Mary Read

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Mary Read
Read,Mary.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Mary Jane Read
Haihuwa Landan, 1685
ƙasa Great Britain (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Port Royal, Jamaica (en) Fassara, 28 ga Afirilu, 1721
Karatu
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a pirate (en) Fassara

Mary Read (1685 - 28 Afrilu 1721), wanda kuma aka sani da Mark Read, ta kasance 'yar fashin teku na Ingila. Ita da Anne Bonny sun kasance mashahuran ƴan fashin mata guda biyu daga ƙarni na 18, kuma a cikin ƴan matan da aka sani da aka yanke musu hukuncin satar fasaha a lokacin "Golden Age of Piracy".

An haifi Read a Ingila a shekara ta 1685. Ta fara yin sutura a matsayin namiji tun tana karama, tun da farko mahaifiyarta ta bukaci ta karbi kudin gado sannan tana matashi don shiga aikin sojan Burtaniya. Sai ta yi aure kuma bayan mutuwar mijinta ta koma West Indies a kusa da 1715. A 1720 ta sadu da Jack Rackham kuma ta shiga cikin ma'aikatansa, suna yin ado a matsayin namiji tare da Anne Bonny. Lokacinta na 'yar fashin teku ya yi nasara amma ɗan gajeren lokaci, kamar yadda aka kama ita, Bonny da Rackham a watan Nuwamban shekarar 1720. An kashe Rackham, amma Read da Bonny duk sun yi ikirarin cewa suna da juna biyu kuma sun sami jinkirin yanke hukunci. Read ta mutu da zazzabi a Afrilun shekarata 1721.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Mary Read a Masarautar Ingila a shekara ta 1685. Mahaifiyarta ta auri wani jirgin ruwa kuma ta haifi ɗa.[1] Bayan mijinta ya bace a teku, mahaifiyar Maryamu ta sami juna biyu bayan soyayyar da ta yi. Mahaifiyar Read ta yi ƙoƙarin ɓoye cikin ta hanyar zuwa zama tare da abokai a ƙasar. Ba da daɗewa ba, ɗanta ya mutu kuma ta haifi Mary. Wannan dan da ta haifa wa mijinta da ya bata a teku ana ganin hadari ne. Mahaifiyar Maryama Karatu ta ga maƙwabtanta da danginta na kusa da girmamawa shiyasa ta ɗauki wannan hutun saboda kunyar da take da alaƙa da ciki da wannan ɗan da ta haifa.[2]

A cikin matsalar kuɗi, mahaifiyarta ta yanke shawarar canza Maryamu a matsayin danta da ya mutu, domin ta sami tallafin kuɗi daga mahaifiyar mijinta da ya mutu. Babu shakka an yaudari kakarta, kuma uwa da ’yarta sun yi rayuwa a kan gadon tun suna matashin Mary. Sanye da tufafin yaro, Read ta sami aiki a matsayin ɗan ƙafa, sa'an nan, aiki a kan jirgin ruwa.[3]

Daga baya ta shiga aikin sojan Burtaniya, wanda ta kasance bayan shekaru 13 kuma Read ta sami kanta shiga cikin ma'aikatan wani Namajin Yaki na Burtaniya. Daga baya ta bar wannan kuma ta koma Flanders inda ta ɗauki Arms a cikin Regiment of Foot a matsayin ɗan ƙarami kuma ta yi aiki da ƙarfin hali amma tana iya karɓar kwamiti daga aikinta saboda yawanci ana siya da sayar da su ta koma cikin Regiment na Doki.[4] Wanne yana da alaƙa da sojojin Holland a kan Faransanci (wannan zai iya kasancewa a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru Tara ko lokacin Yaƙin Mutanen Espanya). Read, a cikin ɓarna na namiji, ta tabbatar da kanta ta hanyar yaƙi, amma ta ƙaunaci sojan Flemish. Lokacin da suka yi aure, ta yi amfani da hukumar soja da kuma kyaututtuka daga ’yan’uwa masu sha’awar makamai don samun masauki mai suna “De drie hoefijzers” (“Takalmin Doki Uku”) kusa da Castle Breda a Netherlands.

Bayan mutuwar mijinta da wuri, Read ta dawo da suturar maza da aikin soja a Netherlands. Da zaman lafiya, babu inda za a samu ci gaba, don haka sai ta tashi ta hau jirgi da zai nufi Yammacin Indiya.[5] Wannan jirgin da ta hau zuwa yankin yammacin Indiya ya faru ne da wani jirgin ruwan ’yan fashi da makami, inda ta yi kama da wani dan Birtaniya ne ya taimaka mata kuma suka dauke ta tare da ma’aikatan jirgin wadanda ‘yan Burtaniya ne.

Zama 'yar fashin teku[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani zane na zamani na Mary Read
Wani zane na zamani na Anne Bonney

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cordingly, David (2007). Seafaring women : adventures of pirate queens, female stowaways, and sailors' wives (2007 Random House Trade paperback ed.). New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 9780375758720. OCLC 140617965.
  2. Defoe, Daniel, and Charles Johnson. A General History of Pyrates . Printed by J. Watts ..., 1725.
  3. Cordingly, David (1996). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. New York: Random House. p. 61.
  4. Defoe, Daniel, and Charles Johnson. A General History of Pyrates . Printed by J. Watts ..., 1725.
  5. Druett, Joan (2005) [2000]. She captains : heroines and hellions of the sea. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0760766916. OCLC 70236194.