Press. p. 204.
  8. "Ancient Dikes, Dams and Reservoirs of the Kalahari Region". www.sciforums.com.
  9. Thomas, D.S.G. and Shaw, P.A. 1991 'The Kalahari Environment'. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  10. Martin Leipold, Plants of the Kalahari
  11. "How to Eat a Kiwano (Horned Melon)". wikiHow.
  12. Wasiolka, Bernd; Blaum, Niels (2011). "Comparing biodiversity between protected savanna and adjacent non-protected farmland in the southern Kalahari". Journal of Arid Environments. 75 (9): 836–841 [Table 2 on p. 838]. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.04.011.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Deserts and xeric shrublands - Biomes - WWF". World Wildlife Fund.
  14. "Kalahari xeric savanna - Ecoregions - WWF". World Wildlife Fund.
  15. Hogan, C. Michael (2008). Makgadikgadi, Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham.
  16. Marshall, Leon (16 April 2003), "Bushmen Driven From Ancestral Lands in Botswana", National Geographic News, Johannesburg, retrieved 2009-04-22
  17. Workman, James (2009). Heart of Dryness. Walker Publishing. p. 323.
  18. "UN report condemns Botswana's treatment of Bushmen". Survival for Tribal Peoples. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2013.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Media related to Kalahari at Wikimedia Commons
  • "Cry of the Kalahari"
  • Kalahari desert's forgotten influence on carbon levels