Kyautar Albertine

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Kyautar Albertine
General information
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 1°05′13″S 29°20′36″E / 1.086992°S 29.343436°E / -1.086992; 29.343436
Wuri Afirka
An artificial computer rendering depicting the Albertine Rift
Fassarar wucin gadi na Kyautar Albertine. Abubuwan da ake gani sun hada da (daga bango zuwa gaba, kallon arewa): Tafkin Albert, tsaunukan Rwenzori, Lake Edward, tsaunukan Virunga, Tafkin Kivu, da arewacin tafkin Tanganyika

Kyautar Albertine ita ce reshen yamma na Rift na Afirka ta Gabas, wanda ya shafi sassa na Uganda, Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi da Tanzania. Ya faro daga ƙarshen arewacin Tafkin Albert zuwa ƙarshen ƙarshen tafkin Tanganyika. Kalmar labarin kasa ta hada kwari da tsaunukan da ke kewaye da ita.[1]

Ilimin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar yankin da ke nuna Kyautar Albertine zuwa yamma

Kyautar Albertine da tsaunuka sakamakon motsawar ''tectonic'' ne wanda a hankali yake raba Farantin Somaliya daga sauran kasashen Afirka. Duwatsun da ke kewaye da raƙuman sun haɗu ne da duwatsun ƙasa na ''Pre-Cambrian'' da aka ɗauke su, waɗanda duwatsu masu aman wuta na kwanan nan suka mamaye su.

Tabkuna da koguna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin arewacin tsagewar ya ratsa ta manyan tsaunuka biyu, tsaunukan Rwenzori tsakanin Tafkin Albert da Lake Rutanzige (tsohon Lake) da tsaunukan Virunga tsakanin Tafkin Rutanziga da Tafkin Kivu. Virungas suna yin shinge tsakanin Kogin Nilu zuwa arewa da gabas da Kogin Congo zuwa yamma da kudu. Tabkin Rutenzige yana wadatar da manyan koguna da yawa, kogin Rutshuru na ɗaya ne, kuma yana malala zuwa arewa ta cikin Kogin Semliki zuwa tafkin Albert. Kogin Victoria yana gudana daga Tafkin Victoria zuwa ƙarshen ƙarshen tafkin Albert kuma yana fita kamar Farin Nilu daga wani ɗan kaɗan zuwa yamma, yana kwarara arewa zuwa Bahar Rum.[2]

Kudancin Virungu, Tafkin Kivu ya malale kudu zuwa Tafkin Tanganyika ta Kogin Ruzizi. Tafkin Tanganyika sai ya malale zuwa Kogin Congo ta hanyar Kogin Lukuga.[3] Da alama akwai tsarin tsarin halittar ruwa na yanzu da aka kafa kwanan nan lokacin da dutsen tsaunuka na Virunga ya fashe ya toshe ambaliyar ruwa ta arewa daga Tafkin Kivu zuwa Tafkin Edward, wanda ya haifar da hakan a maimakon yabar kudu zuwa Tafkin Tanganyika. Kafin wannan Tafkin Tanganyika, ko kuma wasu keɓaɓɓun tafki a cikin abin da yake yanzu tafkin, ƙila ba su da wata hanyar fita sai dai yanayin ƙoshin ruwa.[4] Lukuga ya samo asali kwanan nan, yana ba da hanyar da jinsunan ruwa na Kogin Kongo za su iya mallakar Tafkin Tanganyika, wanda a da yake da dabbobi iri daban-daban.[5]

Duwatsu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Stanley a cikin zangon Rwenzori. Tare da hawan 5,109 m (16,763 ft), shine tsauni mafi tsayi a cikin Kyautar Albertine kuma na uku mafi tsayi a Afirka.

Daga arewa zuwa kudu tsaunukan sun hada da Lendu Plateau, tsaunukan Rwenzori, Tsaunukan Virunga da tsaunukan Itombwe.[6] An gano tsaunukan Ruwenzori da "Dutsen Wata" na Ptolemy. Yankin ya mamaye yanki mai nisan kilomita 120 (75 mi) a gun tsawo da kilomita 65 (40 mi) fadi. Wannan zangon ya hada da Dutsen Stanley mita 5,119 (16,795 ft), Dutsen Speke mita 4,890 (16,040 ft) da Dutsen Baker mita 4,843 (15,889 ft).[7] Virunga Massif da ke kan iyakar tsakanin Ruwanda da DRC ya ƙunshi duwatsu masu aman wuta guda takwas. Biyu daga cikin waɗannan, Nyamuragira da Nyiragongo, har yanzu suna aiki sosai.[8]

Wuraren da suka keɓe daga kudu zuwa kudu sun haɗa da Dutsen Bururi da ke kudancin Burundi, da tsaunukan Kungwe-Mahale da ke yammacin Tanzania, da Dutsen Kabobo da tsaunukan Marungu a cikin DRC a gefen Tafkin Tanganyika.[9] Mafi yawa daga cikin manyan mutane suna tashi zuwa tsakanin mita 2,000 (6,600 ft) da mita 3,500 (11,500 ft).

Ilimin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dazukan tsaunukan Kyautar Albertine suna da mahimman yankuna masu fa'ida.[10] Ana samun gandun daji na tsaka-tsakin, matsakaici tsakanin tsaunuka masu tsaurara da tsaunuka, daga tsawan mita 1,000 (3,300 ft) zuwa mita 1,750 (5,740 ft). Gandun dajin Montane ya rufe gangara daga kusan mita 1,600 (5,200 ft) zuwa mita 3,500 (kafa 11,500). A saman mita 2,400 (7,900 ft) akwai yankunan bamboo da gandun daji na elfin. Yankin zafi da ciyayi sun mamaye sama da mita 3,500 (kafa 11,500). Ilimin halittu yana fuskantar barazana ta hanyar sare dazuzzuka yayin da karuwar yawan jama'a ke neman sabuwar kasar noma. Fitar da katako ba bisa ƙa'ida ba wata babbar matsala ce, kuma hakar gwal na haifar da wasu lahani na cikin gida.[11]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Owiunji & Plumptre 2011, p. 164.
  2. Erfurt-Cooper & Cooper 2010, pp. 35–36.
  3. Erfurt-Cooper & Cooper 2010, p. 35-36.
  4. Clark 1969, p. 35.
  5. Hughes & Hughes 1992, p. 562.
  6. Template:WWF ecoregion
  7. Erfurt-Cooper & Cooper 2010, p. 37.
  8. Erfurt-Cooper & Cooper 2010, p. 36.
  9. Template:WWF ecoregion
  10. Template:WWF ecoregion
  11. Birdlife.

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Birdlife. "Albertine Rift mountains". Birdlife International. Archived from the original on 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  • Clark, John Desmond (1969). Kalambo Falls prehistoric site, Volume 1. CUP Archive.
  • Erfurt-Cooper, Patricia; Cooper, Malcolm (2010). Volcano and Geothermal Tourism: Sustainable Geo-Resources for Leisure and Recreation. Earthscan. ISBN 1-84407-870-1.
  • Hughes, R. H.; Hughes, J. S. (1992). A directory of African wetlands. IUCN. ISBN 2-88032-949-3.
  • Owiunji, I.; Plumptre, A.J. (2011). "The importance of cloud forest sites in the conservation of endemic and threatened species of the Albertine Rift". Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521760356.