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Kungiyar Asiri

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Kungiyar Asiri
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na ma'aikata
Has characteristic (en) Fassara secrecy (en) Fassara
"Ginin Al'umma Asirin a KwalejinCollege", by Alice Donlevy[1] ca. 1880. Pictured are: Psi Upsilon (Beta Chapter), 120 High Street. [2]Left center: Skull and Bones (Russell Trust Association), 64 High Street. Right center: Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi Chapter), east side of York Street, south of Elm Street. Bottom: Scroll and Key (Kingsley Trust SSS Nonse
hoton shaidan

gungiyar Asiri gungiya ce ko hadaka wadda ayyukanta, abubuwan da suka faru, ayyuka na ciki,ko membobinta ke boye sirrinta. Al'umma na ta yin yunkurin boye wanzuwarta. Kalmar yawanci tana cire gungiyoyin boye, kamar hukumomin leken asiri ko tashe- tashen hankula na yaƙi, wadanda ke boye ayyukansu da membobinsu amma suna kiyaye gaban jama'a.[3]

Ana jayayya game da ainihin cancantar yiwa gungiyar lakabin gungiyar asiri, amma ma'anar gabadaya sun dogara ne akan matakin da gungiyar ta dage akan sirri, kuma yana iya hadawa da rikewa da watsa ilimin sirri, din kasancewa memba ko ilimin gungiyar, samar da alaka ta sirri tsakanin mambobin kungiyar, da yin amfani da ibadodi ko al'adu na sirri da ke karfafa 'ya'yan kungiyar .

A tarihin dan adam da tarihi, gungiyoyin asiri sun kasance suna da alaqa da ra'ayi na Männerbund, duka-maza "warrior-band" ko "jarumin al'umma" na al'adun zamani (duba H. Schurtz, Alterklassen und Männerbünde, Berlin, 1902). ; A. Van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, Chicago, 1960).[4]

An gabatar da wani abin da ake kira "bishiyar iyali na gungiyoyin asiri", kodayake ba ta cika ba.

Alan Axelrod, marubucin International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders, ya bayyana wata gungiya ta sirri a matsayin gungiya cewa:

  • kebantacce
  • yayi ikirarin mallakar sirri na musamman
  • yana nuna kakkarfan sha'awar fifita membobinsa.

Masanin tarihi Richard B. Spence [5] na Jami'ar Idaho ya ba da irin wannan ma'anar ta uku:

  • Kasancewar kungiyar ba a asirce ba ne, amma wasu akida ko ayyuka suna boye ga jama'a kuma suna bukatar rantsuwar sirri da aminci don koyo.
  • Gungiyar ta yi alqawarin matsayi mafi girma ko ilimi ga membobin.
  • Kasancewar gungiyar ta wata hanya tana takurawa, kamar ta launin fata, jima'i, addini, ko gayyata kawai.[6]

Spence kuma ya ba da shawarar wani yanki na "Elite Secret Societies" (wanda ya gunshi manyan masu samun kudi ko kuma masu tasiri a cikin al'umma), kuma ya lura cewa gungiyoyin asiri suna da yawa idan ba duniya ba game da bangaranci, fadace-fadace da kuma da'awar asalin tsofaffi fiye da yadda za a iya dogara da su a rubuce. . Ma'anar Spence ya hada da gungiyoyin da ake tunanin al'ada a matsayin gungiyoyin asiri ( Freemasons da Rosicrucians ) da sauran gungiyoyin da ba a kayyade su a al'ada ba kamar wasu gungiyoyin laifuka ( Mafia ), kungiyoyin addini ( Order of Assassins da Thelema ) da gungiyoyin siyasa ( Bolsheviks da Black Dragon ). Al'umma ).

David V. Barrett, marubucin gungiyoyin Asirin: Daga Tsohon ilimin sirri zuwa na Zamani da Clandestine, ya yi amfani da wasu kalmomi don bayyana abin da ya cancanci gungiyar asiri. Ya siffanta ta da cewa duk wata kungiya ce da ta mallaki wadannan siffofi:

  • Ya na da "a tsanaki da ci gaban koyarwa".
  • Koyarwar tana "samuwa ga mutane da aka zaɓa kawai".
  • Koyarwa tana kaiwa ga "boyayyun (da 'na musamman') gaskiya".
  • Gaskiya suna kawo "fa'idodin sirri fiye da abin da ake iya kaiwa har ma da fahimtar wanda ba a sani ba."

Barrett ya ci gaba da cewa "wani wata sifa da aka saba da ita ga mafi yawansu ita ce ayyukan al'adu wadanda ba 'yan kungiyar ba ne ba a ba su izinin kiyaye su ba, ko ma sanin wanzuwarsu." Ma'anar Barrett zai kawar da gungiyoyi da yawa da ake kira gungiyoyin asiri; Koyarwar da aka yi maki yawanci ba ta cikin dan uwan kwaleji na Amurka, Carbonari, ko karni na 19 Ban San Komai ba .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Masanin tarihi Jasper Ridley yayi jayayya cewa Freemasonry shine, "gungiyar asiri mafi ƙarfi a duniya."

Gungiyar " Opus Dei " ( Latin Latin don "Aikin Allah") an kwatanta shi a matsayin "tsarin al'umma" na Cocin Katolika . Masu suka irin su Jesuit Wladimir Ledóchowski wani lokaci suna nufin Opus Dei a matsayin Katolika (ko Kirista ko "farar fata") na Freemasonry . Sauran masu sukar suna yiwa Opus Dei lakabin "Mafia Mai Tsarki" [7] ko "Santa Mafia" kamar yadda gungiyar ke da alaqa da ayyuka daban-daban da ake tambaya ciki har da tsananin " kwakwalwa " na membobinta don cin gajiyar karfin aiki da kuma kai tsaye. shigar da membobin cikin manyan laifuka kamar fataucin jarirai a Spain a karkashin mulkin kama- karya Francisco Franco .

Domin wasu kungiyoyin asiri suna da manufar siyasa, sun sabawa doka a kasashe da dama. Italiya ( Tsarin Tsarin Mulki na Italiya, Sashe na 2, Articles 13-28 ) da Poland, alal misali, sun haramta jam'iyyun siyasa na asiri da kungiyoyin siyasa a cikin kundin tsarin mulkin su.

Kwalejoji da jami'o'i

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin kungiyoyin dalibai da aka kafa a cibiyoyin jami'o'i a Amurka an dauki su a matsayin gungiyoyin asiri. Watakila dayan shahararrun gungiyoyin hadin gwiwar sirri shine Kwanyar Kai da Kasusuwa a Jami'ar Yale . Tasirin gungiyoyin sirri na karatun digiri na biyu a kwalejoji kamar Harvard College, Jami'ar Cornell, Kwalejin Dartmouth, Jami'ar Emory, Jami'ar Chicago, Jami'ar Virginia, Jami'ar Georgetown, Jami'ar New York, da Kwalejin Wellesley sun kasance. an yarda da shi a bainar jama'a, idan ba a san su ba kuma ba tare da bin doka ba, tun daga karni na 19.

Jami'o'in Biritaniya, suma, suna da dogon tarihi na gungiyoyin sirri ko gungiyoyin sirri, irin su The Pitt Club a Jami'ar Cambridge, [8] Bullingdon Club a Jami'ar Oxford, da 16' Club a St David's Kwalejin . Wata gungiyar asiri ta Biritaniya ita ce Cambridge Apostles waɗanda aka kafa a matsayin maqala da al'umma ta muhawara a cikin 1820. Ba duk Jami'o'in Biritaniya ba ne ke karbar gungiyoyin Asiri ba. the night climbers of Cambridge da climbers ofOxford suna bukatar duka masu tunani da kwakwalwa.

A Faransa, Vandermonde ita ce gungiyar asiri ta Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers .

Fitattun misalai a Kanada sun hada da Episkopon a Kwalejin Trinity na Jami'ar Toronto, da Society of Thoth a Jami'ar British Columbia .[ana buƙatar hujja]

An hana gungiyoyin sirri a cikin dan kwalejoji. Cibiyar Soja ta Virginia tana da ka'idoji wadanda babu wani dan takara da zai iya shiga gungiyar asiri, kuma an dakatar da gungiyoyin asiri a Kwalejin Oberlin daga 1847 zuwa yanzu, kuma a Jami'ar Princeton tun farkon karni na 20. .

Confraternities a Najeriya gungiyoyin asiri ne kamar gungiyoyin dalibai a cikin manyan makarantu. Ba a dai san takamaiman adadin mutanen da suka mutu na ayyukan hadin gwiwa ba. Daya daga cikin kiyasin a cikin 2002 shine cewa an kashe mutane 250 a cikin kashe-kashen da ke da alaka da kungiyoyin asiri a cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata, [9] yayin da gungiyar masu fafutuka ta Exam Ethics Project ta kiyasta cewa an kashe dalibai da malamai 115 tsakanin 1993 da 2003. [10]

Ana tsammanin kungiyar Mandatory Monday Association is thought tayi aiki daga cikin jami'o'in Australiya iri-iri ciki har da Kwalejin Sojan Tsaro ta Australiya . Ƙungiyar tana da surori da yawa waɗanda ke haɗuwa kawai a ranar Litinin don tattauna kasuwanci da aiwatar da ayyukan al'ada.

Gungiyoyin sirri guda daya da aka soke sannan kuma aka halatta ita ce ta The Philomaths, a zamanin yau wata gungiya ce ta halal ta ilimi da aka kafa akan tsauraran zabi na membobinta.

Yanar Gizo-gizo

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da ake hasashen wanzuwar su tsawon shekaru, gungiyoyin sirri na yanar Gizo sun fara sanin jama'a a cikin 2012 lokacin da gungiyar asirin da aka fi sani da Cicada 3301 ta fara daukar ma'aikata daga jama'a ta hanyar wasanin gwada ilimi na tushen yanar Gizo Burin al'umma ya kasance ba a sani ba, amma an yi imanin cewa suna da hannu a cikin cryptography .

Hatimin Hongmen, karni na 19. [11]
China
  • Red Lanterns (Boxer Uprising)
  • Red Spear Society
  • Tiandihui,
    • Society of the Heaven and the Earth (Tong organization)
  • Yellow Sand Society
  • White lotus

Philippines

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

• La Liga Filipina

• KKK

Japan
  • Black Dragon Society
  • Double Leaf society
  • Gen'yosha
  • Green Dragon (oda)
  • Kenkokukai
  • Sakurakai
Singapore
Najeriya
  • Abakuá
  • Ekpe
  • Nze na Ozo
  • Ogboni
Afirka ta Kudu
  • Afrikaner Broederbond
Afirka ta Yamma
    • Crocodile Society
    • Leopard Society
    • Poro, a secret men's society
    • Sande society, the female counterpart to the Poro society
    • Simo (society
Zimbabwe
  • Nyau
Jamus
  • Illuminati
  • Oder of newTemplars
  • Ordo Templi Orientis
Ireland
  • Irish Republican Brotherhood
  • The Defenders
Italiya
  • propaganda due
Serbia
  • Balack hand
Kasar Ingila
  • Bullingdon Club
  • Hermetic Order na Golden Dawn
  • club16'
  • 5 Titin Hertford
Pan-Turai
  • Freemasonry
  • Rosicrucianism

Amirka ta Arewa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Collegiate secret societies in North America
Amurka
  • Bohemian club
    • International Debutante Ball
    • Knights of the Golden Circle
    • Order of the Star Spangled Banner
    • Skull and Bones

Kudancin Amurka

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Brazil
  • Shindo Renmei

Yawancin Cocin Kirista sun hana membobinsu shiga gungiyoyin asiri. Misali, sakin layi na 41 na Dokokin Gababaya da ke kunshe cikin Ladabi na Hadin Methodist Allegheny Wesleyan yana koyarwa:

Further, by abstaining from membership in secret societies. We will on no account tolerate our ministers and members joining or holding fellowship with secret societies, as, in the judgment of The Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection (Original Allegheny Conference), it is inconsistent with our duties to God to hold such relations.

"Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing" (John 18:20). "Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not" (Matt. 24:26).
"But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation" (Jas. 5:12).

Also see Lev. 5:4, 5; Isa. 29:15; Matt. 5:34–36; John 3:19, 20; 2 Cor. 4:1, 2; 6:14–18; Eph. 5:11, 12; 1 John 4:2, 3.[12]

    • Fraternal order
    • Magical organization
  1. Alice Donlevy was the author of a book on illustration called "Practical Hints on the Art of Illumination," published by A. D. F. Randolph, New York, 1867
  2. https://www.britannica.com/topic/secret-society
  3. https://books.google.com/books?id=h7q3VIZCiwQC
  4. https://www.history.com/news/secret-societies-freemasons-knights-templar
  5. Spence, Richard B. The Real History of Secret Societies (2019), The Great Courses
  6. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2022-06-09. Retrieved 2022-06-09.
  7. Empty citation (help)
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bully
  9. "NIGERIA: Focus on the menace of student cults", IRIN, 1 August 2002
  10. "Cults of violence", The Economist, 31 July 2008
  11. Alexander Wylie: Secret Societies in China, in China Researches, p. 131, 1897 Shanghai, reprinted in US by Nabu Public Domain Reprints
  12. The Discipline of the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection (Original Allegheny Conference) (in Turanci). Salem: Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection. 2014. pp. 20–21.

Ci gaba da karatu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  •  
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  • Harwood, W. S. "Secret Societies in America," The North American Review, Vol. 164, No. 486, May 1897.
  •  
  •  
  • Jeffers, H. Paul. Freemasons: A History and Exploration of the World's Oldest Secret Society. (Citadel Press, 2005).
  • Jeffers, H. Paul. The Freemasons in America: Inside the Secret Society (2006) excerpt
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  • Stephen Klimczuk, Gerald Warner (2009). Secret Places, Hidden Sanctuaries: Uncovering Mysterious Sights, Symbols, and Societies, New York: Sterling Publishing Company.

Samfuri:Fraternities and sororities