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Makgadikgadi Pan

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Makgadikgadi Pan
salt pan (en) Fassara da basin (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Inflows (en) Fassara Kogin Boteti da Kogin Nata
Ƙasa Botswana
Wuri
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 20°43′00″S 24°57′03″E / 20.71667°S 24.95083°E / -20.71667; 24.95083
Flamingo Hijira a Makgadikgadi Pan

Makgadikgadi Pan /məˈkɑːdiˈkɑːdi / (lafazin Tswana [makχʰadiˈkχʰaːdi], kwanon gishirin da ke tsakiyar busassun savanna na arewa maso gabashin Botswana, ɗayan manyan gidaje ne na gishiri a duniya. Kwanon ruhun shine abin da ya saura na babban tafkin Makgadikgadi, wanda ya taɓa rufe yankin da ya fi Switzerland girma, amma ya bushe dubun dubatan shekaru da suka gabata. Karatun baya-bayan nan game da DNA na mitochondrial na mutum ya nuna cewa Homo sapiens na zamani sun fara rayuwa a wannan yankin shekaru 200,000 da suka gabata, lokacin da yake da fadi da keɓaɓɓen yanki na tabkuna, koguna, dausayi, dazuzzuka da filayen ciyayi musamman masu kyau wurin zama ta hanyar cigaban dabbobi da wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa.[1]

Wuri da bayanin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da yake kwance a kudu maso gabas na Okavango Delta kuma kewaye da Hamadar Kalahari, Makgadikgadi a zahiri ba fanfo ɗaya ba ce, amma kwanuka da yawa tare da hamada mai yashi a tsakani, mafi girma shine Sua (Sowa), Nwetwe da Nxai Pans. Mafi girman kwanon rufi mutum kusan 1,900 sq mi (4,921.0 km2). Idan aka kwatanta, Salar de Uyuni a Bolivia gida ne mai gishiri daya na 4,100 sq mi (10,619.0 km2), ba safai yake da ruwa mai yawa ba, kuma galibi ana da'awar shine babban kwanon gishiri a duniya. Wani bushe, gishiri, yumɓu mai yumɓu a mafi yawancin shekara, kwanukan ruɓaɓɓen lokaci ana rufe su da ruwa da ciyawa, sannan mafaka ne ga tsuntsaye da dabbobi a wannan yanki mai tsananin bushewa na duniya. Yanayin yana da zafi da bushe, amma tare da ruwan sama na shekara shekara.

Babban tushen ruwan shine Kogin Nata, wanda ake kira da Amanzanyama a Zimbabwe, inda yake hawa a Sandown kimanin mil 37 (kilomita 59.5) daga Bulawayo. Ana ba da ƙaramin ruwa ta Kogin Boteti daga Delta Okavango.

Wadannan kwanon gishirin sun rufe 6,200 sq mi (16,057.9 km2) a cikin Kogin Kalahari kuma sun samar da gadon tsohuwar Tafkin Makgadikgadi, wanda ya kwashe shekaru da dama da suka shude. Farfaɗar da kayan tarihi a cikin Makgadikgadi Pan ya bayyana kasancewar mutun mai tarihi ta hanyar wadatattun kayan aikin dutse; wasu daga cikin wadannan kayan aikin an basu kwanan wata da wuri don tabbatar da asalin su kamar yadda yake a gaban zamanin Homo sapiens.[2] Makiyaya sun yi kiwon dabbobin kiwo a nan lokacin da ruwa ya wadata a farkon a cikin Holocene.[3]

Matsayi mafi ƙasƙanci a cikin kwamin shine Sua Pan tare da hawa ƙafa na 2,920.[4]

Ilimin kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Victoria Falls suna ba da ilimin ƙasa tare da Makgadikgadi da Kalahari.
Duba kwanon gishiri.

Kamar yadda tafkin Makgadikgadi na kakannin ya yi ta raguwa, sai ya bar gabar tekun, wadanda suka fi bayyana a yankin kudu maso yammacin tafkin.[4] Yayin da tabkin ke taƙaita ƙananan ƙananan raƙuman ruwa da aka kafa tare da ƙananan raƙuman ruwa a hankali. Ana iya ganin tsaunukan rairayin bakin teku masu tsawo a ƙafa 3100 da ƙafa 3018 galibi a sauƙaƙe akan Gidikwe Ridge, yamma da Kogin Boteti.

Ba a fahimci yadda ake tafiyar da ilimin ƙasa ba yadda ya kamata. Abun zato ne cewa akwai sassaucin sassauƙar ɓawon burodi, tare da rakiyar ɗimbin ɗimbin maganganu da lamuran haɗi; duk da haka, ba a gano manyan lamuran iyaka ba.[4][5] Babban ginshiƙan tsarin ci gaba yana gudana arewa maso gabas-kudu maso yamma.[6]

Tsibirin Kubu da Tsibirin Kukome tsibirai ne masu tsattsauran ra'ayi "tsibirai" a cikin gidan gishirin Sua pan.[7] Tsibirin Kubu yana yankin kudu maso yamma na yankin Sua Pan, ya ƙunshi bishiyoyi da yawa, kuma an kiyaye shi a matsayin abin tunawa na ƙasa.[8]

Flora[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Pans din kansu dajin gishiri ne wanda rayuwarsu kawai ta tsiro-shuɗi mai shuɗi-koren algae. Duk da haka gefe gefen kwanon ruɓaɓɓen gishirin ne kuma gabaɗa waɗannan ana kewaya su ne da ciyawa sannan kuma a tsire-tsire a savanna. Mashahuran bishiyar baobab da aka samo a yankin suna matsayin alamun ƙasa. Ofayansu, mai suna James Chapman, ya yi aiki azaman ofishin aika wasiƙa mara izini don masu binciken ƙarni na 19.[9]

Fauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kananan dabbobin daji na iya wanzuwa a nan a lokacin tsananin bushewar iska mai tsananin zafi da ruwan gishiri kawai, amma bayan ruwan sama kwanon rufin ya zama muhimmin mazauni na dabbobi masu ƙaura ciki har da namun dawa da kuma ɗayan manyan alfadarin dawa, da manyan dabbobin da ke cin abincinsu. su. lokacin damshi kuma yana kawo tsuntsayen masu kaura kamar su agwagwa, geese da manyan fararen pelicans. Gwanon yana gida ne daga ɗayan mutane biyu da suka fi girma a flamingos a kudancin Afirka, kuma a kan Soa pan ne kawai, wanda wani ɓangare ne na Makgadikgadi Pans. Sauran adadin kiwo a Etosha ne, a Arewacin Namibiya. Tsuntsayen da ke nan a lokacin rani su ne jimina, masu hada-hadar kirji (Charadrius pallidus) da na Kittlitz (Charadrius pecuarius). Yankin ciyawar da ke gefen gefen kwanon ya kasance gida ne na dabbobi masu rarrafe kamar kunkuru, lura da dutse (Varanus albigularis), macizai da ƙadangare gami da ƙarshen Makgadikgadi spiny agama (Agama hispida makgadikgadiensis). Ruwan gishirin yankin gida ne na crustacean Moina belli.

Barazana da adanawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwanon gishirin ba shi da matsala sosai kuma sa hannun ɗan adam ya yi kadan don haka ba su cikin damuwa ba, ko da yake ana amfani da ƙasar da ke kewaye da kwanon don kiwo kuma an killace wasu yankuna, suna hana ƙaurawar dabbobin daji. Ayyukan kasuwanci na zamani don cire gishiri da tokar soda sun fara akan Sua Pan a cikin 1991, kuma akwai kuma shirin karkatar da ruwa daga Kogin Nata don ban ruwa, wanda zai haifar da mummunan lahani ga yanayin halittar kwanon gishirin. Wata barazanar ita ce ta amfani da kekuna hudu da motocin da ke kan hanya daga masu yawon bude ido, wanda ke dagula mazaunan kirar flamingos. Farauta ba bisa doka ba a wuraren shakatawa na kasa matsala ce ta ci gaba.

Akwai wasu yankuna masu kariya a cikin Makgadikgadi da Nxai Pan National Park. Makgadikgadi Pans Game Reserve shi ne wurin da aka yi ƙaura da yawa daga kogin Boteti har zuwa Nwetwe Pan, yayin da Wuraren Nata da ke Sua Pan wuri ne na ganin rayuwar tsuntsaye da dabbobin daji. A cikin Nxai Pan baobabs wanda zane-zane ɗan Biritaniya mai suna Thomas Baines ya zana har yanzu ana gani. Ana iya shiga yankin tsakanin garuruwan Nata da Maun, ko kuma daga garin Gweta.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Chan, E. K. F., 2019. Human origins in a southern African palaeo-wetland and first migrations. Nature doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1714-1
  2. C. Michael Hogan (2008) Makgadikgadi, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
  3. Chris McIntyre (2008) Botswana: Okavango Delta, Chobe, Northern Kalahari, Bradt publishers, 502 pages 08033994793.ABA
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Helgren, David M. (1984) "Historical Geomorphology and Geoarchaeology in the Southwestern Makgadikgadi Basin, Botswana" Annals of the Association of American Geographers 74(2): pp. 298-307, page 299
  5. Cooke, H. J. (1980) "Landform evolution in the context of climatic change and neo-tectonism in the Middle Kalahari of north-central Botswana" Transactions, Institute of British Geographers 5: pp. 80-99, pages 83-84
  6. Cooke, H. J. (1980) "Landform evolution in the context of climatic change and neo-tectonism in the Middle Kalahari of north-central Botswana" Transactions, Institute of British Geographers 5: pp. 80-99, page 85
  7. McIntyre, Chris (2007) Botswana: Okavango Delta, Chobe, Northern Kalahari: the Bradt Safari Guide (2nd edition) Bradt, Chalfont, St. Peter, England, page 381, 08033994793.ABA
  8. Hardy, Paula and Firestone, Matthew D. (2007) Botswana & Namibia Lonely Planet, Footscray, Victoria, Australia, page 100, 08033994793.ABA
  9. Sissons, Mark (31 October 2010). "Makgadikgadi Pans - Kalahari safari stirs the soul". Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved 31 October 2010.