Kusa da hangen nesa

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Kusa da hangen nesa, wanda kuma aka sani da gajeriyar hangen nesa da myopia, cuta ce ta ido inda haske ke mai da hankali a gaban, maimakon kan, retina.[1][2] Wannan yana sa abubuwa masu nisa su zama blush yayin da abubuwa kusa suke bayyana al'ada.[1] Sauran alamomin na iya haɗawa da ciwon kai da ciwon ido.[1] Matsanancin hangen nesa na kusa yana da alaƙa da ƙara haɗarin ɓarnawar ido, cataracts, da glaucoma.[2]

An yi imanin dalilin da ya haifar da haɗuwa da kwayoyin halitta da abubuwan muhalli.[2] Abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da yin aikin da ya haɗa da mayar da hankali kan abubuwa na kusa, mafi yawan lokacin da aka kashe a gida, da tarihin iyali na yanayin.[2][3] Hakanan yana da alaƙa da babban aji na zamantakewa.[2] Tsarin tushen ya ƙunshi tsayin ƙwallon ido yana girma da tsayi ko ƙasa da haka ruwan tabarau yana da ƙarfi sosai.[1][4] Wani nau'in kuskure ne na refractive.[1] Ana gano cutar ta hanyar duban ido.[1]

Shaidu na yau da kullun sun nuna cewa ana iya rage haɗarin hangen nesa ta hanyar sa yara ƙanana su ciyar da lokaci mai yawa a waje.[5][6] Wannan na iya kasancewa yana da alaƙa da bayyanar haske na halitta.[7] Ana iya gyara hangen nesa kusa da gilashin ido, ruwan tabarau, ko tiyata.[1] Gilashin ido shine hanya mafi sauƙi kuma mafi aminci na gyarawa.[1] Tuntuɓi ruwan tabarau na iya samar da faffadar hangen nesa, amma suna da alaƙa da haɗarin kamuwa da cuta.[1] Tiyata mai jujjuyawa tana canza siffar cornea har abada.[1]

Kusantar gani ita ce matsalar ido da aka fi sani kuma an kiyasta tana shafar mutane biliyan 1.5 (kashi 22 na yawan jama'a).[2][8] Farashin ya bambanta sosai a yankuna daban-daban na duniya.[2] Farashin tsakanin manya yana tsakanin 15% zuwa 49%.[3][9] Farashin yana kama da mata da maza.[9] Daga cikin yara, yana shafar kashi 1% na mutanen karkara Nepal, 4% na Afirka ta Kudu, 12% na Amurkawa, da 37% a wasu manyan biranen China.[2][3] Farashin ya karu tun daga shekarun 1950.[9] Kusantar gani da ba a gyara ba yana ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da nakasar gani a duniya tare da cataracts, macular degeneration, da rashi na bitamin A.[9]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Foster PJ, Jiang Y (February 2014). "Epidemiology of myopia". Eye. 28 (2): 202–8. doi:10.1038/eye.2013.280. PMC 3930282. PMID 24406412.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pan CW, Ramamurthy D, Saw SM (January 2012). "Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia". Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 32 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00884.x. PMID 22150586.
  4. Ledford, Al Lens, Sheila Coyne Nemeth, Janice K. (2008). Ocular anatomy and physiology (2nd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: SLACK. p. 158. ISBN 9781556427923. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  5. Ramamurthy D, Lin Chua SY, Saw SM (November 2015). "A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence". Clinical & Experimental Optometry (Review). 98 (6): 497–506. doi:10.1111/cxo.12346. PMID 26497977.
  6. Xiong S, Sankaridurg P, Naduvilath T, Zang J, Zou H, Zhu J, et al. (September 2017). "Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review". Acta Ophthalmologica. 95 (6): 551–566. doi:10.1111/aos.13403. PMC 5599950. PMID 28251836.
  7. Hobday R (January 2016). "Myopia and daylight in schools: a neglected aspect of public health?". Perspectives in Public Health. 136 (1): 50–5. doi:10.1177/1757913915576679. PMID 25800796.
  8. Holden B, Sankaridurg P, Smith E, Aller T, Jong M, He M (February 2014). "Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control". Eye. 28 (2): 142–6. doi:10.1038/eye.2013.256. PMC 3930268. PMID 24357836.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Pan CW, Dirani M, Cheng CY, Wong TY, Saw SM (March 2015). "The age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia: a meta-analysis". Optometry and Vision Science. 92 (3): 258–66. doi:10.1097/opx.0000000000000516. PMID 25611765.