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Li Bai

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Li Bai
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna 李白
Haihuwa Suyab (en) Fassara da Jiangyou (en) Fassara, 19 Mayu 701
ƙasa Tang dynasty (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Dangtu County (en) Fassara, 30 Nuwamba, 762
Makwanci Tomb of Li Bai (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (Nutsewa)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Li Ke
Yare Li clan of Longxi (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Classical Chinese (en) Fassara
Sinanci
Sana'a
Sana'a maiwaƙe, lyricist (en) Fassara, calligrapher (en) Fassara da marubuci
Wurin aiki China (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Q10842233 Fassara
Quiet Night Thought the bully (en) Fassara
Q10823450 Fassara
hoton mawaki libai

Li Bai (, 701-762), kuma ana kiransa da Li Bo, suna ne na ladabi Taibai (Chinese), mawakin kasar Sin ne, wanda tun daga lokacinsa har ya zuwa yanzu ya zama mutum mai hazaka da soyayya wanda ya dauki salon wakokin gargajiya zuwa wani sabon matsayi. Shi da abokinsa Du Fu (712-770) sun kasance manyan mutane biyu da suka yi fice wajen bunkasar wakokin kasar Sin a daular Tang, wadda ake kira" Golden Zamanin Wakokin kasar Sin". Kalmar "Al'ajibai Uku" tana nuna waƙar Li Bai, wasan takobi na Pei Min, da kuma zane-zane na Zhang Xu.[1]

Kimanin wakoki 1000 da aka danganta ga Li suna nan. An tattara wakokinsa cikin mafi mahimmancin wakokin daular Tang, Heyaue yingling ji,[2] wanda Yin Fan ya haɗa a cikin 753. Wakoki 34 na Li Bai suna cikin kundin tarihin wakokin Tang dari uku ko, wanda aka fara bugawa a karni na 18. A daidai wannan lokaci, fassarar wakokinsa suka fara bayyana a Turai. Waqoqin sun kasance abin koyi don murnar jin daɗin abokantaka, zurfin yanayi, kaɗaici, da jin daɗin shan giya. Daga cikin mashahuran da suka shahara har da "Farkawa daga buguwa a ranar bazara", "Hanyar Wuta zuwa Shu", da" Tunanin Dare Mai Natsuwa", wadanda har yanzu ana koyar da su a cikin littattafan makaranta a kasar Sin. A yammacin duniya, ana ci gaba da yin fassarorin waqoqin Li da yaruka da yawa. Har ma rayuwarsa ta ɗauki wani al'amari na almara, da suka haɗa da tatsuniyoyi na buguwa, ɓatanci, da kuma sanannen tatsuniyar da Li ya nutsar a lokacin da ya isa daga jirgin ruwansa don ya fahimci yanayin wata a cikin kogin yana buguwa.

Li Bai

Yawancin rayuwar Li suna bayyana a cikin wakokinsa, wakokin sun shafi wuraren da ya ziyarta, abokai da ya kuma gansu a tafiye-tafiye zuwa wurare masu nisa watakila ba za su sake haduwa da su ba, hasashe irin nasa na mafarki wanda aka lullube shi da shashanci, abubuwan da suka faru a yau. yana da labarai, kwatancen da aka ɗauka daga yanayi a cikin lokacin waƙa maras lokaci, da sauransu. Duk da haka, wani muhimmin mahimmanci shi ne canje-canje a zamanin da ya rayu. Waƙarsa ta farko ta faru ne a cikin yanayin "zamanin zinare" na zaman lafiya da wadata a cikin daular Tang, a ƙarƙashin mulkin wani sarki wanda ya himmatu da haɓaka da kuma shiga cikin fasaha. Wannan ya ƙare da farkon da tawayen Janar An Lushan. Tawayen da ya yi ya sa akasarin Arewacin kasar Sin suka lalace ta hanyar yaki da yunwa. Waƙar Li a wannan lokacin ta ɗauki sabbin sauti da halaye. Ba kamar abokinsa Du Fu ba, Li bai rayu ba don ya ga ƙarshen hargitsi. Duk da haka, yawancin waƙoƙin Li sun ci gaba da wanzuwa, suna ci gaba da samun karɓuwa a babban yankin Sin da Taiwan. An zana Li Bai a cikin Wu Shuang Pu (無雙譜, Teburin Jarumai marasa Tsaki) na Jin Guliang.

Sunaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunaye
Sinanci: 李白
Pinyin : Lǐbaí or Li Bo
Zi (): Taìbaí (Tai-pai;太白)
Hao (): Qinglian Jushi ( Ch'ing-lien Chu-shih ; traditional Chinese )
aka: Shixian ( traditional Chinese )



</br> Mawaki Waliyi



</br> Mawaƙi mara mutuwa

An sanya sunan Li Bai a matsayin Li Bai, Li Po, Li Bo (romanizations of Standard Chinese pronunciations), da Ri Haku (romanization na Jafananci). Bambance-bambancen yaren Sinanci ya samo asali ne saboda gaskiyar cewa sunan da aka ba shi () yana da lafuzza guda biyu a cikin Sinanci na Standard: karatun wallafe-wallafen (Wade–Giles) da kuma karatun magana bai; da kuma cewa marubutan farko sun yi amfani da Wade-Giles yayin da marubutan zamani suka fi son pinyin. Sake fasalin yadda shi da wasu a lokacin daular Tang zasu furta wannan shine Bhæk. Sunansa na ladabi shine Taibai (太白) a zahiri "Great White", kamar yadda ake kiran duniyar Venus a lokacin. An fassara wannan ta hanyoyi daban-daban kamar Li Taibo, Li Taibai, Li Tai-po, da sauransu. Ana iya yin lafazin lafazin Jafananci na sunansa da sunansa na ladabi kamar "Ri Haku" da "Ri Taihaku" bi da bi.

Ana kuma san shi da sunansa na fasaha (hao) Qīnglián Jūshì (青蓮居士), ma'ana Mai gidan Azure Lotus, ko kuma da laƙabi "Mawaƙi marar mutuwa" (Mawaƙi Mai Girma; Wine Immortal (Chinese), Banished Transcendent (Chinese Mawaki-Knight-errant ( traditional Chinese, ko "Mawaki-Jarumi").

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Li Bai, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin Nanling Wushuang Pu ta Jin Guliang, daular Ming.

"Littattafai na Tang" guda biyu, <i id="mwhQ">Tsohon Littafin Tang</i> da <i id="mwhw">Sabon Littafin Tang</i>, sun kasance tushen farko na kayan littafi na Li Bai.[3] Sauran hanyoyin sun haɗa da hujjoji na cikin gida daga waqoqin Li Bai ko game da su, da wasu madogara, kamar gabatarwar waqoqin da ya tattara na danginsa kuma mai zartar da adabi, Li Yangbin.

Tarihi da haihuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Li Bai an haife shi ne a shekara ta 701, a Suyab (碎葉) na tsohuwar kasar Sin ta Tsakiyar Asiya (Kyrgyzstan ta yanzu),[4] inda danginsa suka ci gaba da kasuwanci a kan iyaka.[5] Bayan haka, iyalin karkashin jagorancin mahaifinsa, Li Ke (李客), sun koma Jiangyou (江油), kusa da Chengdu na zamani, a Sichuan, lokacin da yaron ya kasance kimanin shekaru biyar. Akwai wani sirri ko rashin tabbas game da yanayin ƙaura da iyalan suka yi, saboda rashin izini na shari'a wanda gaba ɗaya za a buƙaci a ƙaura daga yankunan da ke kan iyaka, musamman idan an sanya dangin mutum ko kuma an yi gudun hijira a can.

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanai guda biyu da masu zamani Li Yangbing (dangin dangi) da Fan Chuanzheng suka bayar sun bayyana cewa asalin dangin Li sun fito daga yankin kudu maso yammacin Jingning County, Gansu. Zuriyar Li an samo asali ne daga al'adar Li Gao, babban wanda ya kafa jihar Western Liang.[6] Wannan ya ba da wasu goyon baya ga ikirarin Li na da alaka da gidan sarautar daular Li na daular Tang: sarakunan Tang kuma sun yi ikirarin zuriyarsu daga sarakunan Li na yammacin Liang. An san wannan iyali da zuriyar Longxi Li (隴西李氏). Shaidu sun nuna cewa a lokacin daular Sui, kakannin Li nasu, a wancan lokacin saboda wasu dalilai da aka ware a matsayin jama'a a matsayin jama'a, an tilasta musu su yi gudun hijira daga asalin gidansu na asali (a yankin da ake kira Gansu a yanzu) zuwa wani wuri ko wasu wurare da ke gaba da yamma.[7] A lokacin da suke gudun hijira a yamma mai nisa, dangin Li sun zauna a tsohuwar hanyar siliki ta birnin Suiye (Suyab, yanzu wurin binciken kayan tarihi a Kyrgyzstan ta yau), kuma watakila ma a Tiaozhi (simplified Chinese), jiha kusa da Ghazni na zamani, Afghanistan.[8] Waɗannan yankuna suna kan tsohuwar hanyar siliki, kuma dangin Li sun kasance 'yan kasuwa.[9] Kasuwancin su ya wadata sosai.[10]

Haihuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin wani lissafi na hagiographic, yayin da mahaifiyar Li Bai take dauke da cikin sa, ta yi mafarkin wani babban farin tauraro yana fadowa daga sama. Wannan da alama ya ba da gudummawa ga ra'ayin kasancewarsa korarre marar mutuwa (daya daga cikin laƙabinsa).[11] Cewa Babban Farin Tauraro ya yi daidai da Venus yana taimakawa wajen bayyana sunansa na ladabi: "Tai Bai", ko "Venus".

Aure da iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Li Bai

An san Li ya yi aure sau hudu. Aurensa na farko, a cikin 727, a Anlu, Hubei, ya kasance ga jikanyar wani tsohon ministan gwamnati.[5] Matarsa ta fito daga dangin Wú (吳) da ke da alaƙa. Li Bai ya mai da wannan gidansa na kimanin shekaru goma, yana zaune a wani gida mallakin dangin matarsa a kan Dutsen Bishan (碧山). A cikin 744, ya yi aure a karo na biyu a yankin Liangyuan na Henan yanzu. Wannan auren ya kasance da wani mawaƙi, mai suna Zong (宗), wanda dukansu suka haifi 'ya'ya tare da su[12] da kuma musayar wakoki, ciki har da yawancin maganganun soyayya ga ita da 'ya'yansu. Matarsa, Zong, jikanyar Zong Chuke ce (宗楚客, ta rasu a shekara ta 710), wani muhimmin jami'in gwamnati a lokacin daular Tang da kuma lokacin tsakanin Wu Zetian.

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 705, lokacin da Li Bai yana da shekaru hudu, mahaifinsa ya ƙaura da iyalinsa a asirce zuwa Sichuan, kusa da Chengdu, inda ya yi ƙuruciyarsa.[13] A halin yanzu, akwai wani abin tarihi na tunawa da wannan a garin Zhongba na Jiangyou na lardin Sichuan (yankin lardin zamani a lokacin da ake kira Shu, bayan wata kasa mai cin gashin kanta wacce daular Sui ta hade, daga baya kuma aka shigar da ita cikin kasashen daular Tang). Matashin Li ya shafe yawancin shekarunsa na girma a Qinglian (青莲; lit. "Blue [kuma ana fassara shi da 'kore', 'azure', ko 'launi'] Lotus"), wani gari a gundumar Chang-ming, Sichuan, China.[5] Wannan a halin yanzu ya yi daidai da garin Qinglian (青蓮鎮) na matakin gundumar Jiangyou, a Sichuan.

Matashin Li ya karanta sosai, ciki har da litattafan gargajiya na Confucian irin su The Classic of Poetry (Shijing) da Classic of History (Shujing), da kuma nau'o'in ilmin taurari da na zahiri waɗanda Confucians suka yi watsi da su, ko da yake ya ƙi ya ɗauki jarrabawar karatu.[13] Karatun “Marubuta ɗari” na cikin al’adar adabin iyali, kuma ya iya tsara waƙa kafin ya kai shekaru goma.[5] Matashin Li ya kuma yi wasu ayyuka, kamar tada tsuntsayen daji da shinge.[13] Sauran ayyukansa sun hada da hawa, farauta, tafiye-tafiye, da taimakon talakawa ko wadanda ake zalunta ta hanyar kudi da makamai.[5] Daga ƙarshe, matashin Li da alama ya ƙware sosai a yaƙin takobi; Kamar yadda wannan labarin tarihin kansa na Li da kansa ya ba da shaida kuma yana taimakawa wajen kwatanta rayuwar daji da ya jagoranci a cikin Sichuan na kuruciyarsa:

When I was fifteen, I was fond of sword play, and with that art I challenged quite a few great men.[14]

Kafin ya kai shekaru ashirin, Li ya yi yaƙi tare da kashe mazaje da yawa, bisa ga dalilai na ƙiyayya, bisa ga al'adar kuskure (youxia).[13]

A cikin 720, Gwamna Su Ting ya yi hira da shi, wanda ya dauke shi a matsayin haziƙi. Ko da yake ya bayyana muradin zama jami'in, bai taba yin jarrabawar aikin gwamnati ba.

A kan hanyar zuwa Chang'an[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Map of eastern interior Chinese cities of Luoyang, Chang'an, Qinzhou, Chengdu, Kuizhou, and Tanzhou
Kasar Sin ta Li Bai da Du Fu

Barin Sichuan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A tsakiyar shekarunsa 20, wato kimanin shekara 725, Li Bai ya bar Sichuan, ya bi ta kogin Yangzi ta tafkin Dongting zuwa Nanjing, ya fara kwanakin yawo. Daga nan sai ya koma cikin kogin Yunmeng, a yankin Hubei a yanzu, inda aurensa da jikar firaminista Xu Yushi mai ritaya, da alama ya yi kama da juna.[15] A cikin shekarar farko ta tafiyarsa, ya sadu da fitattun mutane kuma ya ba da yawancin dukiyarsa ga abokai mabukata.

A shekara ta 730, Li Bai ya zauna a tsaunin Zhongnan kusa da babban birnin kasar Chang'an (Xi'an), ya yi kokari amma ya kasa samun matsayi. Ya gangara zuwa Kogin Yellow, Luoyang ya tsaya, ya ziyarci Taiyuan kafin ya koma gida. A shekara ta 735, Li Bai ya kasance a Shanxi, inda ya shiga cikin wata kotun soji da ake yi wa Guo Ziyi, wanda daga baya, bayan ya zama daya daga cikin manyan hafsoshin Tang, ya rama abin da aka yi masa a lokacin rikicin 'yan Shi'a.[11] Wataƙila 740, ya ƙaura zuwa Shandong. A Shandong ne a wannan lokacin ya zama ɗaya daga cikin ƙungiyar da aka fi sani da "Six Idlers of the Bamboo Brook", ƙungiya ce ta yau da kullun da aka sadaukar don adabi da giya.[11] Ya yi yawo a yankin Zhejiang da Jiangsu, daga karshe ya yi abota da wani shahararren limamin Daoist, Wu Yun.[11] A shekara ta 742, Sarkin sarakuna ya gayyaci Wu Yun don halartar kotun daular, inda yabon Li Bai ya yi yawa.[11]

A Chang'an[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yabon da Wu Yun ya yiwa Li Bai ya jagoranci sarki Xuanzong (haife shi Li Longji kuma aka fi sani da Emperor Minghuang) ya gayyaci Li zuwa kotu a Chang'an. Halin Li ya burge masu fada aji da sauran jama'a, ciki har da wani Taoist (kuma mawaki), He Zhizhang, wanda ya ba shi laƙabi da "An Kora Mara Mutuwa daga Sama".[11] Hakika, bayan masu sauraro na farko, inda aka yi wa Li Bai tambayoyi game da ra'ayinsa na siyasa, Sarkin ya burge shi sosai, har ya gudanar da babban liyafa don girmama shi. A wannan liyafar, an ce Sarkin ya nuna farin cikinsa, har ma da kansa ya yi masa kayan miya.[11] [16]

Sarkin sarakuna Xuanzong ya ɗauke shi aiki a matsayin mai fassara, kamar yadda Li Bai ya san aƙalla yare ɗaya wanda ba na China ba.[11] A ƙarshe Ming Huang ya ba shi matsayi a Kwalejin Hanlin, wanda ya yi aiki don ba da ƙwarewar ilimi da waƙa ga Sarkin sarakuna.

Sarkin sarakuna Minghuang, yana zaune a kan wani fili, ya lura Li Bai yana rubuta waƙa yayin da aka cire takalmansa (misalin daular Qing).

Lokacin da sarki ya umarci Li Bai zuwa fada, ya sha buguwa, amma yana iya yin wasan kwaikwayo a wurin.

Li Bai ya rubuta kasidu da yawa game da kyakkyawar s


Sarki Yang Guifei, masoyiyar sarautar da aka fi so.[17] Wani labari, yana yaduwa game da Li Bai a wannan lokacin. Da zarar, yayin da yake buguwa, Li Bai ya samu laka, kuma an nemi Gao Lishi, babban eunuch na siyasa a fadar, ya taimaka wajen kawar da wadannan, a gaban Sarkin sarakuna. Gao ya yi fushi da aka ce ya yi wannan hidimar maras kyau, kuma daga baya yayi nasarar shawo kan Yang Guifei ya yi fushi da wakokin Li game da ita.[17] Bisa lallashin Yang Guifei da Gao Lishi, Xuanzong cikin rashin son rai, amma cikin ladabi, tare da manyan kyaututtuka na zinariya da azurfa, ya kori Li Bai daga fadar sarki.[18] Bayan ya bar kotun, Li Bai a hukumance ya zama ɗan Tao, yana yin gida a Shandong, amma ya yi ta yawo mai nisa har tsawon wasu shekaru goma masu zuwa, yana rubuta waƙoƙi.[18] Li Bai ya rayu kuma ya rubuta wakoki a Bishan (ko Dutsen Bi (碧山), a yau Dutsen Baizhao (白兆山) a Yandian, Hubei. Dutsen Bi (碧山) a cikin waƙar Tambaya da Amsa Tsakanin tsaunuka (山中问答 Shanzhong Wenda) yana nufin wannan dutsen.

The calligraphy "Shang Yang Tie" (上陽貼) by Li Bai.

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Wong Wai-leung ne ya zana shi a cikin jerin talabijin na 2000 The Legend of Lady Yang
  • Wani dan wasan kwaikwayo da ke wasa Li Bai ya ba da labarin abubuwan al'ajabi na kasar Sin da kuma tunanin fina-finan kasar Sin a rumfar kasar Sin dake Epcot.
  • An rera waƙar Li Bai mai suna 'Hard Roads in Shu' wani mawaki ɗan ƙasar Sin AnAn a cikin tirela na Liu Bei don wasan Total War: Masarautu Uku
  • Ya bayyana a matsayin "babban marubuci" a cikin wasan wayewar VI

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. The New Book of Tang 文宗時,詔以白歌詩、裴旻劍舞、張旭草書為「三絕」
  2. 河岳英靈集
  3. Obata, Part III
  4. Beckwith, 127
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Sun, 20
  6. Obata, 8
  7. Wu, 57–58
  8. Elling Eide, "On Li Po", Perspectives on the T'ang (New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1973), 388.
  9. Eide (1973), 389.
  10. Sun, 1982, 20 and 21
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Wu, 59
  12. Sun, 24, 25, and 166
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Wu, 58
  14. Wu, 58. Translation by Wu. Note that by East Asian age reckoning, this would be fourteen rather than fifteen years old.
  15. Wu, 58–59
  16. Obata, 201
  17. 17.0 17.1 Wu, 60
  18. 18.0 18.1 Wu, 61

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Cooper, Arthur (1973). Li Po da Tu Fu: Waƙoƙin da aka zaɓa kuma an Fassara su tare da Gabatarwa da Bayanan kula (Penguin Classics, 1973). ISBN 978-0-14-044272-4 .
  • Hinton, David (2008). Wakokin gargajiya na kasar Sin: Anthology . New York: Farrar, Straus, da Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10536-7 , 978-0-374-10536-5
  • Hinton, David (1998). Zaɓaɓɓun Waƙoƙin Li Po (Waƙar Anvil Press Poetry, 1998). ISBN 978-0-85646-291-7
  • Holyoak, Keith (mai fassara) (2007). Fuskantar Wata: Waƙoƙin Li Bai da Du Fu . (Durham, NH: Oyster River Press ). ISBN 978-1-882291-04-5
  • Obata, Shigeyoshi (1922). Ayyukan Li Po, mawaƙin Sinawa. (New York: Dutton). An sake bugawa: New York: Paragon, 1965. E-Book kyauta .
  • 0-393-97106-6
  • Pound, Ezra (1915). Cathay (Elkin Mathews, London). ASIN B00085NWJI
  • Smith, Kidder da Zhai, Mike (2021). Li Bo Unkempt . Punctum Press. ISBN 1953035418
  • Stimson, Hugh M. (1976). Waqoqin T'ang Hamsin da Biyar . Far Eastern Publications: Jami'ar Yale. ISBN 0-88710-026-0
  • Seth, Vikram (mai fassara) (1992). Mawakan Sinanci guda uku: Fassarar waqoqin Wang Wei, Li Bai, da Du Fu . (London: Faber & Faber). ISBN 0-571-16653-9
  • Weinberger, Eliot . Sabbin Hannun Tatsuniyoyi na Waƙar Sinanci na Gargajiya . (New York: New Directions, 2004). ISBN 0-8112-1605-5 . Gabatarwa, tare da fassarorin William Carlos Williams, Ezra Pound, Kenneth Rexroth, Gary Snyder, da David Hinton.
  • Watson, Burton (1971) . Rubutun Sinanci: Waƙar Shih daga ƙarni na biyu zuwa na sha biyu . New York: Jami'ar Columbia Press. ISBN 0-231-03464-4
  • 978-1-4685-5904-0
  • Sun, Yu [孫瑜], fassarar, gabatarwa, da sharhi (1982). Sabon Fassarar Li Po-A 李白詩新譯. Hong Kong: Jaridar Kasuwanci,