Inuwa

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Inuwa na baƙi zuwa Hasumiyar Eiffel, wanda aka gani daga dandalin farko
Inuwar shingen shinge yana gurbata ta wurin dusar ƙanƙara marar daidaituwa
Inuwa daga gizagizai na cumulus mai kauri ya isa ya toshe hasken rana

Inuwa wuri ne mai duhu inda haske daga tushen haske ke toshe shi da wani abu mara kyau. Ya mamaye dukkan juzu'i mai girma uku a bayan abu mai haske a gabansa. Sashin giciye na inuwa silhouette ce mai girma biyu, ko juyi hasashen abin da ke toshe haske.

Maɓuɓɓugan haske da marasa ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umbra, penumbra da antumbra .

Tushen haske yana jefa inuwa mai sauƙi kawai, wanda ake kira " umbra ". Don tushen haske mara ma'ana ko "tsawaita", inuwar ta rabu zuwa umbra, penumbra, da antumbra . Faɗin tushen hasken, inuwar tana ƙara blur. Idan penumbras guda biyu sun haɗu, inuwar suna bayyana don jawo hankali da haɗuwa. Ana kiran wannan da tasirin inuwar blister .

Za'a iya samun fassarori na yankunan inuwa ta hanyar gano hasken da ke fitowa daga manyan yankuna na shimfiɗar haske. Yankin umbra baya samun wani haske kai tsaye daga kowane ɓangare na tushen hasken kuma shine mafi duhu. Mai kallo dake cikin yankin umbra ba zai iya ganin kowane ɓangare na tushen hasken kai tsaye ba.

Saɓanin haka, penumbra yana haskaka ta wasu sassa na tushen hasken, yana ba ta matsakaicin matakin ƙarfin haske. Mai kallo da ke cikin yankin penumbra zai ga tushen hasken, amma abin da ke sanya inuwar yana toshe shi a wani yanki.

Idan akwai tushen haske fiye da ɗaya, za a sami inuwa da yawa, tare da sassan da suka mamaye duhu, da haɗuwa daban-daban na haske ko ma launuka. Mafi yaɗuwar hasken shine, mafi sauƙi kuma mafi rashin fahimta tsarin inuwa ya zama har sai sun ɓace. Hasken sararin sama mai kitse yana haifar da inuwa kaɗan.

Rashin tasirin yanayi a cikin sararin samaniya yana haifar da inuwa masu kauri da rarrabuwar kawuna ta manyan iyakoki tsakanin haske da duhu.

Don mutum ko abin da ya taɓa saman da aka hango inuwar (misali mutumin da ke tsaye a ƙasa, ko sanda a cikin ƙasa) inuwar tana haɗuwa a wurin haɗuwa.

Wani inuwa yana nuna, baya ga murɗiya, hoto iri ɗaya da silhouette lokacin kallon abu daga gefen rana, don haka hoton madubi na silhouette da ake gani daga ɗayan gefen.

Ilimin taurari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Watanni uku ( Callisto, Europa da Io ) da inuwarsu sun yi faretin Jupiter .[1]

Ana amfani da sunayen umbra, penumbra da antumbra sau da yawa don inuwar da abubuwan astronomical suka jefa, kodayake a wasu lokuta ana amfani da su don kwatanta matakan duhu, kamar a wuraren rana. Wani abu na sararin samaniya yana jefa inuwa-hannun mutum idan girmansa ya kai -4. [2] Abubuwan da kawai na sararin samaniya ke iya aiwatar da inuwar da ake iya gani akan duniya sune Rana, Wata, kuma a cikin yanayin da ya dace, Venus ko Jupiter.[3] Dare yana faruwa ne sakamakon bayan duniyar da ke fuskantar tauraruwarta da ke rufe hasken rana.

Inuwar da Duniya ta jefa akan wata shine husufin wata . Akasin haka, inuwar da wata ya jefa a doron ƙasa shi ne husufin rana.[4]

Bambancin rana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rana tana yin inuwa da ke canzawa sosai a cikin yini. Tsawon inuwar da aka jefa a ƙasa ya yi daidai da ƙaƙƙarfan kusurwar rana - kwanarsa θ dangane da sararin sama. Kusa da fitowar alfijir da faɗuwar rana, lokacin da θ = 0° da gado (θ) = ∞, inuwa na iya yin tsayi sosai. Idan rana ta wuce kai tsaye (zai yiwu kawai a wurare tsakanin Tropics of Cancer da Capricorn), to θ = 90 °, cot (θ) = 0, kuma inuwa ana jefa su kai tsaye a ƙarƙashin abubuwa.

Irin waɗannan bambance-bambancen sun daɗe suna taimaka wa matafiya a lokacin tafiye-tafiyensu, musamman a yankunan da ba su da yawa kamar Hamadar Larabawa.[5]

Saurin yaɗuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fashewar yanayin tururi na Castle Geyser a cikin Yellowstone National Park yana jefa inuwa akan tururinsa. Hakanan ana iya ganin haskoki na Crepuscular .

Nisa daga abin da ke toshe haske zuwa saman tsinkaya, mafi girman silhouette (ana la'akari da su daidai ). Haka nan, idan abu yana motsi, inuwar abin zai fito da hoto mai girma (tsawon) yana faɗaɗa daidai gwargwado fiye da ƙimar motsin abin. Ƙara girma da motsi kuma gaskiya ne idan nisa tsakanin abin tsangwama da tushen haske ya kasance kusa. Wannan, duk da haka, ba yana nufin inuwar na iya motsawa da sauri fiye da haske ba, ko da lokacin da aka yi hasashe a nesa mai nisa, kamar shekarun haske . Asarar haske, wanda ke aiwatar da inuwar, zai matsa zuwa saman tsinkaya a saurin haske .

Ko da yake gefen inuwa ya bayyana yana "motsawa" tare da bango, a haƙiƙanin gaskiya ƙaruwar tsayin inuwa wani ɓangare ne na sabon hasashe wanda ke yaɗuwa a cikin saurin haske daga abin da aka yi wa tsoma baki. Tun da babu ainihin sadarwa tsakanin maki a cikin inuwa (sai dai tunani ko tsoma bakin haske, a cikin saurin haske), inuwar da ke yin aiki a kan saman babban nisa (shekarun haske) ba zai iya isar da bayanai tsakanin waɗannan tazara tare da inuwar baki.[6]

Launi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu fasaha na gani galibi suna sane da haske mai launi da ke fitowa ko kuma ya fito daga tushe da yawa, wanda zai iya haifar da haɗaɗɗun inuwa masu launuka iri-iri. Chiaroscuro, sfumato, da silhouette misalai ne na fasaha waɗanda ke yin amfani da tasirin inuwa da gangan.

A lokacin rana, inuwar wani abu mara kyau wanda hasken rana ke haskakawa yana da launin shuɗi. Wannan yana faruwa ne saboda watsawar Rayleigh, irin wannan dukiya da ke sa sararin sama ya yi shuɗi. Abun da ba shi da kyau yana iya toshe hasken rana, amma ba hasken sararin sama wanda yake shuɗi ba yayin da ƙwayoyin halitta ke watsa hasken shuɗi yadda ya kamata. A sakamakon haka, inuwar tana bayyana ja.[7]

Girma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fog inuwa na kudu hasumiya na Golden Gate Bridge

Inuwa tana ɗaukar girman sararin samaniya mai girma uku, amma wannan yawanci ba a ganuwa har sai ya yi aiki a kan wani wuri mai haske. Hazo mai haske, hazo, ko gajimaren ƙura na iya bayyana gaban 3D na ƙirar ƙira a cikin haske da inuwa.

Inuwa hazo na iya yi kama da ban mamaki ga masu kallo waɗanda ba su saba ganin inuwa ta fuskoki uku ba. Hazo mai bakin ciki mai yawa ne kawai don a haskaka shi ta hanyar hasken da ke ratsa ramukan da ke cikin tsari ko a cikin bishiya. A sakamakon haka, hanyar inuwar abu ta cikin hazo yana bayyana a matsayin ƙarar duhu. A wata ma'ana, waɗannan hanyoyin inuwa jujjuyawar haskoki ne da ƙusoshin haske ke haifar da su, inuwar abubuwa masu ƙarfi ne ke haifar da su.

Hazo na wasan kwaikwayo da ƙwaƙƙwaran haske na wani lokaci ana amfani da su ta hanyar masu zanen haske da masu fasaha na gani waɗanda ke neman haskaka sassa uku na aikinsu.

Juyawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sau da yawa inuwar shingen da ke da alaƙa da sarƙa da sauran abubuwa suna jujjuya su (ana canza wurare masu haske da duhu) yayin da suke nisa daga abin. Inuwa shinge mai haɗin sarƙar zai fara da lu'u-lu'u masu haske da inuwa lokacin da yake taɓa shingen, amma a hankali zai yi duhu. Daga ƙarshe, idan shinge ya isa tsayi, ƙirar haske za ta je inuwa lu'u-lu'u da ƙayyadaddun haske.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hasken wata inuwar mai daukar hoto

A cikin ɗaukar hoto, wanda shine ainihin rikodin yanayin haske, inuwa, da launi, "haskoki" da "inuwa" sune sassa mafi haske da duhu, bi da bi, na wuri ko hoto. Dole ne a gyara hotunan hoto (sai dai idan ana son tasiri na musamman) don ba da damar fim ko firikwensin, wanda ke da iyakacin iyaka mai ƙarfi, don yin rikodin daki-daki a cikin abubuwan da aka fi sani ba tare da an wanke su ba, kuma a cikin inuwa ba tare da zama yankunan baƙar fata ba tare da bambanci ba.

A kan hotunan tauraron ɗan adam da hotuna na iska, da aka ɗauka a tsaye, ana iya gane dogayen gine-gine ta hanyar dogon inuwarsu (idan ba a ɗauki hotuna a wurare masu zafi da tsakar rana ba), yayin da waɗannan kuma suna nuna Ƙarin siffar waɗannan gine-gine.

Hanyoyi masu kama da juna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da inuwa a matsayin kalma sau da yawa don kowane rufewa ko toshewa, ba kawai waɗanda suka shafi haske ba. Misali, inuwar ruwan sama busasshen wuri ne, wanda dangane da iskar da ke kan gaba, ya wuce iyakar tsauni ; Tsayayyen ƙasa yana hana girgijen ruwan sama shiga cikin busasshiyar wuri. Inuwa mai sauti tana faruwa lokacin da aka katange sautin kai tsaye ko aka karkatar da shi kusa da wani yanki da aka bayar.

Abubuwan al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Inuwar da ba a kula da ita ba wasu al'adu suna tunanin tayi kama da na fatalwa. Sunan tsoron inuwa shine "sciophobia" ko "sciaphobia".

Chhaya ita ce allahn Hindu na inuwa.

A cikin heraldry, lokacin da ake zargin ana nuna cajin "a cikin inuwa" (bayanin cajin shine kawai an tsara shi a cikin tint mai tsaka-tsaki maimakon kasancewa ɗaya ko fiye da tinctures daban-daban daga filin da aka sanya shi), yana da fasaha. aka kwatanta da "kumbura". Ana tsammanin, iyakataccen adadin taƙamaiman caji ne kawai za a iya kwatanta haka.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Sau da yawa ana danganta inuwa da duhu da mugunta; a cikin al'adun gargajiya da na zamani, kamar inuwa masu tasowa, galibi miyagu ne ke ƙoƙarin sarrafa mutanen da suke tunani. Fim ɗin Upside-Down Magic yana nuna ruhun inuwa mai adawa wanda ya mallaki mutane.

Masarawa na dā sun ɗauka cewa inuwa, wadda suke kira šwt (shut), tana ɗauke da wani abu na mutumin da yake wakilta domin tana nan a koyaushe. Ta hanyar wannan ƙungiya, wani lokaci ana kiran mutum-mutumin mutane da gumaka a matsayin inuwa.

A cikin sharhin Littafin Matattu na Masar (BD), Masanin ilimin Masar Ogden Goelet, Jr. ya tattauna nau'ikan inuwa: "A yawancin BD papyri da kaburbura an kwatanta mamacin yana fitowa daga kabarin da rana a cikin inuwa, bakin ciki., baki, silhouette na mutum mara siffa. Mutumin da ke cikin wannan sigar, kamar yadda za mu sanya shi, inuwar tsohonsa ne kawai, amma duk da haka yana nan. Wani nau'i na inuwa yana ɗauka a cikin BD, musamman dangane da alloli, shine inuwar jimina-fukin rana, wani abu da zai haifar da inuwa.[8]

Samar da makamashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana kimiyya daga Jami'ar Ƙasa ta Singapore sun gabatar da wani injin samar da makamashi na inuwa (SEG), wanda ya ƙunshi sel na zinari da aka ajiye a kan waƙar silicon da aka maƙala akan fim ɗin filastik. Janareta yana da ƙarfin 0.14 μW cm -2 a ƙarƙashin yanayin gida (0.001 rana).[9]

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Raking haske
  • Tasirin digon baki
  • Aikace-aikace na juyin juya hali, don ƙarin tattaunawa ta jiki da ta lissafi game da inuwa
  • Inuwar duniya
  • Gnomon
  • Inuwa
  • Inuwar Majalisar
  • Taswirar inuwa, a cikin zane-zane na 3D na kwamfuta
  • Inuwa mutane
  • Wasan inuwa
  • Shadowgraphy ko ombromanie, fasahar inuwa ta hannu
  • Sciography, fasahar inuwar gine-gine
  • Inuwa a cikin kamanni

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. https://esahubble.org/news/heic1504/
  2. NASA Science Question of the Week. Gsfc.nasa.gov (April 7, 2006). Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
  3. https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/young-astronomer-captures-a-shadow-cast-by-jupiter#.UaDO1UAoNAU
  4. https://www.moonconnection.com/lunar_vs_solar.phtml
  5. The Edinburgh monthly review. 1820. p. 372.
  6. https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SpeedOfLight/FTL.html#3
  7. https://www.pa.uky.edu/sciworks/qlight.htm
  8. Goelet, Ogden, Jr. (1994). The Egyptian Book of the dead: the Book of going forth by day: being the Papyrus of Ani (royal scribe of the divine offerings), written and illustrated circa 1250 B.C.E., by scribes and artists unknown, including the balance of chapters of the books of the dead known as the Theban recension, compiled from ancient texts, dating back to the roots of Egyptian civilization (1st ed.). Chronicle Books. p. 152. ISBN 0811807673.
  9. Qian Zhang; et al. (2020). "Energy harvesting from shadow-effect". Energy & Environmental Science. doi:10.1039/D0EE00825G

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]