Namiji

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Wikidata.svgnamiji
gender identity (en) Fassara da sex of humans (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na gendered (en) Fassara
Bangare na male and female (en) Fassara
Gajeren suna чол, , мужской, цёраломань da маIа
Has quality (en) Fassara male given name (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da mace
namiji mai saje
namiji na tuƙa keke

Dude yaren Amurka ne na Turanci don mutum, galibi namiji.[1] Daga shekarun 1870 zuwa 1960, dude da farko ana nufin mutumin da ya yi ado irin na zamani (dandy ) ko kuma wani fitaccen mutum da ya ziyarci ƙauye, "mai birge gari ". A cikin shekarun 1960, dude ya samo asali zuwa ma’anar kowane namiji, ma’anar da ta shigo cikin yaren Amurkawa a cikin 1970s. Kalaman yanzu suna riƙe da aƙalla amfani da dukkan waɗannan ma'anoni guda uku.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

File:Berry-wall-king-dudes.jpg
Evander Berry Wall, wani ɗan kishin zamantakewar New York, an yi masa laƙabi da "Sarkin Dudes". An ɗauke shi hoto (1888) a cikin jaridar New York ta Amurka a lokacin "yaƙin Dude"..[3][4]

Kalmar "dude" wataƙila ma ya samo asali ne daga kalmar ƙarni na 18 "doodle", kamar yadda yake a "Yankee Doodle Dandy".[5]

A cikin sanannun latsawa na 1880s da 1890s, "dude" sabuwar kalma ce ta " dandy " - wani "maɗaukakiyar sutturar namiji", mutum ne wanda ya ba da mahimmanci ga yadda ya bayyana. Theungiyar cafe da Abubuwan Youngaramar Matasa na ƙarshen 1800s da farkon 1900s an mamaye su tare da lalata. Samari na lokacin hutu don nuna kayan tufafin su. Mafi shaharar wannan nau'in shine watakila Evander Berry Wall, wanda aka yiwa laƙabi da "Sarki na Dude" a cikin 1880s New York kuma ya ci gaba da zama sanannen mai martaba a duk rayuwarsa. Wannan sigar kalmar har yanzu ana amfani da ita a wasu lokutan a cikin yaren Amurka, kamar a cikin kalmar "duk an lalata" don sanya tufafi masu kyau.[6]

Daga cikin kwatancen farko da aka buga masu ma'anar "mutum"; Chicago Tribune, 25 Fabrairu 1883

An yi amfani da kalmar don yin nuni ga mutanen Gabas  kuma an ambaci wani mutum da "tufafin da aka sayi kantin sayar da". [7] Maza da mata sun yi amfani da kalmar don amfani da ita don ma'anar mazauna birni.[8]

Tsohon namiji kenan

Bambancin wannan shine "mutumin da ke sanye da suttura wanda bai san rayuwa a wajen babban birni ba". A cikin The Home da Farm Manual (1883), marubucin Jonathan Periam ya yi amfani da kalmar "dude" sau da yawa don nuna rashin ɗabi'a da jahilci, amma mai son birni, mutumin birni.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ma'anar mutumin da bai san bukatun rayuwa ba a wajen biranen birni ya haifar da ma'anar dude a matsayin "mai birge birni ", ko kuma "ɗan Gabas a Yammacin [Amurka]". Don haka "dude" aka yi amfani da shi don bayyana mawadata na faɗaɗa Amurka a cikin ƙarni na 19 ta hanyar baƙi-da-gida-gida-gida na Westasar Amurka ta Yamma . Ana amfani da wannan amfani a cikin randa, gidan baƙunci wanda ke ba da abinci ga mazauna birane don neman ƙwarewar ƙauyuka. Dude ranches sun fara bayyana a Yammacin Amurka a farkon ƙarni na 20, don wadatattun Easternan Gabas waɗanda suka zo don fuskantar " rayuwar kaboyi ". Bambancin bayyananne yana tare da waɗancan mutanen da suka saba da iyakar da aka ba su, aikin gona, hakar ma'adanai, ko wasu wuraren karkara. Wannan amfani da "dude" har yanzu ana amfani dashi a cikin shekarun 1950 a Amurka, a matsayin kalma ga masu yawon buɗe ido-na kowane jinsi-waɗanda ke ƙoƙari su sanya tufafi irin na al'ada amma suka kasa.[9] Sabanin waɗannan amfani da "dude" zai zama kalmar " redneck ," haɗin kai na Amurka wanda yake magana akan manoma matalauta da marasa ilimi, wanda shi kansa ya zama mai farin jini, kuma har yanzu ana amfani dashi. [10] [11] [12]

Yayin da kalmar ta sami karbuwa har ta kai ga gabar Amurka kuma tayi tafiya tsakanin kan iyaka, sai bambancin lafazin ya fara fitowa kamar na mace na dudette da dudines ; duk da haka, sun daɗe da rayuwa saboda dude kuma suna samun mahimmancin ma'anar jinsi kuma wasu masana ilimin harshe suna ganin sigogin mata sun fi ƙanƙantar da hankali. Slaarfafawa a ƙarshe ya ragu da amfani har zuwa farkon zuwa tsakiyar karni na 20 lokacin da wasu ƙananan al'adun Amurka suka fara amfani da shi akai-akai yayin da suke sake samu daga nau'in suturar kuma daga ƙarshe ta yi amfani da shi azaman mai bayyanawa ga maza na gama gari kuma wani lokacin mata mata. Daga ƙarshe, ƙananan makarantu masu haɗuwa da ƙananan ƙungiyoyi sun ba da izinin yada kalmar zuwa kusan dukkanin al'adu kuma daga ƙarshe ya hau kan tsani ya zama ya zama ruwan dare a Amurka Daga ƙarshen 20 zuwa farkon karni na 21, dude ya sami ikon amfani dashi ta hanyar magana, ko hakan ya kasance abin cizon yatsa, farin ciki, ko soyayya kuma hakan ya faɗaɗa don iya komawa zuwa kowane mutum na gaba ba tare da jinsi, jinsi, ko al'ada ba .[13]

Hakanan an yi amfani da kalmar azaman "bayanin aiki", kamar "bush hook dude" a matsayin matsayi a kan hanyar jirgin ƙasa a cikin 1880s. Misali, duba Ramin Stampede .[ana buƙatar hujja]

A farkon 1960s, dude ya zama sananne a cikin al'adun surfer a matsayin ma'anar mutum ko fella . Mace daidai take "dudette" ko "dudess". amma waɗannan duka sun faɗo cikin rashin amfani kuma "dude" yanzu ana amfani dashi azaman kalmar unisex. Wannan mahimmancin ma'anar "dude" ya fara rarrafe zuwa cikin al'ada a tsakiyar shekarun 1970s. "Dude", musamman a cikin surfer da al'adun "bro ",[ana buƙatar hujja] is[yaushe?] gabaɗaya an yi amfani da shi ba da izini ba don magance wani ("Dude, Na yi farin ciki da a ƙarshe kuka kira") ko koma zuwa ga wani mutum ("Na taɓa ganin irin wannan mutumin a nan").[14]

Daya daga cikin farkon ambaton kalmar a fim din Amurka shine a cikin fim din 1969 mai suna Easy Rider inda Wyatt (wanda Peter Fonda ya zana) ya bayyana wa lauyan da ke tare da shi (wanda Jack Nicholson ya nuna ) ma'anar "dude": "Dude na nufin mutumin kirki ; Dude na nufin mutum na yau da kullun. " Amfani da kalmar da ma'anar " mutum mai sanyi " ya kara yaduwa a cikin fina-finan Amurka na shekarun 1980 da 1990 kamar Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Fast Times a Ridgemont High, Bill da Ted's Excellent Adventure, Wayne's World, and Clerks .[15]

Fim din The Big Lebowski na 1998 ya fito da Jeff Bridges a matsayin "The Dude", wanda aka bayyana a matsayin "malalacin mutuwa". Yanayin ya sami karbuwa sosai daga mai fafutuka da furodusa Jeff Dowd wanda ake kira "Dude" tun suna yara.[16] Matsayi na tsakiya na fim ɗin ya haifar da ƙirƙirar Dudeism, sabon addini .[17]

Fim na 2000 na Dude, Ina Mota Ta? yayi amfani da kalmar a taken.

A cikin 2008, Bud Light ya nuna wani kamfen na talla wanda tattaunawar ta ƙunshi gaba ɗaya na maganganun "Dude!" kuma baya ambaci samfurin da suna. Bi ne ga kamfen ɗin su na kusa-kusa kuma mafi sanannun kamfen ɗin "Whassup?"[18][19]

Boris Johnson kenan

A ranar 23 ga watan Yulin, 2019 Boris Johnson ya yadu da kalmar "dude" azaman gajeriyar kalma ta kamfen din shugabancin jam'iyyar Conservative . A cikin jawabinsa na jagoranci ya bayyana shi kamar yadda yake magana game da Isar da Brexit - Haɗa kan ƙasar - Kayar da Jeremy Corbyn - Enarfafa ƙasar.[20]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dude – By Kiesling, Scott F., Published in American Speech, Vol. 79, No. 3, Fall 2004, pp. 281–305
  • Dude, Where's My Dude? – Dudelicious Dissection, From Sontag to Spicoli, The New York Observer
  • Words@random: "dude"
  • Material for the Study of Dude – The etymological origin of the word "dude" by Barry Popik, David Shulman, and Gerald Cohen. Originally published in Comments on Etymology, October 1993, Vol. 23, No. 1
  • Hill, Richard A. (Autumn 1994). "You've Come a Long Way, Dude: A History". American Speech. Duke University Press. 69 (3): 321–327. doi:10.2307/455525. JSTOR 455525.
  • Gould, J. J. (November 2013). "A Brief History of Dude". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 21, 2017.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Dude, Def. 2 – The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  2. Winona Bullard; Shirley Johnson; Jerkeshea Morris; Kelly Fox; Cassie Howell. "Slang". Archived from the original on February 4, 2013.
  3. Bryk, William (June 22, 2005). "King of the Dudes". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  4. Jeffers, Harry Paul (2005). Diamond Jim Brady: Prince of the Gilded Age, p.45. John Wiley and Sons. 08033994793.ABA
  5. Okrent, Arika (2013-11-05). "Mystery Solved: The Etymology of Dude". Slate (in Turanci). ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  6. "duded up", McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002, retrieved 10 October 2012
  7. Heicher, Kathy (June 4, 2013). "Eagle County Characters: Historic Tales of a Colorado Mountain Valley". Arcadia Publishing – via Google Books.
  8. Ltd, Not Panicking. "h2g2 - The Word 'Dude' - Edited Entry". h2g2.com. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
  9. Robert Knoll (1952). "The meanings and etymologies of dude". American Speech. 27 (1): 20–22. doi:10.2307/453362. JSTOR 453362.
  10. Harold Wentworth, and Stuart Berg Flexner, Dictionary of American Slang (1975) p. 424.
  11. "Redneck". Dictionary.com.
  12. Barbara Ann Kipfer and Robert L. Chapman, American Slang (2008), p. 404.
  13. Hill, Richard A. (1994). "You've Come a Long Way, Dude: A History". American Speech. 69 (3): 321–327. doi:10.2307/455525. JSTOR 455525.
  14. Howell, Cassie. "Examples of Slang". Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  15. Peters, Mark (25 April 2010). "The History of the "Dude"". GOOD Worldwide, Inc. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  16. Raz, Guy (25 May 2008). "The Dude: A Little Lebowski, Alive in All of Us". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  17. Ehrlich, Richard (20 March 2013). "The man who founded a religion based on 'The Big Lebowski'". CNN Travel. CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  18. Swansburg, John (28 January 2008). "Dude! How great are those new Bud Light ads?". Slate. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  19. Peters, Mark (25 April 2010). "The History of the "Dude"". GOOD Worldwide, Inc. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  20. "Dude! We are going to energise the country". BBC News. Retrieved 2019-12-12.