Kogin Congo

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Kogin Congo
Sunrise near Mossaka (Congo).JPG
General information
Tsawo 4,700 km
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 6°04′45″S 12°27′00″E / 6.0791666666667°S 12.45°E / -6.0791666666667; 12.45
Kasa Angola, Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango, Jamhuriyar Kwango da Zambiya
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara
Watershed area (en) Fassara 401,450,000 km²
Drainage basin (en) Fassara Congo basin (en) Fassara
River source (en) Fassara Boyoma Falls (en) Fassara
River mouth (en) Fassara Tekun Atalanta

Kogin kongo (Kongo: Nzâdi Kôngo, Faransanci: Kongo fleuve, Fotigal: Rio Congo), wanda a da ake kira da Kogin Zaire, shine kogi na biyu mafi tsayi a Afirka, gajere kaɗan ne kawai fiye da Kogin Nilu, kazalika da kogi na biyu mafi girma a duniya ta hanyar fitarwa, suna bin Amazon kawai. Har ila yau, shine mafi zurfin rafin da aka yi rikodin a duniya, tare da zurfin zurfin da ya zarce 220 m (720 ft).[1] Tsarin Kogin Congo-Lualaba-Chambeshi yana da tsawon kilomita 4,700 (mi mi 2,920), wanda ya sa ya zama kogi mafi tsayi na tara a duniya. Chambeshi yanki ne na Kogin Lualaba, kuma Lualaba shine sunan Kogin Kongo wanda yake hawan Boyoma Falls, wanda yakai 1,800 km (1,120 mi).

An auna shi tare da Lualaba, babban harajin, Kogin Congo yana da tsawon tsawon 4,370 km (2,715 mi). Babbar kogi ce kaɗai ta ƙetare mashigar teku sau biyu.[2] Kogin Kongo yana da yanki kusan kusan 4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi), ko kuma 13% na duk ƙasar Afirka.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunan Congo/Kongo kogin ya samo asali ne daga Masarautar Kongo sau ɗaya da ke gefen kudu na kogin. Shi kuma masarautar an sanya mata suna ne don asalin Bantu Kongo 'yan asalin, wanda aka sani a cikin karni na 17 da "Esikongo".[3] Kudancin masarautar Kongo ya dace da irin wannan masarautar Kakongo, wanda aka ambata a 1535. Abraham Ortelius a taswirar duniyarsa ta 1564 wacce aka yiwa lakabi da "Manicongo" birni a bakin kogin.[4]

Sunayen kabilu a cikin Kongo wataƙila sun samo asali ne daga kalma don taron jama'a ko taron kabilu. An gabatar da sunan zamani na mutanen Kongo ko Bakongo a farkon karni na 20.

Sunan Zaire daga asalin Fotigal ne na kalmar Kikongo, nzere ("kogi"), taƙaitaccen nzadi o nzere ("kogin haɗiye kogi").[5] An san kogin da suna Zaire a ƙarni na 16 da 17; Congo yana da alama ya maye gurbin Zaire a hankali cikin amfani da Ingilishi a cikin ƙarni na 18, kuma Congo ita ce sunan Ingilishi da aka fi so a cikin littattafan karni na 19, ko da yake nassoshi ga Zahir ko Zaire kamar yadda sunan da mazaunan ke amfani da shi ya zama gama gari.[6] Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo da Jamhuriyar Congo an sanya mata suna, kamar yadda ita ma Jamhuriyar Congo da ta gabata wacce ta sami 'yencin kai a shekarar 1960 daga Jamhuriyar Congo. Jamhuriyar Zaire a tsakanin 1971–1997 kuma an sanya mata sunan kogin a cikin Faransanci da Fotigal.

Basin da hanya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin kongo ya kwashe murabba'in kilomita 4,014,500 (1,550,000 sq mi),[7] yankin da ya fi Indiya girma. Fitar da kasar Kongo a bakin ta ya fara ne daga 23,000 zuwa 75,000 cubic meters a kowane dakika (810,000 zuwa 2,650,000 cu ft/s), tare da matsakaita na mita dubu 41,000 a dakika daya (1,400,000 cu ft/s).[7]

Kogin da raƙuman ruwa suna gudana ta cikin Kongo Rainforest, yanki na biyu mafi girma a cikin gandun daji a duniya, na biyu kawai bayan dajin Amazon na Kudancin Amurka. Har ila yau, kogin yana da babbar gudana ta biyu a duniya, bayan Amazon; babban tafki mafi girma na biyu na kowane kogi, a bayan Amazon; kuma yana daya daga cikin koguna mafiya zurfi a duniya, a zurfin da ya fi mita 220 (ƙafa 720).[1][8] Saboda magudanar ruwansa ya hada da yankuna arewa da kudu na mai kwatankwacin, magudanar tata tana da karko, tunda koyaushe akwai akalla wani bangare na kogin dake fuskantar damina.[9]

Tushen Kongo suna cikin tsaunuka da tsaunuka na Gabashin Afirka, da kuma tafkin Tanganyika da tafkin Mweru, waɗanda ke ciyar da Kogin Lualaba, wanda daga baya ya zama Kongo ƙasa da Boyoma Falls. Gabaɗaya ana ɗaukar Kogin Chambeshi a cikin Zambiya a matsayin tushen Kongo daidai da yarda da ƙa'idar da aka yarda da ita a duk duniya ta yin amfani da mafi tsada, kamar yadda ake amfani da Kogin Nilu.

Kwango yana kwarara gaba ɗaya zuwa arewa maso yamma daga Kisangani a ƙasa da faɗuwar Boyoma, sannan a hankali ya lanƙwasa kudu maso yamma, yana wucewa ta Mbandaka, yana haɗuwa da Kogin Ubangi, yana gudu zuwa Kogin Malebo (Stanley Pool). Kinshasa (a dā Léopoldville) da Brazzaville suna gefen ɓangarorin kogin a Kogin, inda kogin ya taƙaita kuma ya faɗo ta hanyar wasu ƙyauran ido a cikin manyan kwaruruka (waɗanda aka fi sani da suna Livingstone Falls), wanda Matadi da Boma ke gudana. teku a ƙaramin garin Muanda.

Kogin Kongo ɗayan ɗayan rarrabuwar kawuna ne na lardin Mid-Afirka mafi girma, wanda kuma hakan wani ɓangare ne na rukunin manya-manyan sassan Afirka.

Jigilar ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin yana jigila a kowace shekara ta tan miliyan 86 na rarar da aka dakatar da ita zuwa Tekun Atlantika da kuma ƙarin kashi 6% na nauyin gado.[10]

Kananan Congo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kananan Kongo ya zama 'ƙananan' sassan babban kogin; wannan shine bangaren kogin daga bakin kogin a gabar tekun Atlantika zuwa tagwayen manyan biranen Brazzaville a Jamhuriyar Congo da Kinshasa a cikin DR Congo.

A cikin wannan ɓangaren kogin, akwai manyan rairayi biyu zuwa babban Kogin Kongo, duka a gefen hagu ko kudu. Kogin Kwilu ya samo asali ne daga tsaunukan da ke kusa da iyakar Angola kuma ya shiga Kongo kusan kilomita 100 daga Matadi. Dayan kuwa shi ne Kogin Inkisi, wanda ke gudana ta hanyar arewa daga Lardin Uíge a Angola zuwa haduwa da Kongo a Zongo mai nisan kilomita 80 daga tagwayen manyan biranen.

Dangane da yawan saurin gudu, musamman, Livingstone Falls, wannan ɓangaren kogin ba a ci gaba da sarrafa shi ta jiragen ruwa.

Utarungiyoyin ruwa zuwa ga Kogin Congo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanya da Lambatu na Kogin Congo tare da ƙasashe masu alama
Hanya da Lambatu na Kogin Congo tare da inuwar yanayin kasa.

Tafkin magudanan ruwa na Kogin Kongo ya hada da yawancin Afirka ta Tsakiya. Babban kogi da rabin ruwa ne: An ware domin daga gabobin da ke zuwa sama.


Kananan Kongo (bakin kogi zuwa Kinshasa)

Kadangaren Kinshasa, daga bakin kogin Banana, akwai wasu manyan rarar ruwa, duk suna gefen hagu.

  • Mpozo
  • Kwilu
  • Inkisi


Tsakiyar Kongo (Kinshasa zuwa Fadar ruwan Boyoma)

  • Kwa-Kassai (hagu) - 2150 km - 881,900 km2, 9,900 m3/s
  • Fimi
    • Lukenie
  • Kwango
  • Sankuru
  • Lefini (dama)
  • Sangha (dama) - kilomita 1,400, 213,400 km2, 2,471 m3/s↵
  • Kadéï
  • Ubangi / (dama) - kilomita 2,270, 772,800 km2, 4,000 m3 / s↵
  • Mbomou
  • Uele
  • Tshuapa ko Ruki River (hagu) - kilomita 1,000
  • Lulonga
  • Lopori
  • Maringa
  • Mongala
  • Kogin Itimbiri
  • Aruwimi

Lomami River (hagu) – 1,400 km

  • Lindi


Babban Kongo (Sama daga Fadar ruwan Boyoma)

Daga can gaba ta Fadar ruwan Boyoma kusa da Kisangani, ana kiran kogin Congo da Kogin Lualaba.

  • Yawancin rarar banki na dama
  • Luvua
    • Luapula
      • Chambeshi

Mahimmancin tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Garin Mbandaka tashar jiragen ruwa ce da ke kan iyakar Kogin Congo.
Kogin Congo a Maluku.

Ko da yake Livingstone Falls ya hana shiga daga teku, kusan dukkanin Kongo da ke sama da su ana iya sauƙaƙewa cikin sassa, musamman tsakanin Kinshasa da Kisangani. Manyan ruwa masu aikin ruwa sun yi aiki da kogin har zuwa kwanan nan. Kogin Kongo har yanzu yana da hanyar rayuwa a cikin ƙasa mai ƙarancin hanyoyi ko hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa.[11]

Layin dogo yanzu ya tsallake manyan faduwa guda uku, kuma yawancin kasuwancin Afirka ta Tsakiya suna wucewa tare da kogin, gami da jan ƙarfe, man dabino (kamar ƙwaya), sukari, kofi, da auduga.[12] Kogin yana da mahimmancin amfani da wutar lantarki, kuma Inga Dams da ke ƙasa da Pool Malebo sun fara cin ribar kogin Kongo.

Wutar lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Kongo shine kogi mafi iko a Afirka. A lokacin damina sama da cubic mita dubu 50 (1,800,000 cu ft) na ruwa a kowane dakika yana kwarara zuwa Tekun Atlantika. Damar dama ga Kogin Kongo da rafuka don samar da wutar lantarki suna da yawa. Masana kimiyya sun kirga cewa duk yankin Kogin Kongo yana da kashi 13 cikin 100 na karfin samar da wutar lantarki a duniya. Wannan zai samar da wadatacciyar wutar lantarki ga dukkan bukatun wutar lantarki na kudu da Sahara.[13]

A halin yanzu akwai shuke-shuke masu samar da wutar lantarki arba'in a cikin Kogin Kongo. Mafi girma su ne madatsun ruwa na Inga, kimanin kilomita 200 (mil 120) kudu maso yamma na Kinshasa. An fara aikin ne a farkon shekarun 1970, lokacin da aka kammala madatsar ruwa ta farko.[14] Tsarin (kamar yadda aka tsara tun asali) ya bukaci gina madatsun ruwa guda biyar wadanda da zasu iya samar da dumbin karfin megawatt 34,500. Har zuwa yau madatsun ruwa na Inga I da Inga II ne kawai aka gina, suna samar da 1,776 MW.[13]

A watan Fabrairun 2005, kamfanin samar da wutar lantarki mallakar kasar Afirka ta Kudu, Eskom, ya sanar da shawarar fadada zamani ta hanyar ingantawa da kuma gina sabon madatsar ruwa. Aikin zai kawo mafi girman kayan aikin zuwa gigawatt 40 (54,000,000 hp), ninki biyu na na madatsar ruwa ta Three Gorges na China.[15]

Ana fargabar cewa wadannan sabbin madatsun ruwa na iya haifar da bacewar yawancin nau'ikan kifaye da ke 'yan asalin kogin.[16]

Tarihin halitta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon Faɗuwar Livingstone (Lower Congo Rapids) kusa da Kinshasa

Tsarin Kogin Kongo na yanzu an kafa shi tsakanin shekaru 1.5 zuwa 2 miliyan BP, a lokacin Pleistocene.[17] Wataƙila a wannan lokacin an kame manyan kogunan ruwa na Kongo da yawa daga waɗansu kogunan da ke kusa da su, ciki har da Uele da Ubangi na sama daga tsarin Chari[18] da Kogin Chambeshi[19] tare da wasu manyan kogunan Kasai[20] na sama daga tsarin Zambezi.

Samuwar Kogin Kongo na iya haifar da ilimin allopatric na bonobo da chimpanzee na yau da kullun daga kakanninsu na kwanan nan.[21] Bonobo yana da yawan gaske ga gandun daji masu dausayi a yankin, kamar yadda sauran nau'ikan halittu masu ban sha'awa irin su biri na fadama Allen, biri na dryas, kwayar halittar ruwa, okapi, da kifin na Kongo.[22][23]

Dangane da rayuwar ruwa, Kogin Kongo yana da wadataccen nau'in jinsi, kuma daga cikin sanannun abubuwan da aka sani na endemics.[24] Ya zuwa shekarar 2009, an rubuta kusan nau'ikan kifi 800 daga Basin Kogin Kongo (ba kirgawa Tafkin Tanganyika ba, wanda yake hade amma yanayin ya banbanta sosai),[25] kuma manyan bangarori sun kasance kusan ba a bincika su ba.[26] Misali, sashen da ke Salonga National Park, wanda yake kusan girman Belgium, har yanzu ba'a sameshi ba kwata-kwata a shekarar 2006.[27] Anyi bayanin sabbin nau'in kifayen a kimiyyance tare da wasu abubuwan yau da kullun daga Kogin Kongo kuma yawancin nau'ikan da basu dace ba.[28] Kongo tana da mafi yawan bambancin kowane tsarin kogin Afirka; idan aka kwatanta, wadanda suka fi kudi a gaba sune Niger, Volta da Nile wadanda suke da kusan nau'o'in kifi 240, 140 da 130, bi da bi.[25][29] Saboda wannan da kuma manyan bambance-bambancen muhalli tsakanin yankuna a cikin kwandunan Kongo - gami da wuraren zama kamar su rafukan kogi, rafuka masu zurfi, rafuka, fadama da tabkuna - ana raba shi sau da yawa ecoregions (maimakon ɗauke shi a matsayin guda ecoregion). Daga cikin wadannan ecoregions, the Lower Kongo Rapids shi kadai yana da fiye da nau'in kifi 300,[30] gami da kusan 80 endemics[16] yayin da bangaren kudu maso yamma (Kasai Basin) shi kadai yake da fiye da nau'in kifi sama da 200, wanda kusan kashi daya cikin hudu suna da cutar.[31] Iyalan manyan kifayen - aƙalla a sassan kogin - su ne Cyprinidae (irin su carp / cyprinids, kamar su Labeo simpsoni), Mormyridae (giwayen giwa), Alestidae (tetras na Afirka), Mochokidae (kifayen da ke dafa abinci), da Cichlidae (cichlids).[32] Daga cikin 'yan ƙasar da ke cikin kogin akwai babbar, tigerfish mai girman gaske mai cin nama. Uku daga cikin abubuwan da ba a saba da su ba sune masu farin jini (wadanda ba su da launi ba) da makaho Lamprologus lethops, wanda aka yi imanin cewa yana rayuwa kamar zurfin mita 160 (520 ft) a kasa,[16] Heterochromis multidens, wanda ya fi kusanci da cichlids na Amurka fiye da sauran cichlids na Afirka,[33] da Caecobarbus geertsii, sanannen kifin kifi kawai a Afirka ta Tsakiya.[34] Hakanan akwai kwaɗi da katantanwa masu ɗumbin yawa.[32][35] An shirya madatsun ruwa masu yawa da ke rafin kogin, kuma waɗannan na iya haifar da hallaka da yawa daga cikin cututtukan endemics.[16]

Yawancin nau'ikan kunkuru, da siririn-snouted, Nile da dwarf kada ne 'yan asalin yankin Kogin Kongo. Manateate na Afirka suna zaune a ƙananan sassan kogin.[36]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bincike[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar ƙarni na 17 na mashigar ƙasar Congo
A cikin wannan taswirar 1853 na Afirka, sauran Yankin da ba a Binciko ba ya dace sosai da kwarin Congo

Dukan tekun Kongo mutane ne na Bantu, waɗanda ke cikin kabilu ɗari-ɗari (duba ƙabilun Jamhuriyar Demokiradiyar Kongo). Fadada Bantu an kiyasta ya isa Kongo ta Tsakiya da kusan 500 BC, da Upper Kongo a ƙarni na farko AD. Ragowar mutanen asalin ƙasar da gudun hijirar Bantu ta raba da muhallansu, wadanni / Abatwa na mawakiyar Ubangian, sun kasance a cikin gandun daji masu nisa na Kogin Kongo.

An kafa Masarautar Kongo ne kusan 1400 daga haɗuwa da masarautun Mpemba Kasi & Mbata da ke gefen hagu na ƙananan Kogin Congo. Ikon mallakarsa a bakin kogi ya kasance iyakance ga abin da ya dace da lardin Bas-Kongo na yau. Binciken Turai na Kongo ya fara ne a 1482, lokacin da mai binciken Fotigal Diogo Cão ya gano bakin kogin[37] (wataƙila a watan Agusta 1482), wanda ya sanya alama ta Padrão, ko ginshiƙin dutse (har yanzu yana nan, amma kawai a gutsuttsura) da aka gina akan Shark Point. Cão kuma ya hau kan kogin don ɗan gajeren taƙawa, yana ƙulla hulɗa da Masarautar Kongo. Ba a san cikakken tafkin kogin ba a duk farkon zamaninmu.[38]

Kogin Kongo na sama yana gudana yamma da Albertine Rift.[37] Ba a san alakar ta da Kongo ba har 1877. Yankin arewa maso gabashin gabashin Kwango ya sami fadada Nilotic a wani lokaci tsakanin ƙarni na 15 da 18, ta wurin kakannin Kudancin Luo masu magana da mutanen Alur. Francisco de Lacerda da ke bin Zambezi ya isa ga mafi girman ɓangaren Kongo (Kazembe a cikin babban kwarin Luapula) a cikin 1796.

Kogin Kongo na sama, wanda ake kira Lualaba ya fara cinikin bawan Larabawa ne a karni na 19. Nyangwe an kafa shi ne a matsayin sansanin 'yan baranda a wajajen 1860. David Livingstone shi ne Bature na farko da ya isa Nyangwe a cikin Maris 1871.[37] Livingstone ya ba da shawarar ya tabbatar da cewa Lualaba ya hade da Kogin Nilu, amma a ranar 15 ga watan Yuli, ya ga kisan kiyashin da Larabawa suka yi wa 'yan Afirka kusan 400 a Nyangwe, abin da ya faru ya ba shi tsoro matuka kuma ya ruguza don ci gaba da aikinsa don nemo tushen Kogin. , don haka ya juya zuwa Tafkin Tanganyika.[39][40]

Henry M Stanley tare da jami'ai na jaridar Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. Daga hagu: Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, da Arthur J. M. Jephson

Tsakanin tsakiyar Kongo ya kasance ba a bincika ba daga gabas ko yamma, har zuwa ziyarar Henry Morton Stanley na 1876-77. A lokacin daya daga cikin tambayoyin karshe na budewa na binciken Afirka (ko kuma hakika duniya) ko Kogin Lualaba ya ciyar da Kogin Nilu (ka'idar Livingstone), Kongo[41] ko ma Neja. An ba da kuɗi a cikin 1874, aikin binciken na farko zuwa Afirka zuwa Stanley ya fara ne a Zanzibar, kuma ya isa Lualaba a ranar 17 ga Oktoba, 1876. A kan hanya sai ya isa Nyangwe, cibiyar wani yanki mara doka da ke ɗauke da ƙabilu masu cin naman da Tiipu Tip ya kafa sana'arsa ta bayi. Stanley ya sami nasarar hayar da karfi daga Tippu Tip, don tsare shi na tsawon kilomita 150 na gaba (mil 90) ko makamancin haka, na kwanaki 90. Jam’iyyar ta bar Nyangwe ta hanyar wuce gona da iri ta dajin Matimba. A ranar 19 ga Nuwamba suka sake isa Lualaba. Tun da yake wucewa cikin dajin ya yi nauyi, Tippu Tip ya juya tare da ƙungiyarsa a ranar 28 ga Disamba, ya bar Stanley da kansa, tare da mutane 143, ciki har da yara 8 da mata 16. Suna da kwale-kwale 23. Farkon haduwarsa da wata kabila ta gari ita ce Wenya mai cin naman mutane. Gaba ɗaya Stanley zai ba da rahoton tarurruka marasa kyau 32 a kan kogin, wasu tashin hankali, kodayake ya yi ƙoƙari don tattaunawa kan hanyar lumana. Amma kabilun sun yi kaffa-kaffa saboda kwarewar da suke da ita daga waje ita ce ta 'yan kasuwar bayi.

Ranar 6 ga Janairu, 1877, bayan kilomita 640 (mi 400), sun isa Boyoma Falls (wanda ake kira Stanley Falls na ɗan lokaci bayan haka), wanda ya ƙunshi ido bakwai da suka shafi kilomita 100 (60 mi) wanda dole ne su tsallaka kan tudu. Ya dauke su zuwa Fabrairu 7 don isa ƙarshen faduwar. Anan Stanley ya sami labarin cewa ana kiran kogin Ikuta Yacongo,[42] yana tabbatar masa da cewa ya isa Kongo kuma 'yan Lualaba ba su ciyar da Kogin Nilu.

Daga wannan lokacin, kabilun sun kasance ba mutane ba ne, amma suna da bindigogi, a bayyane sakamakon tasirin Portuguese. Bayan 'yan makonni hudu da kilomita 1,900 (kilomita 1,200) daga baya ya isa Stanley Pool (yanzu Pool Malebo), wurin da biranen yau suke Kinshasa da Brazzaville. Karin zuwa can gaba shine Faɗuwar Livingstone, wanda aka laƙabawa da suna Livingstone bai taɓa kasancewa a Kwango ba: jerin faɗuwa 32 da saurin gudu tare da faɗuwar mita 270 (900 ft) sama da kilomita 350 (220 mi). A ranar 15 ga Maris suka fara gangarowar faduwar jirgin, wanda ya dauki tsawon watanni biyar kuma ya ci rayuka da dama. Daga Isangile Falls, biyar ya faɗo daga ƙafa, sun rairaye kwale-kwalen da Lady Alice kuma suka bar kogin, da nufin zuwa tashar Boma ta Portugal ta ƙasa. A ranar 3 ga watan Agusta sun isa ƙauyen Nsada. Daga nan ne Stanley ya aika mutane huɗu da wasiƙu zuwa Boma, yana neman abinci don mutanensa da ke cikin yunwa. A ranar 7 ga watan Agusta taimako ya zo, wakilan sun aiko shi daga kamfanin ciniki na Liverpool Hatton & Cookson. A ranar 9 ga watan Agusta sun isa Boma, kwana 1,001 tun barinsu daga Zanzibar a ranar 12 ga Nuwamba, 1874. Daga nan jam’iyyar ta kunshi mutane 108, ciki har da yara uku da aka haifa a lokacin tafiyar. Wataƙila (wallafe-wallafen Stanley suna ba da adadi marasa daidaituwa), ya rasa mutane 132 ta hanyar cuta, yunwa, nutsar da ruwa, kisa da ƙauracewa.[43]

Kinshasa an kafa shi azaman tashar kasuwanci ta Stanley a cikin 1881 kuma aka sanya masa suna Léopoldville don girmama Leopold II na Belgium. Leopold II ya yi ikirarin cewa an ba da kwandon Kongo ne a matsayin ƙasar Kongo mai 'Yanci a cikin 1885.

Bayanin Kogin Congo ta hanyar Thomas Vinçotte.[44]

Kogin Kongo sananne ne saboda rashin gadoji da ke ratsa manyan koguna, kodayake akwai jiragen ruwa da yawa da za a iya ratsa kogin Congo da kuma manyan bakin ruwa. Babban dalilin shine fadin Kogin Kongo da kuma manyan koguna, kuma na biyu shine rashin kudi domin kafa mashigar kogi na dindindin.

Gadaji akan Kongo dacewa da Lualaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai gadoji biyu kacal a kan kogin Kongo da suka dace da kuma manyan kwarraru, wadanda ake samun su a cikin DR Kongo:

  • Gadar Matadi, kilomita 148 daga bakin kogin, a tashar jirgin ruwa ta Matadi a lardin Kongo ta Tsakiya.
  • Gadar Kongolo a kan Kogin Lualaba, kimanin kilomita 3,900 tare da harajin daga bakin kogin, kusa da garin Kongolo, a lardin gabashin Katanga.

Gadaji a kan rafin Uele da Kibali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai gada daya a kan Kogin Uele, da kuma biyu a kan Kogin Kibali, wanda duka suke a arewacin lardin Haut-Uele na DR Kongo:

  • Gadar Niangara a kan Uele, kimanin kilomita 2,000 tare da harajin daga bakin kogin, kusa da garin Niangara.
  • Gadar Dungu a kan Kibali, kimanin kilomita 2,050 tare da harajin daga bakin kogin, kusa da garin Dungu, a haɗuwar Kogin Dungu da Kibali, inda aka kafa kogin Uele.
  • Gadar Kalimva akan Kibali, kusan kilomita 2,250 tare da harajin daga bakin kogi, kusa da garin Kalimva.

Gadaji a kan kogin Lulua[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai aƙalla gadoji huɗu a kan Kogin Lulua a lardin Kasai na DR Kongo

  • Tsakanin garuruwan Luebo da Tshimpumpu.
  • Kusa da garin Kananga.
  • A garin Sanduwa.
  • Yammacin garin Diongo (kuma wurin gadar Railway ne akan hanyar Railway ta Benguela).

Gadaji a kan kogin Kongo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai aƙalla gada ɗaya a kan kogin Kongo a lardin Kongo na DR Kongo:

  • A garin Cité Pont-Kongo.

Jirgin ruwa a cikin Kogin Kongo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jirgin ruwa a kan Kongo daidai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyakar Angola - DR Kongo:

  • Babu

Kananan Kongo (Matadi - Pioka):

  • Mafuambo - Kinganga, kusan kilomita 200 daga bakin.
  • Kusa da Luozi, kusan kilomita 250 daga bakin.

iyakar DR Congo - Jamhuriyar Kongo:

  • Kinshasa - Brazzaville, jirgin da ke tsakanin tagwayen manyan biranen - tashar jirgin ruwan kasa da kasa mafi hada-hada tsakanin Afirka.

Babban Kongo (Irebu - Ubundu):

  • Kusa da Isangi, kusan kilomita 1250 daga bakin.
  • A Kisangani, kusan kilomita 1500 daga bakin.
  • A Ubundu, kusan kilomita 1700 daga bakin

Jirgin ruwa akan Kogin Kasai da raƙuman ruwa:[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • A Bendela a Kogin Kasai.
  • A Bandundu a Kogin Kwilu.
  • Kudancin Bandundu akan Kogin Kwilu.
  • A Loange akan Kogin Loange

Jirgin ruwa a kogin Ubangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Iyakar DR Kongo - Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya:

Zongo - Bangui

Jirgin ruwa a kan kogin Mbomou[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Iyakar DR Kongo - Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya:

Ndu – Bangassou

Jirgin ruwa a kan kogin Lulua[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kusa da garin Tshinkenke, a lardin Kasai na DR Kongo.
  • Kusa da garin Mpungu, a lardin Kasai na DR Kongo.

Jirgin ruwa a kan kogin Uele[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsallakar kogin Uele a Bondo.
  • Tsallaka kogin Uele a Malengoya.
  • Tsallaka kogin Uele a Bambili.

A kan ƙananan raƙuman ruwa na Kongo akwai ƙetara mashigai da yawa.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Oberg, Kevin (July 2008). "Discharge and Other Hydraulic Measurements for Characterizing the Hydraulics of Lower Congo River, July 2008" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
  2. Forbath, Peter. The River Congo (1979), p. 6. "Not until it crosses the equator will it at last turn away from this misleading course and, describing a remarkable counter-clockwise arc first to the west and then to the southwest, flow back across the equator and on down to the Atlantic. In this the Congo is exceptional. No other major river in the world crosses the equator even once, let alone twice."
  3. Anderson, David (2000). Africa's Urban Past. p. 79. ISBN 9780852557617. Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
  4. Manikongo was properly the title of the kings of Kongo; their capital was at the site of modern M'banza-Kongo, capital of Angola's northwestern Zaire Province. Ortelius had no knowledge of the orography of Africa and drew fictitious courses for its rivers; his Congo upstream of its estuary turns sharply south, flowing through what would correspond to Angola and Botswana.
  5. Peter Forbath (1977). The River Congo. p. 19.
  6. James Barbot (1746). An Abstract of a Voyage to Congo River, Or the Zair and to Cabinde in the Year 1700. James Hingston Tuckey (1818). Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816. Archived from the original on 2018-05-21. Retrieved 2019-11-11. John Purdy (1822). Memoir, Descriptive and Explanatory, to Accompany the New Chart of the Ethiopic Or Southern Atlantic Ocean. p. 112. Congo River, called Zahir or Zaire by the natives
  7. 7.0 7.1 Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 338–339. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  8. "Monster Fish of the Congo". National Geographic Channel. 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06.
  9. The Congo River Archived 2017-10-20 at the Wayback Machine. Rainforests.mongabay.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  10. Hanibal Lemma, and colleagues (2019). "Bedload transport measurements in the Gilgel Abay River, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia (Table 7)". Journal of Hydrology. 577: 123968. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.123968.
  11. See, for instance, Thierry Michel's film Congo River Archived 2009-11-29 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "DR Congo – AFRICAN FINE COFFEES ASSOCIATION (AFCA)" (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Alain Nubourgh, Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC) Archived 2011-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. Weetlogs.scilogs.be (2010-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  14. Showers, Kate B. (2011-09-01). "Electrifying Africa: An Environmental History with Policy Implications". Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography (in Turanci). 93 (3): 193–221. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0467.2011.00373.x. ISSN 1468-0467. S2CID 145515488.
  15. Vasagar, Jeevan (2005-02-25). "Could a $50bn plan to tame this mighty river bring electricity to all of Africa?". World news. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Norlander, Britt (20 April 2009). "Rough waters: one of the world's most turbulent rivers is home to a wide array of fish species. Now, large dams are threatening their future". Science World. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
  17. Leonard C. Beadle (1981). The inland waters of tropical Africa: an introduction to tropical limnology. Longman. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-582-46341-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2011. "It is hypothesized that in the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene, a coastal Lower Guinean river captured Malebo Pool, connecting the previously interior Congo Basin to the ocean." Thieme et al., Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment Ecoregions Assessments, Island Press, 2005, p. 297 Archived 2019-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. Cooper, John E. and Hull, Gordon; Gorilla Pathology and Health: With a Catalogue of Preserved Materials, p. 371 08033994793.ABA
  19. Skelton, P.H. 1994. ‘Diversity and distribution of freshwater fishes in East and Southern Africa’, in Biological diversity in African fresh and brackish water fishes, Symposium Paradi(G.G. Teugels, J.F. Guégan, and J.J. Albaret, editors), pp. 95–131. Annals of the Royal Central African Museum (Zoology) No. 275.
  20. Gupta, Avijit (editor); Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, p. 327 08033994793.ABA
  21. Caswell JL, Mallick S, Richter DJ, et al. (2008). "Analysis of chimpanzee history based on genome sequence alignments". PLOS Genet. 4 (4): e1000057. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. PMC 2278377. PMID 18421364.
  22. Kingdon, Jonathan (1997). The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. London: Academic Press Limited. ISBN 978-0-1240-8355-4.
  23. Template:Cite iucn
  24. Dickman, Kyle (2009-11-03). "Evolution in the Deepest River in the World". Science & Nature. Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Frans Witte; Martien J. P. van Oijen; Ferdinand A. Sibbing (2009). "Fish Fauna of the Nile". In Henri J. Dumont (ed.). The Nile. Springer. pp. 647–675. ISBN 978-1-4020-9725-6.
  26. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Sudanic Congo – Oubangi. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  27. Schliewen, U.K.; M.L.J. Stiassny (2006). "A new species of Nanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Mai Ndombe, central Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of Congo". Zootaxa. 1169: 33–46. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1169.1.2. S2CID 86533120.
  28. Schwarzer, J.; B. Misof; U.K. Schliewen (2011). "Speciation within genomic networks: a case study based on Steatocranus cichlids of the lower Congo rapids". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 25 (1): 138–148. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2011.02409.x. PMID 22070232.
  29. Winemiller, K.O.; A.A. Agostinho; and É.P. Caramaschi (2008). "Fish Ecology in Tropical Streams". In Dudgeon, D. (ed.). Tropical Stream Ecology. Academic Press. pp. 107–146. ISBN 978-0-12-088449-0.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  30. Weisberger, Mindy (12 January 2020). "Dying Fish Revealed Congo Is World's Deepest River". livescience.com. LiveScience. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  31. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Kasai. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Upper Lualaba. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  33. Kullander, S.O. (1998). A phylogeny and classification of the South American Cichlidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). pp. 461–498 in Malabarba, L., et al. (eds.), Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, Porto Alegre.
  34. Proudlove, G. (2006). Subterranean fishes of the world. ISBN 978-2-9527084-0-1.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  35. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Lower Congo Rapids. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  36. Template:Cite iucn
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Congo" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 917.
  38. The Dieppe maps of the mid-16th century show the Congo only as a minor river while having the Nile run throughout the continent, rising in Southern Africa. The same interpretation is in essence still found in Jan Blaeu's Atlas Maior of 1660. Jacques Bellin's map of the Congo in Histoire Generale Des Voyages by Antoine François Prévost (1754) shows awareness of the river reaching further inland, to the provinces of Sundi and Pango, but has no detailed knowledge of its course.
  39. Livingstone, David (2012). Livingstone's 1871 Field Diary. A Multispectral Critical Edition. UCLA Digital Library: Los Angeles, CA. Available <http://livingstone.library.ucla.edu/1871diary/ Archived 2014-09-05 at the Wayback Machine>
  40. See also Jeal, Tim (1973). Livingstone. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Pp. 331–335.
  41. Jeal, 2007 pp. 188–219.
  42. Jeal, 2007 p. 199; February 7, 1877,
  43. Jeal, 2007 p. 217. Stanley, Henry M. (1988). Through the Dark Continent. Dover Publications. pp. 432 pages. ISBN 978-0-486-25667-2.
  44. Brussels, Monument to Congo pionniers, 50th Jubileum Park.

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • The Royal Geography Society's Hidden Journeys project:↵
    • The River Congo Basin
    • Audio slideshow: The River Congo: Following in Explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley's Footsteps – Tim Butcher recounts his trip through the Congo on the route of 19th-century explorer Sir Henry Morgan Stanley.
  • Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace Palace Library
  • Map of the Congo River basin at Water Resources eAtlas
  • The Congo Project, American Museum of Natural History