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Leah Horowitz

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Leah Horowitz
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Bolekhiv (en) Fassara, 1715
Mutuwa 1795
Karatu
Harsuna Yiddish (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a rabbi (en) Fassara
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Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah Horowitz (1715–1795), wacce aka fi sani da Leah Horowitz,ƙwararriya ce kuma ƙwararriyar kabbalistic,wacce ta rubuta cikin Yiddish.[1] Ita ce marubucin Tkhinne imohes (Addu'ar Ma'aurata). Ta zauna a Poland. [2]

Horowitz 'yar Yakubu Yokl ben Meir Ha-Levi Horowitz (1680-1755)da Reyzel bat Heshl.Mahaifinta memba ne na mashahurin kloiz na Brody.Horowitz yana ɗaya daga cikin wasu yara bakwai.Uku daga cikin 'yan'uwanta malamai ne,wanda ya fi shahara shine Isaac (wanda aka sani da " Itsikl Hamburger ",1715-1767),rabbi na Hamburg, Altona,da Wandsbek.Akwai kuma wata 'yar'uwa,mai suna Pessil.Akwai wasu shakku game da wanene wani ɗan'uwa da 'yar'uwa. A matsayinta na ’yar’uwar fitattun ’yan’uwa,Lai’atu ta ƙaryata tsohon kanar cewa mata masu ilimi a zamaninta su ne ’ya’yan malamai mata waɗanda ba su da ’ya’ya maza.

Leah ta kasance a farkon rayuwarta a Bolechów,a ƙasar Poland Galicia (yanzu Bolekhiv,Ukrain),inda mahaifinta ya zama rabbi.Lokacin da ya zama rabbi na Brody a 1735,ɗansa Mordekai ya gaje shi a matsayin malamin Bolechow. Lai’atu ta ci gaba da zama a Bolechow,ta ci gaba da zama a matsayin budurwa mai aure a gidan ɗan’uwanta.Mijinta a wannan lokacin shine Aryeh Leib,ɗan rabbi na Dobromyl,Ukraine; daga baya ta auri Shabbetai ben Benjamin ha-Cohen Rappoport,rabbi na Krasny, Rasha.Ba a sani ba ko tana da 'ya'ya.

Aikin ilimi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da yake tana ƙarama,Leah ta shahara don koyan da ta yi na musamman.A cikin zamanin da mata da yawa ba su koyi karatu ba, kuma waɗanda ba su taɓa koyon karatu fiye da ƙa'idodin Ibrananci ba,Horowitz ya yi nazarin Talmud tare da sharhi kuma ya karanta wasu ayyukan kabbalistic.Mawallafin tarihin Ber na Bolechow ya ce sa’ad da yake ɗan shekara goma sha biyu,Lai’atu ta taimaka masa ya shirya darasi na Talmud tare da ɗan’uwanta,rabbi Mordekai.“Za ta fara karanta kalmomin Talmud ko Rashi da zuciya ɗaya,cikin yare mai haske,tana bayyana shi da kyau kamar yadda aka rubuta a wurin,kuma na koya daga kalmominta.Kuma lokacin da malamin ya farka daga barcinsa,na san yadda zan bayyana masa nassin da ke cikin Talmud yadda ya kamata.A cikin wannan nassi,Ber yana kiranta da "masani kuma shahararriyar farka Leah,mai albarka mai albarka".Sauran marubutan kuma sun san sunanta na koyo.Aikin Sefer Ozar Sihot Hakhamim wanda ba a bayyana sunansa ba ya kwatanta ta a matsayin "babban malami,ƙwararren Talmud" kuma ya ba da labarin tattaunawar Talmudic da wata mata mai ilimi,Dinah,matar Saul Halevi (babban malamin Hague daga 1748 zuwa 1785). .

Ko da yake kaɗan ne kaɗan daga cikin matan Yahudawa na Gabashin Turai kafin karni na sha tara suka bar rubuce-rubuce,Lai'atu ita ce marubucin Tkhinne na Matriarchs,addu'a mai shafi takwas,addu'a na harsuna uku don Asabar kafin sabon wata.(Kamar yadda yake sau da yawa,ba a ambaci wurin da kwanan watan da aka buga ba a yawancin bugu na bugu.) Aikin ya ƙunshi gabatarwar Ibrananci, piyyut (waƙar liturgical)a cikin Aramaic,da kuma ƙa'idar Yadish na waƙar.Wannan rubutu, wanda ke da mahimmancin tarihi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin ƴan rubuce-rubucen da wata Bayahudiya ta Gabashin Turai ta ƙarni na sha takwas ta rubuta,ya shaida cewa marubucin ya fi koyo fiye da yadda aka saba.(Wani aikin,Tkhinne Moyde Ani,an danganta ta da kuskuren kuskure.)

Leah Horowitz ta damu sosai da wurin addini da matsayin matan Yahudawa kuma tana da masaniya sosai game da matsayinta na ban mamaki a matsayinta na mace mai ilimi.Ta yi magana da waɗannan batutuwan a sarari a cikin gabatarwar Ibrananci zuwa tkhinne, da ma'ana a cikin Aramaic piyyut da fassarar Yadish.Lai’atu ta damu da tabbatar da halaccin shigar kanta cikin “nazarin Attaura”,wato,cikin tattaunawar Talmudic da halak.Bugu da ƙari,wannan shi ne kawai nassi kafin zamani wanda mace Ashkenazic ta yi magana game da mahimmancin addu'ar mata,hanyar da ta dace da mata don yin addu'a da kuma yanayin da ya kamata mata su mika wuya ga ikon mazajensu.Duk da haka,gardamar Lai’atu ba ta da yawa ga mutanen zamaninta.Bayan bugu na farko,gabatarwar Ibrananci da Aramaic piyyut ba a buga su ba,an bar sashin Yadish ne kawai na rubutun.Mai yiwuwa,yawancin mata ba za su iya karanta Ibrananci ko Aramaic ba,yayin da yawancin maza ba sa sha'awar karanta tkhinne ta mace,ko da wani yanki nasa yana cikin Harshe Mai Tsarki .

Duk da haka,a cikin gabatarwar ta Ibrananci Lai'atu ta ba da hujjar cewa addu'ar mata tana da ikon kawo fansa na Almasihu idan mata suka koyi yin addu'a "da kyau".Ta ci gaba da cewa,saboda addu’ar mata na iya kawo fansa,ya kamata mata su rika yin addu’a a majami’a kowace rana,safe da yamma,kuma ta koka da cewa ba haka ake yi a zamaninta ba.Lai'atu tana da fahimtar kabbalistic game da addu'a:addu'a ta gaskiya ba don bukatun ɗan adam ba ne, amma don haɗuwa da sephirot (halayen allahntaka) na Tiferet da Shekhinah.Domin galibin mata ba su da masaniya kan adabi na sufanci da fahimtar juna,manufar Leah ta rubuta wannan rubutu ita ce ta koya wa mata ba tare da ƙwararrun masaniyar yadda ake yin addu’a yadda ya kamata ba,wato don fansar Shekhina daga ƙaura,tare da kuka.Biyan tushen kabbalistic,Lai'atu ta danganta ƙarfi ga hawaye.

Da take bayyana abin da ya rigaya ya fi mayar da hankali ga tsoron Allah,albarkar sabon wata a cikin majami'u,ta ba da tsarin da ta yi imani zai iya kawo fansa.A cikin sashin Yiddish na rubutunta (mai iya samun damar masu karatunta mata),Leah ta yi kuka game da ɓacin rai na gudun hijira kuma ta sanya sunan sabon wata a matsayin lokacin farin ciki.Ana kiran kariyar kowane daga cikin magabata na Littafi Mai Tsarki guda huɗu.Misalin tsakiyar da ta gabatar shi ne ɗimbin ɗabi’a na ’ya’yan Isra’ila da suke gudun hijira, suna kuka a kabarin Rahila.Rahila,alama ce ta kowa ga Shekhinah, sannan ta roƙi Mai Tsarki Mai Tsarki (Tiferet), da hawaye, ya fanshi Isra'ilawa daga zaman bauta.Sosai rok'on da tayi ya motsa shi ya yarda ya kawo fansa.Lai’atu ta ba da shawarar cewa ya kamata mata a zamaninta su bi misalin ’ya’yan Isra’ila da kuma na “mahaifiyarmu Rahila” mai aminci.Tare da hotunan Lai'atu na sauran ma'aurata,Yiddish tkhinne,kamar gabatarwar ta,ta haɗu da jin daɗin matsayin mata na al'ada tare da tabbatar da cewa mata sun fi ƙarfin ruhaniya fiye da yadda ake gane su.

  1. Voices of the Matriarchs: Listening to the Prayers of Early Modern Jewish Women, Chava Weissler, Beacon Press, 1999, p. iv.
  2. Voices of the Matriarchs: Listening to the Prayers of Early Modern Jewish Women, Chava Weissler, Beacon Press, 1999, p. 10