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M'banza-Kongo

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Fadar Sarkin Kongo

M'banza-Kongo ([ ĩˈbɐ̃zɐ ], [ mɨˈβɐ̃zɐ ] ko [ miˈβɐ̃zɐ ˈkõɡu ], wanda aka fi sani da São Salvador a cikin Portuguese daga 1570 zuwa 1976; Kongo ), shi ne babban birnin lardin Zaire arewa maso yammacin Angola mai yawan jama'a 148,000 a shekarar 2014.[1] M'banza Kongo ita ce babban birnin masarautar Kongo tun kafuwarta kafin zuwan Turawan Portugal a shekara ta 1483 har zuwa kawar da mulkin a shekarar 1915, baya ga wani dan kankanin lokaci da aka yi watsi da shi a yakin basasa a karni na 17 . A cikin 2017, an ayyana M'banza Kongo a matsayin Cibiyar Tarihi ta UNESCO . [2]

Mbanza-Kongo (wanda ake kira Nkumba a Ngudi, Mongo wa Kaila da Kongo dia Ngunga [3] [4] ) an kafa shi ne ta manikongo na farko, Lukeni, a mahadar manyan hanyoyin kasuwanci. :202Masarautar Kongo a kololuwarta ta kai tun daga kudancin Afirka ta tekun Atlantika zuwa kogin Nkisi . Shugabannin dangi ne suka zaɓi Manikongo don ya mallaki kusan 300 mi 2, yanki wanda a yau yanki ne na kasashe da dama. Portuguese wanda ya fara isa wurin a 1491 ya yi tafiya kwana goma don isa can daga bakin kogin Kongo .

Harshen Portuguese na São Salvador

Sarakunan farko da aka rubuta suna magana da birninsu a cikin wasiƙunsu a matsayin "Birnin Kongo" ( cidade do Kongo ), kuma sunan birnin kamar São Salvador ya bayyana a karon farko a cikin haruffan Álvaro I na Kongo (1568-1587). ) kuma wadanda suka gaje shi ne suka tafi da shi.

Lokacin da Portuguese suka isa Kongo, Mbanza Kongo ya riga ya zama babban gari, watakila mafi girma a cikin yankin Afirka ta Kudu, kuma wasiƙar daga jakadan Portuguese a Lisbon ya kwatanta girman birnin (cikin ganuwar ciki) zuwa garin Portuguese. Evora .

A cikin 1550s Mbanza-Kongo ya karbi bakuncin al'ummar 'yan kasuwan Portugal da masu wa'azin Jesuit wadanda suka hada baki tare a yunkurin kifar da manikongo Diogo I Nkumbi a Mpudi . :217

A cikin 1568 Manikongo Alvaro I an kore shi daga Mbanza-Kongo ta hanyar mamaya Jagas, wanda ya kori birnin. Alvaro ya sami nasarar kwato babban birnin kasar tare da taimakon soja na Portuguese, amma dole ne ya ba da Luanda, tushen kudin nzimbu da ake amfani da shi a masarautar, a biya su. :218

A lokacin mulkin Afonso II, an ƙara gine-ginen dutse, ciki har da fada da majami'u da dama. Mbanza-Kongo ya girma sosai yayin da mulkin Kongo ya fadada kuma ya girma, kuma bayanin majami'a na shekarun 1630 ya shafi cewa an yi baftisma 4,000-5,000 a cikin birni da kuma yankin da ke kusa da shi (watakila kwarurukan da ke kewaye da shi), wanda ya yi daidai da jimlar yawan mutane 100,000. Daga cikin waɗannan, wataƙila 30,000 suna zaune a kan dutsen da sauran a kwaruruka da ke kewaye da birnin. Daga cikin muhimman gine-ginensa akwai wasu majami'u goma sha biyu, ciki har da São Salvador, da majami'u masu zaman kansu da gidajen tarihi da kuma wani katafaren gidan sarauta mai hawa biyu mai ban sha'awa, irin wannan ginin daya tilo a duk fadin Kongo, a cewar baƙo Giovanni Francesco da Roma (1648).

An kori birnin sau da yawa a lokacin yakin basasa da ya biyo bayan yakin Mbwila (ko Ulanga) a 1665, kuma an yi watsi da shi a shekara ta 1678. Mabiyan Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita sun sake mamaye shi a cikin 1705 kuma Sarki Pedro IV na Kongo ya mayar da shi a matsayin babban birnin Kongo a 1709. :256Ba a sake rage yawan jama'a ba duk da cewa yawanta ya yi canji sosai a cikin ƙarni na sha takwas da na sha tara.

An canza sunan zuwa "Birnin Kongo" (Mbanza Kongo) jim kadan bayan 'yancin kai na Angola.

Mbanza-Kongo tana kusa da iyakar Angola da Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo . Tana kusa da 6°16′0′′S 14°15′0′′E / 6.26667°S 14.25000°E / -6.26667; 14.25000 kuma tana zaune a saman wani dutse mai laushi, wani lokacin ana kiranta Mongo a Kaila (dutse na rarrabuwa) saboda tatsuniyoyin kwanan nan sun tuna cewa sarki ya kirkiro dangin masarautar kuma ya tura su daga can. A cikin kwarin zuwa kudu akwai Kogin Luezi .

M'banza-Kongo yana da yanayi na wurare masu zafi na savanna ( Köppen Aw ) mai kama da Kinshasa ko Pointe-Noire, yana da ɗan gajeren lokaci mai tsawo ko da yake ba mai tsanani ba daga Oktoba zuwa Mayu, da kuma ɗan gajeren lokaci amma kusan lokacin rani daga Yuni zuwa Satumba. sakamakon tsananin tasirin sanyin Benguela na yanzu a wannan lokacin.

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Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
[Ana bukatan hujja]

M'banza Kongo sananne ne ga rushewar Cathedral na Mai Ceto Mai Tsarki na Kongo na karni na 16 (wanda aka gina a cikin 1491), wanda yawancin 'yan Angola ke iƙirarin shine coci mafi tsufa a yankin Saharar Afirka . Cocin na yanzu, wanda ake kira São Salvador, wanda aka sani da suna nkulumbimbi, yanzu an ce mala'iku ne suka gina shi cikin dare. An daukaka shi zuwa matsayin babban coci a 1596. Paparoma John Paul na biyu ya ziyarci wurin a yayin rangadin da ya kai Angola a shekarar 1992.

Wani wuri mai ban sha'awa mai mahimmanci na tarihi shi ne abin tunawa da mahaifiyar Sarki Afonso I kusa da filin jirgin sama, wanda ke tunawa da wani sanannen labari wanda ya fara a cikin 1680s cewa sarki ya binne mahaifiyarsa da rai saboda ba ta yarda ta bar "tsaki" ba. wanda ta saka a wuyanta.

Sauran wurare masu mahimmanci sun hada da Jalankuwo, itacen hukunci na Manikongo, wanda har yanzu ana iya samun shi a cikin tsakiyar birnin, tare da sunguilu, wani tsari mai siffar ƙasa mai siffar rectangular inda al'adun gargajiya suka ce an wanke gawar sarki kafin a binne shi. Dukansu suna a harabar gidan sarauta da gidan kayan tarihi na yau.

Gidan kayan tarihi na Royal, wanda aka sake gina kwanan nan a matsayin tsarin zamani, yana ba da tarin kayan tarihi masu ban sha'awa daga tsohuwar Masarautar, kodayake da yawa sun ɓace daga babban ginin a lokacin Yaƙin basasa na 1976-2002 .

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Littafi Mai Tsarki

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Ndamba, Josué. Kongo Kultur Vol.4. 2021 : Réhabiliter et s'approprier MBanza Kongo . La Loupe, N'Tamo (Brazzaville), Paris: Paari Editeur, 2022. (a Faransanci)

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  1. Citypopulation.de Population of major cities in Angola
  2. "Three sites in Angola, Eritrea and South Africa added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  3. William Graham Lister Randles, L’ancien royaume du Congo des origines à la fin du XIXe siècle, Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 2013, p. 15 (in French)
  4. Marie-Claude Dupré and Bruno Pinçon, Métallurgie et politique en Afrique centrale: deux mille ans de vestiges sur les plateaux batéké Gabon, Congo, Zaïre, KARTHALA Editions, 1997, p. 198 (in French)

Samfuri:Municipalities of Angola