Matsakaicin dumamar yanayi

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Matsakaicin dumamar yanayi ( GWP ) shine zafin da kowane yanayi mai gurbata yanayi ke sha a cikin yanayi, a matsayin nau'in zafi mai yawa wanda zai iya ɗaukar nauyin carbon dioxide ( CO ). GWP shine 1 don CO . Ga sauran iskar gas ya dogara da iskar gas da tsarin a lokaci.

Carbon dioxide dai-dai ( CO e ko CO eq ko CO -e) ana ƙididdige su daga GWP. Ga kowane iskar gas, shine yawan CO wanda zai dumama ƙasa gwargwadon yawan iskar gas ɗin. Don haka yana samar da ma'auni gama gari don auna tasirin yanayi na iskar gas daban-daban. Ana ƙididdige shi azaman adadin lokutan GWP na sauran gas. Misali, idan akace gas yana da GWP na 100, ton biyu na gas suna da CO e na tan 200.

Darajoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Carbon dioxide shine ma'anar. Yana da GWP na 1 ba tare da la'akari da lokacin da aka yi amfani da shi ba. CO tana haifar da haɓakar yanayin yanayi na CO wanda zai ɗauki dubban shekaru. Ƙididdiga na ƙimar GWP sama da shekaru a ƙalla 20, 100 da 500 ana tattara su lokaci-lokaci kuma ana sake bitar su a cikin rahotanni daga Kwamitin Tsare-tsare kan Canjin Yanayi :

  • SAR (1995) [1]
  • TAR (2001) [2]
  • AR4 (2007) [3]
  • AR5 (2013) [4]
  • AR6 (2021)

Kodayake rahotanni na baya-bayan nan suna nuna ƙarin daidaiton kimiyya, ƙasashe da kamfanoni suna ci gaba da amfani da ƙimar SAR da AR4 don dalilan kwatantawa a cikin rahotannin fitar da su. AR5 ya tsallake kimar kimanin shekaru 500 amma ya gabatar da kimar GWP gami da ra'ayoyin yanayi-carbon (f) tare da adadi mai yawa na rashin tabbas. [4]

Ƙimar GWP da rayuwar rayuwa Rayuwa



</br> (shekaru)
Ƙimar dumamar yanayi, GWP
shekaru 20 shekaru 100 shekaru 500
Methane (  ) 12.4 [4] 56 [1]



</br> 72 [3]



</br> 84 / 86f [4]



</br> 96 [5]
21 [1]



</br> 25 [3]



</br> 28 / 34f [4]



</br> 32 [6]



</br> 39f (biogenic) [7]



</br> 40f (burbushin halittu) [7]
6.5 [1]



</br> 7.6 [3]
Nitrous oxide (  ) 121.0 [4] 280 [1]



</br> 289 [3]



</br> 264 / 268f [4]
310 [1]



</br> 298 [3]



</br> 265 / 298f [4]
170 [1]



</br> 153 [3]
HFC-134a ( hydrofluorocarbon ) 13.4 [4] 3710 / 3790f [4] 1300 / 1550f [4] 435 [3]
CFC-11 ( chlorofluorocarbon ) 45.0 [4] 6900 / 7020f [4] 4660 / 5350f [4] 1620 [3]
Carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 / PFC-14) 50,000 [4] 4880 / 4950f [4] 6630 / 7350f [4] 11,200 [3]
HFC-23 ( hydrofluorocarbon ) 222 [4] 12,000 [3]



</br> 10,800 [4]
14,800 [3]



</br> 12,400 [4]
12,200 [3]
Sulfur hexafluoride  3,200 [4] 16,300 [3]



</br> 17,500 [4]
22,800 [3]



</br> 23,500 [4]
32,600 [3]
Hydrogen (H 2 ) data-sort-value="" style="background: #ececec; color: #2C2C2C; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center; " class="table-na" | N/A 4.3 [8] N/A

IPCC ta lissafa wasu abubuwa da yawa da ba a nuna su anan. [4] Wasu suna da babban GWP to amma ƙarancin maida hankali ne kawai a cikin yanayi. An kiyasta jimillar tasirin duk iskar gas mai ƙyalƙyali da kashi 3% na duk hayaƙin da ake fitarwa. [9]

Ƙimar da aka bayar a cikin tebur suna ɗaukan nau'in nau'i ɗaya na fili ana nazarin; daban-daban rabo zai haifar daga jujjuya wani abu zuwa wani. Misali, kona methane zuwa carbon dioxide zai rage tasirin dumamar yanayi, amma ta hanyar karami fiye da 25:1 saboda yawan methane da ya kone bai kai adadin carbon dioxide da aka fitar ba (rabo 1:2.74). Idan ka fara da 1 tonne na methane wanda ke da GWP na 25, bayan konewa zaka sami tan 2.74 na CO , kowanne tonne na da GWP na 1. Wannan raguwar rahusa ce ta tan 22.26 na GWP, yana rage tasirin dumamar yanayi da rabon a ƙalla 25:2.74 (kimanin sau 9).

Amfani a Kyoto Protocol da UNFCCC[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A karkashin Yarjejeniyar Kyoto, a cikin shekarata 1997 taron jam'iyyun sun daidaita rahotannin kasa da kasa, ta hanyar yanke shawarar (shawarwari 2/CP.3) cewa za a yi amfani da kimar GWP da aka ƙididdige don Rahoton Ƙimar Na Biyu na IPCC don canza iskar gas iri-iri zuwa kwatankwacin CO daidai. [10]

Bayan wasu sabuntawa na tsaka-tsaki, a cikin 2013 an sabunta wannan ma'auni ta taron Warsaw na Yarjejeniyar Tsarin Tsarin Mulki na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Sauyin Yanayi (UNFCCC, yanke shawara 24/CP.19) don buƙatar amfani da sabon saiti na ƙimar GWP na shekaru 100. Sun buga waɗannan darajoji a cikin Annex III, kuma sun ɗauke su daga Rahoton Ƙimar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙwararru, wanda aka buga a shekarata 2007.

Waɗannan ƙididdiga na a shekarar 2007 har yanzu ana amfani da su don kwatancen ƙasashen duniya ta hanyar a shekarata 2020, kodayake sabon bincike kan tasirin ɗumamar ya sami wasu ƙima, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin tebur a sama.

Greenhouse gas Chemical formula 100-year Global warming potentials

(2007 estimates, for 2013-2020 comparisons)
Carbon dioxide CO2 1 Template:0
Methane CH4 25 Template:0
Nitrous oxide N2O 298 Template:0
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
HFC-23 CHF3 14800 Template:0
Difluoromethane (HFC-32) CH2F2 675 Template:0
Fluoromethane (HFC-41) CH3F 92 Template:0
HFC-43-10mee CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 1640 Template:0
Pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) C2HF5 3500 Template:0
HFC-134 C2H2F4 (CHF2CHF2) 1100 Template:0
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) C2H2F4 (CH2FCF3) 1430 Template:0
HFC-143 C2H3F3 (CHF2CH2F) 353 Template:0
1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) C2H3F3 (CF3CH3) 4470 Template:0
HFC-152 CH2FCH2F 53 Template:0
HFC-152a C2H4F2 (CH3CHF2) 124 Template:0
HFC-161 CH3CH2F 12 Template:0
1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) C3HF7 3220 Template:0
HFC-236cb CH2FCF2CF3 1340 Template:0
HFC-236ea CHF2CHFCF3 1370 Template:0
HFC-236fa C3H2F6 9810 Template:0
HFC-245ca C3H3F5 693 Template:0
HFC-245fa CHF2CH2CF3 1030 Template:0
HFC-365mfc CH3CF2CH2CF3 794 Template:0
Perfluorocarbons
Carbon tetrafluoride – PFC-14 CF4 7390 Template:0
Hexafluoroethane – PFC-116 C2F6 12200 Template:0
Octafluoropropane – PFC-218 C3F8 8830 Template:0
Perfluorobutane – PFC-3-1-10 C4F10 8860 Template:0
Octafluorocyclobutane – PFC-318 c-C4F8 10300 Template:0
Perfluouropentane – PFC-4-1-12 C5F12 9160 Template:0
Perfluorohexane – PFC-5-1-14 C6F14 9300 Template:0
Perfluorodecalin – PFC-9-1-18b C10F18 7500 Template:0
Perfluorocyclopropane c-C3F6 17340 Template:0
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Sulphur hexafluoride SF6 22800 Template:0
Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)
Nitrogen trifluoride NF3 17200 Template:0
Fluorinated ethers
HFE-125 CHF2OCF3 14900 Template:0
Bis(difluoromethyl) ether (HFE-134) CHF2OCHF2 6320 Template:0
HFE-143a CH3OCF3 756 Template:0
HCFE-235da2 CHF2OCHClCF3 350 Template:0
HFE-245cb2 CH3OCF2CF3 708 Template:0
HFE-245fa2 CHF2OCH2CF3 659 Template:0
HFE-254cb2 CH3OCF2CHF2 359 Template:0
HFE-347mcc3 CH3OCF2CF2CF3 575 Template:0
HFE-347pcf2 CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 580 Template:0
HFE-356pcc3 CH3OCF2CF2CHF2 110 Template:0
HFE-449sl (HFE-7100) C4F9OCH3 297 Template:0
HFE-569sf2 (HFE-7200) C4F9OC2H5 59 Template:0
HFE-43-10pccc124 (H-Galden 1040x) CHF2OCF2OC2F4OCHF2 1870 Template:0
HFE-236ca12 (HG-10) CHF2OCF2OCHF2 2800 Template:0
HFE-338pcc13 (HG-01) CHF2OCF2CF2OCHF2 1500 Template:0
(CF3)2CFOCH3 343 Template:0
CF3CF2CH2OH 42 Template:0
(CF3)2CHOH 195 Template:0
HFE-227ea CF3CHFOCF3 1540 Template:0
HFE-236ea2 CHF2OCHFCF3 989 Template:0
HFE-236fa CF3CH2OCF3 487 Template:0
HFE-245fa1 CHF2CH2OCF3 286 Template:0
HFE-263fb2 CF3CH2OCH3 11 Template:0
HFE-329mcc2 CHF2CF2OCF2CF3 919 Template:0
HFE-338mcf2 CF3CH2OCF2CF3 552 Template:0
HFE-347mcf2 CHF2CH2OCF2CF3 374 Template:0
HFE-356mec3 CH3OCF2CHFCF3 101 Template:0
HFE-356pcf2 CHF2CH2OCF2CHF2 265 Template:0
HFE-356pcf3 CHF2OCH2CF2CHF2 502 Template:0
HFE-365mcfI’ll t3 CF3CF2CH2OCH3 11 Template:0
HFE-374pc2 CHF2CF2OCH2CH3 557 Template:0
– (CF2)4CH (OH) – 73 Template:0
(CF3)2CHOCHF2 380 Template:0
(CF3)2CHOCH3 27 Template:0
Perfluoropolyethers
PFPMIE CF3OCF(CF3)CF2OCF2OCF3 10300 Template:0
Trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3)
Trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride SF5CF3 17 Template:0

Muhimmancin lokacin sa'o'i[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

GWP na wani abu ya dogara da adadin shekaru (wanda aka nuna ta hanyar biyan kuɗi) wanda aka ƙididdige yuwuwar. Gas wanda aka cire da sauri daga yanayin yana iya yin tasiri mai yawa da farko, amma tsawon lokaci, kamar yadda aka cire shi, ya zama ƙasa da mahimmanci. Don haka methane yana da yuwuwar 25 sama da shekaru 100 (GWP 100 = 25) amma Kuma Kashi 86 sama da shekaru 20 (GWP 20 = 86); Sabanin haka sulfur hexafluoride yana da GWP na 22,800 sama da shekaru 100 amma 16,300 sama da shekaru 20 (Rahoton kimantawa na uku na IPCC). Ƙimar GWP ya dogara da yadda ƙwayar iskar gas ke ruɓe akan lokaci a cikin yanayi. Wannan yawanci ba a san shi sosai ba don haka bai kamata a yi la'akari da ƙimar daidai ba. Don wannan dalili lokacin da aka faɗi GWP yana da mahimmanci don ba da nuni ga lissafin.

Ana iya samun GWP don cakuda iskar gas daga matsakaita-nauyi-nauyi na GWPs na kowane iskar gas. [11]

Yawanci, sararin lokaci na shekaru a ƙallab100 ana amfani da shi ta hanyar masu gudanarwa.

Turin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Turin ruwa yana ba da gudummawa ga ɗumamar ɗan adam a duniya, amma kamar yadda aka ayyana GWP, ba shi da lahani ga H 2 O.

H 2 O ita ce mafi ƙarfi a cikin iska mai iska, saboda yana da babban bakan shayarwar infrared tare da ƙarin maɗaurin sha fiye da CO . Matsalolinsa a cikin yanayi yana iyakance ta zafin iska, ta yadda tururin ruwa ya karu tare da dumamar yanayi (tabbatacciyar amsa). Amma ma'anar GWP ta keɓance tasirin kai tsaye. Har ila yau, ma'anar GWP ta dogara ne akan hayaki, kuma ana cire iskar anthropogenic na tururin ruwa ( hasumiya mai sanyaya, ban ruwa ) ta hanyar hazo a cikin makonni, don haka GWP ɗinsa ba shi da Wani mahimmanci.

Suka da sauran ma'auni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Canjin canjin yanayi na Duniya (GTP) wata hanya ce ta kwatanta iskar gas. Yayin da GWP ya yi kiyasin zafin da ke sha, GTP ya ƙiyasta sakamakon hauhawar matsakaitan zafin jiki na duniya, a cikin nan DA shekaru 20, 50 ko 100 masu zuwa, wanda iskar gas ke haifar da shi, dangane da hauhawar yanayin zafi wanda yawan adadin CO zai haifar. [4] Lissafi na GTP yana buƙatar yin ƙirar yadda duniya, musamman ma tekuna, za su sha zafi. Ana buga GTP a cikin tebur na IPCC iri ɗaya tare da GWP. [4]

An ba da shawarar GWP* don ɗaukar mafi kyawun ƙididdiga na gurɓataccen yanayi na ɗan gajeren lokaci (SLCP) kamar methane, wanda ke da alaƙa da canjin ƙimar fitar da SLCPs zuwa ƙayyadadden adadin CO .

Lissafin yuwuwar dumamar yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

GWP ya dogara da abubuwa masu zuwa:

  • shan infrared radiation ta gas da aka ba
  • lokacin sha'awa (lokacin haɗin kai)
  • yanayin rayuwar gas din

Babban GWP yana daidaitawa tare da babban shayar infrared da tsayin yanayi na yanayi. Dogaro da GWP akan tsayin daka na sha ya fi rikitarwa. Ko da iskar gas ya sha radiation da kyau a wani tsayin raƙuman ruwa, wannan ba zai iya shafar GWP ɗinsa da yawa ba idan yanayi ya riga ya sha mafi yawan radiation a wannan tsawon tsayin. Gas yana da mafi tasiri DA tasiri idan ya sha a cikin "taga" na tsawon raƙuman ruwa inda yanayi ya kasance a bayyane. Dogara na GWP azaman aikin tsayin raƙuman ruwa an samo shi ta zahiri kuma an buga shi azaman jadawali.

Saboda GWP na iskar gas mai zafi ya dogara kai tsaye akan bakan sa na infrared, amfani da infrared spectroscopy don nazarin iskar gas yana da mahimmanci a cikin ƙoƙarin fahimtar tasirin ayyukan ɗan adam akan sauyin yanayi na duniya.

Kamar yadda tilastawa mai haskakawa ke ba da sauƙaƙan hanyoyi na kwatanta abubuwa daban-daban waɗanda aka yi imani za su yi tasiri ga tsarin sauyin yanayi da juna, ƙarfin dumamar yanayi (GWPs) nau'i ne na ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai dangane da kaddarorin haske waɗanda za a iya amfani da su don kimanta yuwuwar makomar gaba. tasirin hayakin iskar gas daban-daban akan tsarin yanayi ta ma'ana. GWP ya dogara ne akan abubuwa da yawa, ciki har da ingantaccen haske (ikon shayar da infrared) na kowane iskar gas dangane da na carbon dioxide, da kuma lalacewar kowane irin nau'in iskar gas (adadin da aka cire daga sararin samaniya akan adadin da aka ba da shi). shekaru) dangane da na carbon dioxide.

Ƙarfin tilasta radiyo (RF) shine adadin kuzari a kowane yanki, kowane lokaci naúrar, wanda iskar gas ɗin da ke ɗauke da ita, wanda in ba haka ba zai ɓace zuwa sarari. Ana iya bayyana shi ta hanyar dabara:

inda rubutun na wakiltar tazara na 10 inverse centimeters . Abs i yana wakiltar haɗaɗɗen ɗaukar infrared na samfurin a cikin wannan tazarar, kuma F i tana wakiltar RF na wannan tazara. 

Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin Gwamnati akan Canjin Yanayi (IPCC) tana ba da ƙimar ƙimar GWP gaba ɗaya, wanda ya ɗan canza kaɗan tsakanin shekarar 1996 da 2001. Ana samun ainihin ma'anar yadda ake ƙididdige GWP a cikin Rahoton Ƙimar Na Uku na IPCC na shekarata 2001. An bayyana GWP a matsayin rabon tilastawa mai haɗe-haɗe na lokaci daga fitowar 1 nan take. kilogiram na abu mai alama dangane da na 1 kilogiram na iskar gas:

inda TH shine lokacin lokacin da ake la'akari da lissafin; a x shine ingantaccen hasken haske saboda haɓakar raka'a a cikin yalwar yanayi na yanayi (watau Wm -2 kg -1 ) kuma [x] (t) shine ruɓewar da ta dogara da lokaci cikin yalwar abun bayan fitowar ta nan take. a lokacin t=0. Ƙididdigar ƙididdiga ta ƙunshi daidaitattun adadin iskar gas (watau CO ). Ayyukan radiative a x da r ba lallai ba ne su zama na dindindin na tsawon lokaci. Yayin da iskar infrared radiation ta yawancin iskar gas mai zafi ya bambanta a layi tare da yalwar su, wasu 'yan mahimmanci suna nuna halayen da ba su dace ba don abubuwan da ke faruwa a halin yanzu da yiwuwar nan gaba (misali, CO , CH 4, da N 2 O). Ga waɗancan iskar gas ɗin, ƙarfin kuzarin ɗanɗano zai dogara ne akan yawa kuma don haka a kan yanayin da za a ɗauka a nan gaba.

Tunda duk lissafin GWP kwatancen CO ne wanda ba na layi ba, duk ƙimar GWP ta shafa. Zaton in ba haka ba kamar yadda aka yi a sama zai haifar da ƙananan GWPs don sauran iskar gas fiye da cikakken tsarin da zai yi. Bayyana wannan, yayin da ƙara CO yana da ƙasa da ƙasa da tasiri akan sha mai raɗaɗi yayin da adadin ppm ya tashi, mafi yawan iskar gas mai ƙarfi kamar methane da nitrous oxide suna da nau'ikan sha na thermal daban-daban zuwa CO waɗanda ba a cika su ba (cikakken) gwargwadon CO , don haka hauhawar ppm na waɗannan iskar gas sun fi mahimmanci sosai.

Carbon dioxide daidai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Carbon dioxide daidai ( CO e ko CO eq ko CO -e) na adadin iskar gas ana ƙididdige shi daga GWP ɗin sa. Ga kowane gas, shine yawan CO wanda zai dumama ƙasa gwargwadon yawan iskar gas ɗin. Don haka yana samar da ma'auni gama gari don auna tasirin yanayi na iskar gas daban-daban. Ana ƙididdige shi kamar yadda GWP ke ninka ta da yawan sauran iskar gas. Misali, idan gas yana da GWP na kusan 100, ton biyu na iskar yana da CO e na tan 200, kuma tan 9 na iskar yana da CO e na tan 900.

A ma'auni na duniya, ana iya bayyana sakamakon ɗumamar iskar gas ɗaya ko fiye a cikin sararin samaniya a matsayin daidaitaccen yanayin yanayi na CO . CO e to zai iya zama yanayin yanayi na CO wanda zai dumi ƙasa kamar yadda wani nau'i na wasu iskar gas ko na duk iskar gas da aerosols a cikin yanayi. Misali, CO e na sassa guda 500 a kowace miliyan zai nuna cakuda iskar gas da ke dumama duniya kamar yadda kashi 500 a kowace miliyan CO za su dumi ta. Ƙididdigar ma'auni na daidaitattun yanayin yanayi na CO na iskar gas na yanayi ko aerosol ya fi rikitarwa kuma ya haɗa da yanayin yanayi na waɗannan iskar gas, GWPs, da ma'auni na ma'auni na molar su zuwa ma'auni na CO .

CO2e calculations depend on the time-scale chosen, typically kusan 100 years or 20 years, since gases decay in the atmosphere or are absorbed naturally, at different rates.

  • Ta kwamitin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan sauyin yanayi ( IPCC ): biliyan metric tonne = n × 10 9 tonne na CO daidai (Gt CO eq)
  • A cikin masana'antu: ton miliyan metric na daidaitattun carbon dioxide (MMTCDE) da MMT CO eq.
  • Don ababen hawa: grams na carbon dioxide daidai da mil (g CO e/mile) ko kowace kilomita (g CO e/km)

Misali, teburin da ke sama ya nuna GWP na methane sama da shekaru 20 a 86 da nitrous oxide a 289, don haka fitar da tan miliyan 1 na methane ko nitrous oxide daidai yake da fitar da tan miliyan 86 ko 289 na carbon dioxide, bi da bi.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Carbon lissafin kudi
  • Sawun carbon
  • Matsayin fitar da abin hawa
  • Jerin firji
  • Ƙarfin fitarwa
  • Radiative tilasta
  • Jimlar tasirin dumama daidai daidai

Litattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

IPCC ta ruwaito[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Wasu kafofin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 IPCC SAR WG1 Ch2 1995
  2. IPCC TAR WG1 Ch6 2001
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch2 2007
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch8 2013
  5. Alvarez 2018
  6. Etminan et al. 2016
  7. 7.0 7.1 Morton 2020
  8. 8.0 8.1 Derwent 2018
  9. Olivier & Peters 2020
  10. "Testing 100-year global warming potentials: Impacts on compliance costs and abatement profile", "Climatic Change" Retrieved March 16, 2018
  11. Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases Annex IV.