Masallacin Ibn Tulun

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Masallacin Ibn Tulun
Musulunci Alkahira
Kairo Ibn Tulun Moschee BW 4.jpg
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaMisra
Governorate of Egypt (en) FassaraCairo Governorate (en) Fassara
Coordinates 30°01′44″N 31°14′58″E / 30.02875°N 31.249528°E / 30.02875; 31.249528
History and use
Addini Musulunci
Suna Ahmad ibn Tulun (en) Fassara
Karatun Gine-gine
Style (en) Fassara Islamic architecture (en) Fassara
Heritage

Masallacin Ibn Tulun (Larabci: مسجد إبن طولون, romanized: Masjid Ibn Ṭūlūn) yana a cikin birnin Alkahira na ƙasar Masar. Yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin masallatan dake a kasar Masar da ma daukacin nahiyar Afirka da ke rayuwa a matsayinsa na asali, kuma shi ne masallaci mafi girma a birnin Alkahira ta fuskar fadin kasa. An gina shi a kusa da wani fili mai murabba'i wanda ke ba da damar hasken yanayi yin tafiya. Masallacin Ibn Tulun yana da tsofaffin salon gine-gine na Masar, ana yin kayan adon sa daga sassaƙaƙen stucco da itace.[1] Wannan masallaci sanannen wurin yawon bude ido ne.

Tarihin gini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duban iska

Sarkin daular Tulunid Ahmad ibn Tulun ne ya jagoranci masallacin, gwamnan Abbasiyawa na Masar daga shekara ta 868-zuwa 884 wanda mulkinsa ke da ‘yancin kai na hakika. Shahararren masanin gine-ginen Masar, Saiid Ibn Kateb Al-Farghany (Larabci: سعيد بن كاتب الفرغاني) ne ya tsara ta, wanda Kiristan Orthodox ne, injiniyan da ya kera Nilometer. Masanin tarihi al-Maqrizi ya lissafa lokacin da aka fara ginin masallacin a shekara ta 876 miladiyya,[2] kuma asalin rubutun masallacin ya bayyana ranar da aka kammala shi a shekara ta 265 (878/879).

An gina masallacin a kan wani dan karamin tudu mai suna Gebel Yashkur, "Tuni na Godiya." Wani almara ya ce a nan ne jirgin Nuhu ya kwanta bayan Rigyawa, maimakon a Dutsen Ararat.[3] An yi amfani da masallacin don dalilai da yawa. Ɗaya daga cikin irin wannan manufar ita ce an yi amfani da ita a matsayin mafaka ga mahajjata daga Arewacin Afirka zuwa Hijaz a karni na 12.

Babban masallacin jam'i an yi niyya ya zama cibiyar al-Qata'i, babban birnin Ibn Tulun, wadda ta kasance cibiyar gudanarwa ga daular Tulunid. Asalin masallacin ya koma fadar Ibn Tulun, wata kofa kusa da minbar ta ba shi damar shiga masallacin kai tsaye. A farkon karni na 10 miladiyya an rusa Al-Qata'i, kuma masallacin shi ne kadai tsarin da ya rage.

Kayan ado na baka na Geometric - Alamar fure-fure da zane-zane na geometric akan baka suna nuna fasahar abbasid.

An gina masallacin ne da salon Samarran wanda aka saba da gine-ginen Abbasiyawa. An gina shi a kewayen wani fili, tare da wani falo mai rufi a kowane gefe guda huxu, mafi girma a gefen alqibla, ko alkiblar Makka. Masallacin na asali yana da maɓuɓɓuga (fauwara[4]) a tsakiyar sahn, ya lulluɓe wata kubba mai ɗorewa da ginshiƙan marmara goma, zagaye da shi yana da ginshiƙan marmara guda 16 da kuma shimfidar marmara. A ƙarƙashin kubbar akwai babban kwano na marmara mai faɗin faɗin kamu 4 tare da jet na marmara a tsakiya. An kara wani sabil na musamman tare da dome mai tsayi a tsakar gida a karshen karni na sha uku 13 da Mamluk Sultan Lajin ya yi a maimakon "fauwara".

Cikin gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wurin da ke cikin masallacin Ibn Tulun ya kunshi itacen sikamore.

Gilashin da aka ɗora a ciki yana ba da haske na halitta a gaban kubba mara kyau. Kowane baka mai nuni yana da taga kuma an ƙera shi da ƙirar ƙira mai haske.

Rubutun a babban ƙofar da aka ambaci Fatimid

Minaret[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Minaret karkace
An tsara ta da ma'auni na Samarra, tare da matakan karkace a waje.

Ana ta cece-kuce game da ranar da za a gina wannan minaret, wanda ke da matakala mai hawa na waje. An kuma bayyana cewa yin amfani da wadannan matakan hawa kan doki. Tatsuniyoyi sun nuna cewa Ibn Tulun da kansa ya yi kuskure wajen tsara tsarin: wai a lokacin da yake zaune tare da jami'ansa, ya raunata wata takarda a yatsansa. Da wani ya tambaye shi abin da yake yi, sai ya amsa, ya ji kunya, wai yana zana minararsa. Da yawa daga cikin sifofin gine-ginen, suna nuni ne da wani gini na baya-bayan nan, musamman yadda minaret ba ta da kyau da babban ginin masallacin, wani abu da da a ce an yi ginin mina da masallaci a lokaci guda. Masanin tarihin gine-gine Doris Behrens-Abouseif ya tabbatar da cewa Sultan Lajin, wanda ya gyara masallacin a shekarar 1296, shi ne ya dauki nauyin gina ginin minaret na yanzu.[5]

Minaret tana nuna tasiri daga Hasumiyar Hasken Iskandariyya da shahararriyar minaret a Samarra.[6]

Babban mihrabin masallacin Ibn Tulun dake tsakiyar katangar alqibla. An yi shi da marmara, stucco, bulo, da mosaics masu launi daban-daban. An rubuta aikin bangaskiyar musulmi a cikin littafin Kufic. An yi ginshiƙan da marmara mai launin toka.

An gina shi gabaɗaya da bulo mai wuta mai kyau, filasta, da sassaƙaƙƙen stucco. Stucco filasta ne na siminti wanda aka gauraya akan wurin kuma a shafa shi wanda ke taurare zuwa wani kauri mai yawa.[7] An kuma gina masallacin daga wannan kayan. Matakan ya shimfiɗa har zuwa hasumiya mai tsayin ƙafa 170.

Niches na sallah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan gine-ginen da ke cikin masallacin sun ƙunshi wurin sallah (mihrab) da minbar katako. Murfin mihrab yana da ranar da aka kammala ginin a rubuce a rubutun Kufic.

Akwai guraren sallah guda shida (mihrab) a masallacin, biyar daga cikinsu sun yi lebur sabanin babban wurin da ake hadawa. Yana nuni da alqibla wadda sana’ar imani ta rubuta a cikin littafin Kufic.

  • Babban alkuki yana tsakiyar bangon alƙibla kuma shine mafi tsayi daga cikin shidan. An sake gyara shi a ƙarƙashin Sultan Lajin kuma yana ɗauke da saman fenti na itace, da shahada a cikin bandeji na mosaics na gilashi da ƙasan bangon marmara.[5]
  • Katangar alqibla iri ɗaya tana da ƙaramin alkuki zuwa hagu na babban alkuki. Ayyukansa na stalactite da naskhi kiraigraphy suna nuna farkon asalin Mamluk.[5]
  • Wuraren addu'o'i guda biyu da ke kan ramukan da ke gefen dikka an yi su ne da salon Samrarran, tare da kawata guda daya mai dauke da lambar yabo ta musamman mai tauraro mai rataye da sarka.[8] Rubuce-rubucen kufic shahada a kan gurabun biyu ba su ambaci Ali ba, don haka aka yi su kafin Fatimiyan Shi’a su hau mulki.[5]
  • Wurin addu'o'i na yamma, mihrabin al-Afdal Shahanshah, kwafi ne na asali da aka ajiye a gidan kayan tarihi na Islama na Alkahira. An ƙawata shi a cikin salo mai tasiri daga Farisa. Rubutun Kufiq ya ambaci halifa Fatimid al-Mustansir, wanda a kan umarninsa ne aka yi rangwame, haka nan kuma shahadar Shi’a ciki har da Ali a matsayin waliyin Allah bayan bayyana kadaita Allah da Annabcin Muhammadu.[5]
  • A gefen hagu akwai ragowar kwafin mihrabin al-Afdal. Ya bambanta, ta hanyar komawa ga Sultan Lajin maimakon al-Mustansir, da rashin sunan Ali.[5]

Wajen masallaci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A zamanin da, an gina gidaje da dama a jikin bangon masallacin. Yawancin an rushe su a cikin 1928 ta Kwamitin Kula da Kayayyakin Tarihi na Larabawa, duk da haka, an bar biyu daga cikin tsofaffin gidajen da aka fi kiyayewa. “Gidan mace Karrita” (Bait al-Kritliyya) da kuma Beit Amna bint Salim, asalinsu gine-gine ne guda biyu daban-daban, amma an kara wata gada a matakin bene na uku, ta hada su gida daya. Gidan, wanda ake iya shiga ta bangon waje na masallacin, yana buɗe wa jama'a a matsayin Gidan Tarihi na Gayer-Anderson, mai suna bayan Janar na Biritaniya R.G. 'John' Gayer-Anderson, wanda ya zauna a can har 1942.

An gina shi a wuri mai cike da cunkoso, hoton wannan wuri ya kunshi gidaje da dama da aka gina a bayan bangon masallacin.

Ziyada ko filin da babu kowa a tsakanin katangar ya kai kimanin murabba'in 26,318[9] a wajen masallacin za ka ga an gina gidaje da dama a jikin bangon masallacin. Hotunan masallacin na kewaye da wani gari mai cike da jama'a.

Maidowa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An dai mayar da masallacin sau da dama. Maidowa na farko da aka sani shine a cikin 1077 ƙarƙashin umarnin Fatimid waziri Badr al-Jamali. Maido da Sultan Lajin na 1296 ya kara inganta da yawa. Majalisar koli ta kayayyakin tarihi ta Masar ce ta gyara masallacin[10] a baya-bayan nan a shekara ta 2004.

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An dauki wasu sassan fim din James Bond mai suna The Spy Who Love Me a masallacin.[11] An nuna masallacin a cikin wasan Serious Sam 3: BFE, wanda ya zama wani muhimmin sashi na matakin wasan na uku. Hakanan an nuna shi a cikin matakin Tomb Raider: The Last Revelation, inda Lara Croft dole ne ta kama wani ɗan minotaur a cikin masallacin.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Ibn Tulun Mosque « Muslim Heritage". Retrieved 2019-12-08.
  2. al-Maqrīzī, Khiṭaṭ, II, pp. 265 ff.
  3. R.G. 'John' Gayer-Anderson Pasha.
  4. Yeomans, Richard (2006). The Art & Architecture Of Islamic Cairo. 8 Southern Court; South Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK: Garnet publishing Limited. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85964-154-5.CS1 maint: location (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1989). "Early Islamic Architecture in Cairo". Islamic Architecture in Cairo: an Introduction. Cairo: American University in Cairo. pp. 47–57.
  6. Gottheil, Richard J. H. (1910). "The Origin and History of the Minaret". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 30 (2): 132–154. doi:10.2307/3087601. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 3087601.
  7. "A majestic mosque in Cairo". Apollo Magazine (in Turanci). 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
  8. Tillier, Mathieu (2015-01-14). "L'étoile, la chaîne et le Jugement. Essai d'interprétation d'un élément de décor dans la mosquée d'Ibn Ṭūlūn" (PDF). Der Islam. 92 (2). doi:10.1515/islam-2015-0012. ISSN 1613-0928.
  9. "Discover Islamic Art - Virtual Museum - monument_ISL_eg_Mon01_2_en". islamicart.museumwnf.org. Retrieved 2019-12-08.
  10. "Ibn Tulun Mosque Restoration". archnet.org.
  11. Williams, Max (7 July 2018). "The Spy Who Loved Me: The Best of the Epic James Bond Movies". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.

Ayyukan da aka ambata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Warner, Nicholas (2005). The Monuments of Historic Cairo: a map and descriptive catalogue. Cairo: American University in Cairo.