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Nau'in kida yanki ne na yau da kullun wanda ke nuna wasu wakokin kida kamar na al'adar raba gari ko tsarin taron, ko kuma wanda mata zasu ke banta suyi a lokacin buku kuwa ko lokacin sallah a musulun ce.[1] Shi ne da za a bambanta daga m siffar da kuma m style, ko da yake a yi da wadannan sharuddan wani lokaci ana amfani interchangeably,[2]


Za'a iya raba kiɗa zuwa nau'o'i daban-daban ta hanyoyi daban-daban, kamar cikin kiɗan da aka fi sani da kiɗan fasaha, ko kiɗan addini da kiɗan duniya . Yanayin fasaha na kiɗa yana nufin cewa waɗannan rabe-raben galibi suna da ma'ana da rikice-rikice, kuma wasu nau'ikan na iya cikawa. Ma'anar ilimi game da kalmar jinsi kanta ya bambanta.

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin littafinsa Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green ya bambance tsakanin jinsi da sifa . Ya jera madrigal, motet, canzona, ricercar, da rawa a matsayin misalai na jinsi daga lokacin Renaissance . Don kara bayyana ma'anar jinsi, Green ya rubuta, "Opet na Beethoven. 61 da Mendelssohn's Op. 64 iri daya ne a jinsi-duka gwanayen goge ne-amma sun sha bamban a sigar. Koyaya, Ronart na Rondo na Piano, K. 511, da Agnus Dei daga Mass ɗinsa, K. 317, sun sha bamban da nau'ikan jinsi amma sun zama kamannin su ta sigar. "[3] Wasu, kamar Peter van der Merwe, bi da sharuddan Salo da kuma style kamar guda, yana mai cewa Genre ya kamata a bayyana a matsayin guda na music da cewa rabo a wasu style ko "na asali m harshe."[4]

Sauran, kamar su Allan F. Moore, sun bayyana cewa nau'in da salon kalmomi ne mabambanta guda biyu, kuma halaye na sakandare kamar su batun ma na iya bambance tsakanin nau'o'in.[5] Hakanan ana iya bayyana nau'ikan kiɗa ko dabara ta hanyar fasahar kiɗa, mahallin al'adu, da abun ciki da ruhun jigogi. A wasu lokuta ana amfani da asalin asalin ƙasa don gano nau'in kiɗa, kodayake rukunin yanki guda ɗaya sau da yawa zai ƙunshi nau'ikan ɓarna daban-daban. Timothy Laurie ya bayar da hujjar cewa, tun a farkon shekarun 1980, "salo ya kammala karatunsa daga kasancewa rukunin shahararrun karatun kide-kide da zama kusan duk wani wuri da za a iya tsarawa da kimanta abubuwan bincike na kide-kide".[6]

Masana kimiyyar kade kade wasu lokuta sun kasafta kide kide da sharadi irin na trichotomous kamar su Philip Tagg "axiomatic triangle wanda ya kunshi 'jama'a', 'art' da 'mashahurin' kida". [7] Ya bayyana cewa kowane ɗayan waɗannan uku ana rarrabe su da sauran bisa wasu ƙa'idodi.[8]

A madadin haka, ana iya tantance kiɗa a kan girma uku na "arousal", "valence", da "zurfin".[9] Arousal yana nuna tsarin ilimin lissafi kamar motsawa da shakatawa (mai ƙarfi, mai ƙarfi, mai zafin rai, mai ban sha'awa, mai raɗaɗi, mai laushi, mai laushi, mai raɗaɗi), nuna alfahari yana nuna halaye na motsa rai da yanayi (nishaɗi, farin ciki, mai rai, mai himma, farin ciki da rashin damuwa, baƙin ciki), da kuma zurfin yana nuna matakai na fahimta (mai hankali, mai wayewa, mai ban sha'awa, mai rikitarwa, mai ba da labari, mai zurfin ciki, mai motsin rai, mai tunani game da kiɗan jam’iyya, mai rawa)[10] Waɗannan suna taimakawa wajen bayyana dalilin da yasa mutane da yawa suke son waƙoƙi iri ɗaya daga nau'ikan keɓaɓɓu na al'ada.[11]

Kiɗan fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiɗan kiɗa da farko ya haɗa da al'adun gargajiya, gami da nau'ikan kiɗan zamani da na gargajiya. Akwai waƙar fasaha a sassa da yawa na duniya. Yana jaddada salo na yau da kullun wanda ke kiran fasaha da cikakken lalata [12] da zargi, da buƙatar mai da hankali ga mai sauraro. A al'adar Yammacin Turai, ana ɗaukan kiɗan fasaha da farko rubutacciyar al'adar kiɗa, [13] aka adana ta wata hanyar sanarwa ta kiɗa maimakon a watsa ta da baki, ta hanyar magana, ko a cikin rikodin, kamar yadda mashahurin kiɗan gargajiya ya saba. [14] Tarihi, mafi yammacin art music an rubuta saukar da yin amfani da daidaitattun siffofin music tsarin rubutu cewa samo asali a Turai, tun da kyau kafin Renaissance da kuma kai ta balaga a cikin Romantic lokaci.

Bayanin "aiki" ko "yanki" na kiɗan fasaha galibi ana bayyana shi ne da sananniyar sigar maimakon ta wani aiki na musamman kuma yana da alaƙa da farko da mawaƙin maimakon mai yi (duk da cewa mawaƙa na iya barin mawaƙa da wasu dama don fassarawa ko ingantawa). Wannan haka yake musamman dangane da kiɗan gargajiya na yamma. Kiɗan fasaha na iya haɗawa da wasu nau'ikan jazz, kodayake wasu suna jin cewa jazz da farko nau'i ne na kiɗan mashahuri. Shekarun 1960s sun ga guguwar gwaji a cikin jazz kyauta, wanda masu zane-zane irin su Ornette Coleman, Sun Ra, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp da Don Cherry suka wakilta. [15] Kuma masu zane-zane irin su Frank Zappa, Kyaftin Beefheart, da Mazauna sun fitar da fayafayen kiɗan fasaha.

Mashahurin kiɗa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jennifer Lopez tana yi a wani bikin kade-kade da wake- wake

Shahararren kiɗa kowane salon kiɗa ne wanda jama'a ke amfani dashi kuma kafofin watsa labarai ke watsa shi . Masanin ilimin kida da shahararren masanin kida Philip Tagg ya bayyana ma'anar ta fuskar yanayin zamantakewar al'umma da tattalin arziki:

Mashahurin kiɗa, ba kamar kiɗan fasaha ba, ana yin (1) don rarraba taro ga manyan masu sauraro daban-daban da sau da yawa, (2) adanawa da rarraba su ta hanyar da ba rubutacciya ba, (3) mai yiwuwa ne kawai a cikin tattalin arziƙin tattalin arziƙin masana'antu inda ya zama kayayyaki da (4) a cikin al'ummomin jari hujja, waɗanda ke ƙarƙashin dokokin 'yanci' kyauta ... yakamata yakamata a sayar sosai gwargwadon iko.[16]


Shahararrun kiɗa ana samun su a mafi yawan gidajen rediyo na kasuwanci da sabis na jama'a, a yawancin yan kasuwar kiɗa na kasuwanci da manyan shaguna, da waƙoƙin silima da talabijin. An lura da shi a kan <i id="mwcA">jadawalin</i> talla kuma, ban da mawaƙa-marubucin waƙoƙi da mawaƙa, ya ƙunshi masu kera kiɗan fiye da sauran nau'ikan.

Bambanci tsakanin na gargajiya da sanannen kiɗa wani lokacin yakan dusashe a yankuna masu iyaka [17] kamar ƙaramar kiɗa da litattafan haske. Kidan baya don fina-finai / fina-finai galibi yakan jawo al'adun biyu ne. Ta wannan fuskar, waƙa kamar tatsuniya ce, wanda hakan ke nuna bambanci tsakanin almara na adabi da kuma shahararren labarin da ba koyaushe yake zama daidai ba.

Salon Kida na Rock[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shi Salon kidan Rock wani nau'in nau'ine na shahararren kidan da ya samo asali kamar " rock and roll " a kasar Amurka a farkon shekarun 1950, kuma ya bunkasa zuwa wasu nau'ikan salo daban daban a shekarun 1960s da kuma daga baya, musamman a Burtaniya da Amurka. .

Kidan raye-raye na lantarki ya ga ƙarin tashi  a farkon al'adun gargajiya na karni na 21 saboda DJs kamar Avicii, Calvin Harris, Daft Punk, David Guetta, Deadmau5, Marshmello, Martin Garrix, Skrillex, Alan Walker da ƙari.[18]

Kiɗa na ruhu / R & B[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiɗan ruhu ya zama nau'in kiɗa wanda ya ƙunshi nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan kiɗan R & B daga ayyukan R&B na pop a Motown Records a Detroit, kamar su The Temptations, Marvin Gaye da Four Tops, ga mawaƙan " mai zurfin rai " kamar Percy Sledge da James Carr .[19]

Funk[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waƙar ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiɗan ƙasa, wanda aka fi sani da ƙasa da yamma (ko ƙasa kawai) da kiɗan tuddai, nau'ikan sanannen kiɗa ne wanda ya samo asali daga kudancin Amurka a farkon 1920s.

Reggae[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiɗan Reggae, wanda ya samo asali daga ƙarshen shekarun 1960 na Jamaica, nau'ine na kiɗa wanda asalinsa Jamaicans ke amfani dashi don ayyana kansu da salon rayuwarsu da zamantakewar su.[20] Ma'anar bayan waƙoƙin reggae sun kasance game da soyayya, imani ko iko mafi girma, da 'yanci. [21] Kiɗan Reggae yana da mahimmanci ga al'adun Jamaica kamar yadda aka yi amfani da shi azaman wahayi ga yawancin ƙungiyoyin kwato 'yanci na duniya. Bob Marley, ɗan zane-zane da aka fi sani da kiɗan reggae, an girmama shi ne a bikin Independancin Zimbabwe na 1980 saboda waƙarsa da ke ba da kwarin gwiwa ga masu gwagwarmayar 'yanci. Nau'in kiɗa na reggae sananne ne don haɗawa da dabarun salo iri daban-daban don samar da kari da rudani, jazz, Afirka, Caribbean, da sauran nau'ikan kuma amma abin da ke sa reggae ya zama na musamman shine waƙoƙi da waƙoƙi.  Ana yin waƙoƙin a cikin Jamaican Patois, Jamusanci Ingilishi, da yarukan Iyaric . Baitukan waƙar reggae galibi suna ɗaga da wayewar siyasa ne da ra'ayoyin al'adu.[22]

Hip hop kiɗa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

DJ biyu suna aikin turntablism

Kiɗan Hip Hop, wanda kuma ake kira da hip hop ko kiɗan rap, nau'ikan kiɗa ne da aka fara shi a Amurka, musamman South Bronx a cikin New York City da samarin Ba-Amurke daga ƙauyuka na ciki a shekarun 1970s. Ana iya bayyana shi a sarari azaman salon kiɗan kiɗa wanda aka kera wanda yawanci yana rayewa da raɗawa,[23] mai daɗi da amo da ake rerawa. [24] Kiɗan Hip hop ya samo asali ne daga al'adun hip hop kanta, gami da abubuwa masu mahimmanci guda huɗu: emceeing ( MCing ) / rapping, Disc jockeying ( DJing ) with turntablism, breakdancing and graffiti art .

Polka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Polka asalinta rawa ce ta Czech da kuma nau'ikan kiɗan raye-raye da aka sani ko'ina cikin Turai da Amurka. [25]

Wakar addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiɗan addini (har ila yau) waƙa ce da ake yinta ko aka tsara don amfani da addini ko ta tasirin addini. Bishara, ta ruhaniya, da kiɗan Kirista misalai ne na kiɗan addini.

A picture of a red and black button accordion
Piano accordion : Kayan aikin Italiyanci anyi amfani dasu a cikin al'adu daban daban

Gargajiya da ta gargajiya suna da kamanni iri daya. Kodayake kiɗan gargajiya yanki ne mai fa'ida sosai kuma yana iya haɗa nau'ikan nau'ikan daban-daban, an yarda da shi cewa kiɗan gargajiya ya ƙunshi kiɗan jama'a.[26] Dangane da ICTM (Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don Kiɗan Gargajiya), kiɗan gargajiya waƙoƙi ne da waƙoƙin da aka yi su cikin dogon lokaci (galibi yawancin ƙarni) .[27]

An rarraba nau'ikan waƙoƙin jama'a a matsayin kiɗan da ake magana da shi ta baki daga tsara zuwa wani. Yawancin lokaci ba a san mai fasaha ba, kuma akwai nau'ikan nau'ikan waƙa iri ɗaya.[28] Ana watsa nau'ikan ta hanyar raira waƙa, sauraro da rawa ga shahararrun waƙoƙi. Wannan nau'ikan sadarwar yana bawa al'adu damar yada salo (filaye da karen aiki) da kuma yanayin da aka inganta shi.[29]

Waƙoƙin gargajiya na watsa al'adun gargajiya suna riƙe da cikakkiyar shaida game da lokacin tarihi lokacin da aka halicce su da kuma zamantakewar zamantakewar da suka ɓullo da ita. [30] Ana iya ganin wasu misalan al'adun gargajiya a cikin waƙar gargajiya ta Ingila da kuma waƙoƙin gargajiya ta Turkiyya . Kiɗan al'adun Ingilishi ya haɓaka tun zamanin da kuma ana watsa shi daga wancan lokacin har zuwa yau. Hakanan, waƙar gargajiya ta Turkiyya tana da alaƙa da duk wayewar da ta taɓa wucewa ta Turkiyya, don haka ya zama abin tunatarwa a duniya tun daga rikice-rikicen gabas da yamma a zamanin Zamani na Farko .

Kiɗan al'adun gargajiya yawanci yana nufin waƙoƙin da aka kirkira a ƙarni na ashirin, waɗanda ake rubuta su a matsayin gaskiyar duniya da manyan batutuwan lokacin da aka tsara su.[31] Masu fasaha ciki har da Bob Dylan ; Bitrus, Bulus da Maryamu ; James Taylor ; da Leonard Cohen sun sauya waƙoƙin jama'a zuwa abin da aka sani a yau.[32] Sabbin mawaka kamar su Ed Sheeran (mutanen gargajiya) da The Lumineers (jama'ar Amurka) misalai ne na waƙar gargajiya ta zamani, wacce aka rikodin ta kuma dace da sabuwar hanyar sauraren kiɗa (ta yanar gizo) - ba kamar hanyar gargajiya ta watsa kida da baka ba. .[33]

Kowace ƙasa a duniya, a wasu lokuta kowane yanki, yanki da al'umma, suna da nasu salon waƙoƙin jama'a. Bangarorin daban-daban na al'adun gargajiya suna haɓaka ta kowane wuri, asalin al'adu da tarihi.[34] Saboda kiɗan da aka haɓaka a wurare daban-daban, yawancin kayan kiɗan suna da halaye ga wuri da yawan mutane-amma ana amfani da wasu ko'ina: maballin ko piano accordion, nau'ikan sarewa ko ƙaho, banjo, da ukulele . Duk kiɗan Faransanci da na mutanen Scotland suna amfani da kayan alaƙa masu alaƙa kamar su abin ɗoki, garaya da bambancin jakar bututu .[35][36]</br>

Rarraba na atomatik[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyi na atomatik na gano kamanceceniya, dangane da haƙa bayanai da nazarin abubuwan da suka faru tare, an haɓaka don rarraba taken taken don rarraba kiɗan lantarki.[37]

Fitowar sababbin nau'ikan nau'ikan halittu da nau'ikan halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabbin nau'ikan na iya bayyana ta hanyar haɓaka sababbin sifofi da salon kiɗa da kuma ta hanyar ƙirƙirar sabon rarrabuwa. Kodayake abin tunani ne don ƙirƙirar salon kida ba tare da alaƙa da nau'ikan nau'ikan da ke akwai ba, sabbin salo galibi suna bayyana ne a ƙarƙashin tasirin nau'o'in da suka gabata.

Tsarin asalin nau'ikan nau'ikan kiɗa yana bayyana, sau da yawa a cikin tsarin jadawalin rubutu, yadda sababbin nau'ikan suka samo asali a ƙarƙashin rinjayar tsofaffi. Idan nau'uka biyu ko sama da haka da ke akwai suka haifar da sabon sabo, za a iya cewa haɗuwa a tsakanin su ya faru. Yawaitar shahararrun kiɗa a ƙarni na 20 ya haifar da ƙayyadaddun nau'ikan nau'ikan mawaƙa 1,200. Misalan nau'ikan fusion sun hada da jazz fusion, wanda shine haduwar jazz da kidan kade, da kuma kasar rock wanda yake hade da kidan kasar da kidan rock .

Tallace-tallace na kasuwanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ilimin halin dan Adam na fifita kiɗa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Metallica performing at the O2 Arena, March 28th, 2009
Metallica tana yin wasa a O2 Arena, Maris 28th, 2009
John Scofield at the stage of Energimølla. The concert was part of Kongsberg Jazzfestival and took place on 06 July 2017
John Scofield a matakin Energimølla. Shagalin ya kasance wani ɓangare na Kongsberg Jazzfestival da aka gudanar a kan 06 Yuli 2017

Tasirin zamantakewar al'umma akan zabar kiɗa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun da kida ya zama cikin sauki ( Spotify, iTunes, YouTube, da sauransu), mutane da yawa sun fara sauraron salon kida da fadi da fadi. Kari akan haka, asalin zamantakewar jama'a shima yana taka rawa babba cikin fifikon kiɗa. Hali shine babban mai ba da gudummawa don zaɓar kiɗa. Wani da ya ɗauki kansa a matsayin "ɗan tawaye" zai zaɓi salon waƙoƙi masu nauyi kamar ƙarfe mai nauyi ko dutse mai ƙarfi, yayin da wani kuma wanda yake ganin cewa sun fi “annashuwa” ko “hutawa” zai zaɓi salon waƙoƙi masu sauƙi kamar jazz ko kiɗan gargajiya . Akwai manyan abubuwa guda biyar waɗanda suke wanzu waɗanda ke ƙarƙashin fifikon kiɗa waɗanda ba su da jinsi,  kuma yana nuna martani / motsin rai / tasiri. Wadannan dalilai guda biyar sune:

  1. Matsakaicin Mellow wanda ya ƙunshi salo mai kyau da shakatawa (jazz, na gargajiya, da dai sauransu. ).
  2. Factora'idar Urban da aka ayyana mafi akasari ta hanyar raɗaɗa da raɗaɗi (rap, hip-hop, funk, da sauransu ).
  3. Matsayi mai mahimmanci ( operatic, duniya, da dai sauransu.) )
  4. Intarin ƙarfi wanda aka ayyana ta da ƙarfi, da ƙarfi, da kuma kuzari mai ƙarfi (dutsen, ƙarfe, da dai sauransu.) ).
  5. Yankin sansanin, wanda ke nufin nau'ikan mawaƙa-waƙoƙi da ƙasa.

Tasirin mutum da halin da yake ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jinsi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nazarin ya nuna cewa yayin da mata suka fi son kiɗan da ke da fa'ida, maza sun fi son sauraren kiɗa mai nauyi. Wannan wani lokaci ana haɗa shi tare da kan iyaka da mutane masu adawa da zamantakewa .

Shekaru[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekaru wani mahimmin abu ne wanda ke ba da gudummawa ga fifiko na kiɗa. Akwai shaidu da ke nuna cewa zaɓi na kiɗa na iya canzawa yayin da mutum ya tsufa. Nazarin Kanada ya nuna cewa matasa suna nuna sha'awar mawaƙa masu kida yayin da manya da tsofaffi suka fi son nau'ikan gargajiya irin su rock, opera, da jazz .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Makarantar haɗuwa
  • Tarihin nau'ikan nau'ikan kiɗa
  • Jerin salon kiɗa
  • Jerin shahararrun nau'ikan kiɗa
  • Jerin tsarin rediyo

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Samson, Jim. "Genre". In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Accessed March 4, 2012.
  2. Janice Wong (2011). "Visualising Music: The Problems with Genre Classification".
  3. Green, Douglass M. (1965). Form in Tonal Music. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-03-020286-5.
  4. van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-316121-4.
  5. Moore, Allan F. (2001). "Categorical Conventions in Music Discourse: Style and Genre". Music & Letters. 82 (3): 432–442. doi:10.1093/ml/82.3.432. JSTOR 3526163.
  6. Laurie, Timothy (2014). "Music Genre as Method". Cultural Studies Review. 20 (2). doi:10.5130/csr.v20i2.4149.
  7. "Musical genres are out of date – but this new system explains why you might like both jazz and hip hop". Econotimes. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  8. "Musical genres are out of date – but this new system explains why you might like both jazz and hip hop". Econotimes. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  9. "Musical genres are out of date – but this new system explains why you might like both jazz and hip hop". Econotimes. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  10. Siron, Jacques. "Musique Savante (Serious Music)". Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
  11. Arnold, Denis: "Art Music, Art Song", in The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume 1: A-J (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1983): 111.
  12. Tagg, Philip. "Analysing Popular Music: Theory, Method and Practice". Popular Music 2 (1982): 37–67, here 41–42.
  13. Anon. Avant-Garde Jazz. AllMusic.com, n.d.
  14. Arnold, Denis (1983): "Art Music, Art Song", in The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume 1: A-J, Oxford University Press, p. 111, 08033994793.ABA.
  15. "Billboard Dance 100: Top Dance & Electronic Music Artists of 2018". Billboard. March 22, 2018.
  16. "Motown: The Sound that Changed America". Motown Museum. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  17. "ATH 175 Peoples of the World". www.units.miamioh.edu. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
  18. Daynes, Sarah (May 16, 2016). "Time and memory in reggae music: The politics of hope". Manchester University Press – via www.manchesterhive.com.
  19. Dagnini, Jérémie Kroubo (2011-05-18). "The Importance of Reggae Music in the Worldwide Cultural Universe". Études caribéennes (in Turanci) (16). doi:10.4000/etudescaribeennes.4740. ISSN 1779-0980.
  20. "Definition of HIP HOP". www.merriam-webster.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  21. "Rap | music". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  22. Gracian Černušák, revised by Andrew Lamb and John Tyrrell, "Polka (from Cz., pl. polky )", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  23. "What is Traditional Music? - a broad definition". www.traditionalmusic.org. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  24. "Home | International Council for Traditional Music". ictmusic.org. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  25. "EarMaster - Music Theory & Ear Training on PC, Mac and iPad". www.earmaster.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  26. Albrecht, Joshua; Shanahan, Daniel (2019-02-01). "Examining the Effect of Oral Transmission on Folksongs". Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal (in Turanci). 36 (3): 273–288. doi:10.1525/mp.2019.36.3.273. ISSN 0730-7829.
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Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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