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Lokacin Hijira

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Mamayewar Daular Rum
Map of Europe, with colored lines denoting migration routes</img>
Lokaci {300-800} ko kuma daga baya [1]
Wuri Turai da yankin Bahar Rum
Lamarin Ƙabilun da ke mamaye daular Rum mai raguwa
Lokacin Hijira
historical period (en) Fassara da human migration (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Lokacin farawa 375
Lokacin gamawa 568
Time period (en) Fassara Daular Rumawa da Roman Empire (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 48°12′30″N 16°22′23″E / 48.2083°N 16.3731°E / 48.2083; 16.3731

Lokacin Hijira wani lokaci ne a cikin tarihin Turai wanda ke da manyan ƙaura waɗanda suka ga faduwar daular Rum ta Yamma da ƙabilu dabam-dabam suka mamaye tsoffin yankunanta, da kuma kafa masarautun bayan Romawa. Kalmar tana nufin muhimmiyar rawar da ƙaura, mamayewa, da Kuma sasanta kabilu daban-daban suka taka, musamman Franks, Goths, Alemanni, Alans, Huns, Slavs na farko, Pannonian Avars, Magyars, da Bulgars a ciki ko cikin tsohuwar Daular Yamma da kuma Gabashin Turai. An dauki lokacin a al'ada don farawa a AD 375 (wataƙila a farkon 300) kuma ya ƙare a 568. [2] Abubuwa iri-iri ne suka haifar da wannan al'amari na hijira da mamayewa, kuma har yanzu ana tattaunawa kan rawar da suka taka da kuma muhimmancinsu.

Masana tarihi sun bambanta dangane da kwanakin farkon da ƙarshen lokacin Hijira. An yi la'akari da farkon lokacin a matsayin mamayewar Turai da Huns daga Asiya suka yi a cikin kusan 375 kuma ya ƙare tare da mamayar Italiya da Lombards a 568, [3] amma lokacin da aka tsara ya kasance daga farkon 300. har zuwa ƙarshen 800. Misali, a cikin karni na 4 an kafa babban rukunin Goths a matsayin foederati a cikin yankin Balkan na Roman, kuma an zaunar da Franks a kudu da Rhine a cikin Roman Gaul. A cikin shekarar 406 gungun Vandals, Alans da Suebi sun yi wani babban tsallaka na Rhine musamman babba da ba zato ba tsammani. Yayin da iko na tsakiya ya rushe a Daular Rum ta Yamma, sojoji sun zama mafi mahimmanci amma mazaje na asali sun mamaye su.

Akwai ra'ayoyi masu karo da juna dangane da ko faduwar Daular Rum ta Yamma ta kasance sakamakon karuwar ƙaura, ko kuma duka biyun rushewar ikon tsakiya da kuma ƙarin mahimmancin waɗanda ba na Romawa ba sun haifar da abubuwan cikin Rum. Hijira, da kuma amfani da waɗanda ba na Romawa ba a cikin soja, an san su a cikin lokutan da suka gabata da kuma bayansa, kuma daular Roma ta Gabas ta daidaita kuma ta ci gaba da wanzuwa har zuwa faduwar Constantinoful ga Ottomans a 1453. Faduwar Daular Rumawa ta Yamma, duk da cewa ta ƙunshi kafa masarautu masu fafatawa da juna, amma sarakunan gabas ne ke tafiyar da su zuwa wani lokaci.

Wasu masu tafiye-tafiyen hijira

Baƙi sun ƙunshi ƙungiyoyin yaƙi ko kabilu na mutane 10,000 zuwa 20,000, amma a cikin shekaru 100 ba su wuce 750,000 gabaɗaya ba.[ana buƙatar hujja] idan aka kwatanta da matsakaicin 40 miliyoyin jama'ar Daular Rum a wancan lokacin. Kodayake shige da fice ya zama ruwan dare a duk lokacin daular Rum, [4] lokacin da ake tambaya shine, a cikin karni na 19, galibi ana bayyana shi da gudana daga kusan ƙarni na 5 zuwa 8. [5] Hijirar farko na mutane sun kasance daga kabilun Jamus kamar Goths (ciki har da Visigoths da Ostrogoths), Vandals, Anglo-Saxon, Lombards, Suebi, Frisii, Jutes, Burgundians, Alemanni, da Alemanni. Sciri da Franks; Daga baya Huns, Avars, Slavs da Bulgars suka tura su zuwa yamma. [6] Daga baya mamayewa, irin su Vikings, Normans, Varangians, Hungarian, Moors, Romani, Turkics, da Mongols kuma suna da tasiri mai mahimmanci (musamman a Arewacin Afirka, Iberian Peninsula, Anatolia da Tsakiya da Gabashin Turai ).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kabilun Jamusawa kafin hijira[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Jamus sun ƙaura daga kudancin Scandinavia da arewacin Jamus zuwa ƙasashen da ke kusa tsakanin Elbe da Oder bayan 1000. BC Tashin farko ya koma yamma da kudu (yana tura mazauna Celts yamma zuwa Rhine a kusa da 200). BC), ƙaura zuwa kudancin Jamus har zuwa lardunan Romawa na Gaul da Cisalpine Gaul da 100 BC, inda Gaius Marius ya dakatar da su kuma daga baya Julius Kaisar. Ita ce wannan rukuni na yamma wanda masanin tarihin Romawa Tacitus (AD 56-117) da Julius Kaisar (100-44 BC). Daga baya guguwar kabilan Jamus sun yi ƙaura zuwa gabas da kudu daga Scandinavia, tsakanin 600 zuwa 300. BC, zuwa gaɓar tekun Baltic Sea, hawan Vistula kusa da tsaunin Carpathian. A zamanin Tacitus sun haɗa da ƙabilun da ba a san su ba kamar Tencteri, Cherusci, Hermunduri da Chatti; duk da haka, lokacin tarayya da auratayya ya haifar da sanannun ƙungiyoyin da aka sani da Alemanni, Franks, Saxon, Frisians da Thuringians. [7]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zaman Hijira na Jamusanci bracteate na zinari da ke nuna tsuntsu, doki, da kan ɗan adam mai salo tare da kullin Suebian.
Hijira na farkon Slavs a Turai tsakanin 5th-10th ƙarni.
Hijira da zama na Bulgars a cikin ƙarni na 6-7th AD
Tushen fibula na Slavic da aka yi da jan karfe tun daga lokacin Hijira, c. 600-650 AD
  1. Allgemein Springer (2006), der auch auf alternative Definitionen außerhalb der communis opinio hinweist. Alle Epochengrenzen sind letztlich nur ein Konstrukt und vor allem durch Konvention begründet. Vgl. auch Stefan Krautschick: Zur Entstehung eines Datums. 375 – Beginn der Völkerwanderung. In: Klio 82, 2000, S. 217–222 sowie Stefan Krautschick: Hunnensturm und Germanenflut: 375 – Beginn der Völkerwanderung? In: Byzantinische Zeitschrift 92, 1999, S. 10–67.
  2. Halsall, Guy. Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  3. For example, Halsall, (2008), Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568
  4. Giovanni Milani-Santarpia, "Immigration Roman Empire", MariaMilani.com
  5. The delimiting dates vary but often cited are 410, the Sack of Rome by Alaric I; and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian dynasty.
  6. Bury, J. B., The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, Norton Library, 1967.
  7. Bury, Invasion, Ch. 1.