Muhammad al-Mahdi

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Muhammad al-Mahdi
12. Limamai Sha Biyu

874 -
Hasan al-Askari (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Samarra (en) Fassara, 29 ga Yuli, 869 (1154 shekaru)
ƙasa Daular Abbasiyyah
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Hasan al-Askari
Mahaifiya Narjis
Ahali Sayyid Ali Akbar (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a Limamai Sha Biyu
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Muḥammad bn al-Ḥasan al-Mahdi (Larabci: محمد بن الحسن المهدي) Shi'a 'yan-sha-biyu sun yi imani da cewa shi ne na karshen Imamai goma sha biyu kuma Mahdi mai fa'ida, wanda zai fito a karshen zamani don tabbatar da aminci da adalci da kuma fanshi. Musulunci. Hasan al-Askari, Imami na goma sha daya, ya rasu a shekara ta 260 bayan hijira (873-874 miladiyya) [1], watakila Abbasiyawa ne suka sanya masa guba. Nan take bayan rasuwarsa babban wakilinsa Uthman bn Sa’id ya yi da’awar cewa Imami na sha daya yana da wani jariri mai suna Muhammad wanda aka boye shi ga jama’a saboda tsoron fitinar Abbasiyawa. [2]. Uthman ya kuma yi ikirarin cewa shi ne yake wakilta Muhammad, wanda ya shiga wani hali na fakuwa. Sauran wakilan al-Askari na cikin gida sun goyi bayan wadannan ikirari, yayin da al'ummar Shi'a suka rabu zuwa kungiyoyi da dama saboda al-Askari ya gaje shi. Duk da haka, an ce duk wadannan mazhabobi sun bace ne bayan wasu ‘yan shekaru in ban da ‘yan-sha-biyu, wadanda suka yarda da dan al-Askari a matsayin Imami na goma sha biyu kuma na karshe a fakuwa.[3]

Uthman ya biyo bayan wasu wakilai uku, wadanda aka fi sani da Wakilai Hudu, wadanda al’ummar ‘yan-sha-biyu ke daukarsu a matsayin wakilan Muhammad al-Mahdi. Wannan lokacin, daga baya ana kiransa Ƙananan Fakuwa, ya ƙare bayan kimanin shekaru saba'in tare da mutuwar wakili na huɗu, Abu al-Hasan al-Samarri (d. 940-41)[4]. An ce ya samu wasika daga Muhammad al-Mahdi jim kadan kafin rasuwarsa. Wasikar ta yi hasashen mutuwar Abu al-Hasan a cikin kwanaki shida kuma ta sanar da fara gamayyar fakuwar, wanda daga baya ake kira babbar gakuwa, wanda ke ci gaba da wanzuwa har yau. Wasikar, wacce aka danganta ga Muhammad al-Mahdi, ta kara da cewa fakuwar za ta ci gaba har sai Allah ya ba shi izinin sake bayyana kansa a lokacin da duniya za ta cika da zalunci [5].

Lakabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Askari, mai ceton eschatological a cikin Islama goma sha biyu, sananne ne da lakabi da yawa, ciki har da al-Mahdi (lit. 'Shiryuwa'), al-Qa'im (lit.  'wanda zai yi tashi'), al-Montazar (lit.  'wanda ake jira'), Saheb al-Zaman (lit. 'ubangijin zamani'), al-Gha'ib (lit.boyayyen'), al-Hojja/Hojjat Allah (lit. "Hujjar [Allah]'), Sahib al-Amr (lit. "Ubangijin dalili'), Sahib al-Haqq (lit. "Ubangijin gaskiya"), Baqiyat Allah (lit. saura daga Allah).[6]

Lakabin al-Qa'im yana nufin bullowar azzalumai,[3] ko da yake wani hadisi wahid (lit. 'olone') daga Imamin Shi'a na shida, Ja'afar al-Sadiq, ya danganta wannan take da tashin al-Qa'ida. bayan mutuwarsa. A matsayin hadisin wahid, wannan rahoto ba masana suna kallonsa a matsayin abin dogaro ba, in ji Majlesi ta Shi’a (d.1699), musamman saboda ya saba wa akidar ‘yan-sha-biyu na cewa kasa ba za ta gushe ba daga Imam a kowane lokaci, kamar yadda hujjar Allah (littattafai).tabbacin Allah') a duniya. Majlesi ya kuma yi nuni da cewa kila ana nufin mutuwa ta alama ce a cikin wannan hadisi, yana nufin tunawa da al-Qa'im da aka manta bayan da ya dade yana fakuwa.[7]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Har zuwa rasuwarsu, Imaman Shi'a na goma da goma sha daya (Ali al-Hadi da Hasan al-Askari, bi da bi) suna karkashin kulawa ta musamman a garin Samarra da 'yan Abbasiyawa suka yi, tushen gubar Imamai biyu [8]. Imaman biyu sun shaida irin tabarbarewar halifancin Abbasiyya yayin da hukumar daular ta yi saurin rikidewa zuwa hannun Turkawa musamman bayan al-Mutawakkil [9]. A zamanin Imam na goma, Abbasid al-Mutawakkil ya tuhumi Shi'a da karfi, saboda sabon adawar Zaidi. Daga baya kuma dansa al-Mu’tamid ya karvi manufofin al-Mutawakkil a kan Imami na goma, wanda aka ruwaito cewa ya tsare Imami na sha daya a gida ba tare da wani bako ba. Maimakon haka, an san al-Askari ya kasance yana tattaunawa da mabiyansa ta hanyar hanyar sadarwar wakilai. Daga cikinsu akwai Uthman bn Sa’id wanda aka ce ya rikiɗe ya zama mai sayar da kitse don guje wa wakilan Abbasiyawa, don haka ake yi masa lakabi da al-Samman [10].

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1981). Islamic Messianism: The Idea of Mahdī in Twelver Shīʻism. Suny press. ISBN 978-0873954426.
  2. Eliash, J. (2022). "Ḥasan Al-ʿAskarī". In Bearman, P. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.). Brill Reference Online.
  3. al-Qarashi, Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam Al-Mahdi, translated by Syed Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 964-438-806-2.
  4. Hulmes, Edward D.A. (2013). "HASAN AL-'ASKARI, ABU MUHAMMAD HASAN IBN 'ALI (c. AD 845-74)". In Netton, Ian Richard (ed.). Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization and Religion. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 9781135179670.
  5. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Hamid Dabashi (1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shiʻism in History. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-88706-843-X.
  6. Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, translated by Liadain Sherrard and Philip Sherrard. Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.
  7. Sayej, Caroleen Marji (2018). Patriotic Ayatollahs: Nationalism in Post-Saddam Iraq. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 67. doi:10.7591/cornell/9781501715211.001.0001. ISBN 9781501714856.
  8. Corbin, Henry (2014). History Of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Sherrard, Liadain. Routledge. ISBN 9781135198893.
  9. Bayat, Mangol (1991). Iran's First Revolution: Shi'ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909. Studies in Middle Eastern History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506822-1.
  10. Mavani, Hamid (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism: From Ali to Post-Khomeini. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-62440-4.