Lexeme

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Wikidata.svgLexeme
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A lexeme ( /l ɛ k s Na m / ( </img> / ) ) raka'a ce ta ma'anan lexical wacce ke ƙarƙashin jerin kalmomin da ke da alaƙa ta hanyar juzu'i . Yana da ainihin ma'anar sa,[1] rukunin bincike na ilimin halittar jiki a cikin ilimin harshe wanda ya yi daidai da saitin sifofin da tushen kalma ɗaya ya ɗauka. Misali, a cikin Ingilishi, da gudu su ne nau'ikan lexeme iri ɗaya, waɗanda za a iya wakilta su da RUN.

Siffa ɗaya, lemma (ko sigar ambato), an zaɓi ta al'ada azaman sigar canonical na lexeme. A Lemma ne form amfani da kamus matsayin shigarwa ta headword . Sauran nau'o'in lexeme galibi ana jera su daga baya a cikin shigarwar idan ba a saba dasu ba ko kuma ba a saba da su ba.

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tunanin lexeme shine tsakiya ga ilimin halittar jiki,[2] tushen ma'anar wasu ra'ayoyi a wannan filin. Alal misali, bambanci tsakanin inflection da derivation za a iya bayyana cikin sharuddan lexemes:

  • Dokokin juye-juye sun danganta lexeme zuwa nau'ikan sa.
  • Dokokin ƙerawa sun danganta lexeme zuwa wani lexeme.

Lexeme yana cikin wani nau'in syntactic na musamman, yana da takamaiman ma'ana ( darajar tauraro ) kuma, a cikin harsunan da ake juyar da su, yana da madaidaicin juzu'i . Wato, lexeme a cikin harsuna da yawa zai kasance da nau'i daban-daban. Alal misali, lexeme RUN yana da wani ba mutum na uku mufuradi form runs, a halin yanzu ba-uku-mufradi form gudu (wanda ma aiki ne a matsayin mai da participle kuma ba iyaka form), a baya form gudu, kuma wani ba participle Gudun . (Ba ya haɗa da mai gudu, masu gudu, masu gudu da sauransu. ) Ana amfani da sifofin lexeme ta hanyar ƙa'idodin nahawu . A cikin hali na Turanci fi'ilai kamar RUN, da suka hada da subject- fi'ili yarjejeniya da fili siga dokoki, wanda ƙayyade da wani nau'i na aikatau da cewa za a iya amfani da wani ba jumla .

A da yawa m theories na harshe, lexemes da subcategorization Frames zuwa lissafi ga lamba kuma iri complements. Suna faruwa a cikin jumloli da sauran sifofin syntactic .

Rushewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lexemes na harshe galibi suna ƙunshi ƙananan raka'a tare da ma'anar mutum ɗaya da ake kira morphemes, bisa ga tushen morpheme + morphemes ɗin da aka samo asali + suffix (ba lallai ba ne a cikin wannan tsari), inda:

  • Tushen morpheme shine farkon ƙamus na kalma, wanda ke ɗauke da mafi mahimmancin abubuwan abun ciki na ma'anar kuma ba za a iya rage shi zuwa ƙarami ba.[3]
  • Kwayoyin halittar morpheme suna ɗauke da bayanan da aka samu kawai.[4]
  • A kari na baya baki aka hada da duk inflectional morphemes, kuma daukawa kawai inflectional bayanai.[5]

Tushen morpheme + da aka samo asali galibi ana kiransa kara .[6] Za'a iya amfani da karan ruɓewar + desinence sannan ana iya amfani da shi don nazarin juzu'i.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Ƙarshe (ilimin harshe)
  • Juyawa
  • Kalma mai ma'ana vs. nahawu kalma
  • Alamar (ilimin harshe)
  • Kalamai masu yawa
  • Marasa morpheme
  • Tushen (ilimin harshe)
  • Kara
  • Syntagma (ilimin harshe)
  • Iyalin Magana

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • The dictionary definition of lexeme at Wiktionary
  1. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language. Ed. David Crystal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. p. 118. 08033994793.ABA.
  2. Bonami O, Boyé G, Dal G, Giraudo H, Namer F (2018). Bonami O, Boyé G, Dal G, Giraudo H, Namer F (eds.). The lexeme in descriptive and theoretical morphology (pdf). Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1402520. ISBN 978-3-96110-110-8.
  3. "SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms: What is a Root?". Sil.org. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
  4. "SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms: What is a Derivational Affix?". Sil.org. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
  5. "SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms: What is an Inflectional Affix?". Sil.org. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
  6. "SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms: What is a Stem?". Sil.org. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 2021-05-14.