Reza

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Reza kayan aiki ne mai wutsiya da ake amfani da shi da farko wajen cire gashin jiki ta hanyar askewa.

Ire iren reza[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ire-iren reza sun haɗa da reza kai tsaye, reza da za a iya zubarwa, da reza mai amfani da wutar lantarki.

Yayin da reza ta kasance tun kafin shekarun Bronze Age (abin da ya fi daɗewa mai kama da reza an rubuta shi zuwa 18,000 BC ), mafi yawan nau'in reza da ake amfani da su a halin yanzu shine reza mai amfani da wutar lantarki, ko da yake wasu kalar har yanzu ana amfani dasu.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Reza tagulla.

An gano reza daga al'adun zamanin Bronze da yawa. An yi waɗannan da tagulla ko obsidian kuma gaba ɗaya sun kasance ma siffa, tare da ƙaramin tang ɗin da ke fitowa daga ɗayan gajerun ƙarshen. [1]

An yi amfani da reza iri-iri a cikin tarihi, waɗanda suka bambanta a bayyanar amma kama da amfani da reza madaidaiciya na zamani. A zamanin da, an kaifi harsashi, haƙoran kifin shark, da dutsen dutse ana yin aski da su. An samo zane-zane na irin waɗannan ruwan wuƙaƙe a cikin kogo na tarihi. Wasu ƙabilu har yanzu suna amfani da wuƙaƙe na dutse har yau. Binciken da aka yi a Masar ya gano tsantsar zinari da reza na tagulla a cikin kaburbura tun daga ƙarni na 4 BC. An yi amfani da reza da ƙera su a Kerma a zamanin Bronze Age An dawo da reza da yawa da kuma wasu kayan tarihi na tsafta daga wuraren binne shekarun Bronze a arewacin Turai kuma an yi imanin cewa suna cikin manyan mutane. [2] Masanin tarihin Romawa Livy ya ruwaito cewa an gabatar da reza a tsohuwar Roma a ƙarni na 6 BC. ta sarkin almara Lucius Tarquinius Priscus . Priscus ya riga ya wuce lokacinsa saboda reza ba su zo ga amfani da su ba sai bayan ƙarni ɗaya.

An gina reza madaidaiciyar zamani ta farko mai cike da kayan hannu da aka yi wa ado da fatun ƙasa a Sheffield, a Ingila, cibiyar masana'antar yankan, a ƙarni na 18 da 19. Benjamin Huntsman ya samar da madaidaicin matakin ƙarfe na farko, ta hanyar tsari na musamman, wanda ya dace da amfani da shi a zaman kayan ruwa a cikin 1740, koda yake an ƙi shi da farko a Ingila. Faransawa sun karɓi tsarin Huntsman daga baya; duk da rashin so da farko saboda kishin ƙasa. Masu masana'antun Ingilishi sun ma fi na Faransanci yin amfani da tsarin kuma sun yi haka ne kawai bayan sun ga nasararsa a Faransa. Ƙarfe Sheffield, ƙarfe ne mai gogewa sosai, wanda kuma aka sani da Sheffield ƙarfe n azurfa kuma sananne ne don gamawa mai sheƙi mai zurfi, ana ɗaukarsa mafi ingancin ƙarfe kuma har yanzu ana amfani dashi har yau a Faransa ta hanyar masana'anta kamar Thiers Issard .

Reza (saman) da mai yankan ƙusa tare da hannun kashi (kasa) da aka samu a cikin wani kabari na al'adun Hallstatt .

A ƙarni na 18 da na 19, masu hannu da shuni suna da bayin da za su aske su ko kuma suna iya yawan shagunan aski. Aski yau da kullun ba al'ada ce da ta yaɗu ba a ƙarni na 19 don haka wasu mutane ba su taɓa yin aski ba. Al'adar aski a kowace rana tsakanin mazan Amurkawa wani sabon abu ne na ƙarni na 20 wanda aka fara shi bayan ƴaƙin duniya na ɗaya. An buƙaci maza su riƙa aski a kullum domin abin rufe fuska na gas ɗin ya dace da kyau kuma hakan ya samu sauƙi sosai bayan bayyanar reza mai aminci, wanda hakan ya ƙara sauki. ya kasance daidaitaccen batu a lokacin ƴaƙin. A cikin ƙarni na 19, masu yankan a Sheffield, Ingila da Solingen, Jamus sun samar da reza iri-iri.

Razor da aka yi da tagulla tun farkon zamanin ƙarfe

Reza madaidaiciya sune mafi yawan nau'in aski kafin ƙarni na 20 kuma sun kasance gama gari a ƙasashe da yawa har zuwa shekarun 1950. An horar da masu aski na musamman don baiwa abokan ciniki suski da sauri, kuma tarin reza madaidaiciya da aka shirya don amfani da su ya kasance abin gani gama gari a yawancin shagunan aski. Har yanzu aski suna da su, amma ba sa amfani da su sau da yawa.

Reza madaidaici daga ƙarshe sun faɗi daga salon. Mai ƙalubalen su na farko King C. Gillette ne ya ƙera shi: reza aminci mai kaifi biyu tare da wuƙaƙe masu maye gurbin.[ana buƙatar hujja] amfani da manufar " shugaban asara ", wanda aka siyar da reza a cikin asara, amma ɓangarorin maye gurbin sun sami babban rata kuma suna ba da tallace-tallace na ci gaba. Sun yi nasara sosai saboda kamfen ɗin talla da taken ƙasƙantar da ingancin reza kai tsaye da kuma tambayar amincin sa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Waɗannan sabbin reza masu aminci ba su buƙatar kowane horo mai ƙarfi don amfani da su. Wuraren suna da matuƙar wahala a kaifafa, kuma ana so a jefar da su bayan an yi amfani da su, kuma su yi tsatsa da sauri idan ba a jefar da su ba. Hakanan sun buƙaci ƙaramin saka hannun jari na farko, kodayake suna da ƙari akan lokaci. Duk da fa'idodinsa na dogon lokaci, madaidaiciyar reza ta rasa babban rabon kasuwa. Kuma yayin da aski ya zama ƙasa da ban tsoro kuma maza suka fara aske kansu, buƙatun masu aski waɗanda ke ba da askin reza kai tsaye ya ragu.

A 1940s reza daga Amurka

A cikin 1960, baƙin ƙarfe wanda za a iya amfani da shi fiye da sau ɗaya ya zama samuwa, yana rage farashin amincin reza. Kamfanin Wilkinson, sanannen mai yin takuba, a Sheffield ne ya yi irin wannan na farko. Ba da da ewa Gillette, Schick, da sauran masana'antun suna yin bakin-karfe ruwan wukake.

Wadannan sun biyo bayan harsashin ruwa mai yawa da reza da za a iya zubarwa. Ga kowane nau'in ruwan wukake mai maye, gabaɗaya akwai reza da za a iya zubarwa.

A cikin 1930s, ana samun reza na lantarki. Waɗannan za su iya yin hamayya da farashin madaidaiciyar reza mai kyau, kodayake duka kayan aski madaidaiciya-reza na iya wuce farashin ko da aska mai tsada na lantarki.

Madaidaicin reza[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Madaidaicin reza akan strop na fata

Reza madaidaiciya tare da buɗaɗɗen ruwan ƙarfe, wanda kuma aka fi sani da yanke-maƙogwaro, sune reza da aka fi amfani da su kafin ƙarni na 20.

Reza madaidaici sun ƙunshi ƙwanƙolin da aka kaifi a gefe ɗaya. The ruwa za a iya yi da ko dai bakin karfe, wanda shi ne a hankali zuwa hone da strop, amma ya fi sauƙi don kula tun da shi ba ya tabo sauƙi, ko high carbon karfe, wanda hones da strops da sauri da kuma kiyaye gefen da kyau, amma tsatsa da kuma. tabo cikin sauƙi idan ba a tsaftace ba kuma a bushe da sauri. A halin yanzu, ɓangarorin bakin ƙarfe suna da wahalar samu fiye da ƙarfe na carbon, amma duka biyun suna cikin samarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ruwan ruwa yana jujjuyawa akan fil ta cikin tang ɗinsa tsakanin guda biyu masu kariya da ake kira ma'auni: idan an naɗe shi cikin ma'auni, ruwan ruwan ana kiyaye shi daga lalacewa, kuma ana kiyaye mai amfani. Ana yin sikelin hannu da abubuwa daban-daban, ciki har da uwar-lu'u-lu'u, celluloid, kashi, filastik da itace. Da zarar an yi da hauren hauren giwa, an daina yin hakan, kodayake ana amfani da hauren giwar burbushin lokaci-lokaci.

Raza madaidaiciya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waɗannan reza suna kama da amfani da kuma kamanni zuwa madaidaicin reza, amma suna amfani da wukake da za a iya zubarwa, ko dai daidaitaccen mai kaifi biyu a yanka a cikin rabi ko na musamman kerarre guda ɗaya. Ana amfani da waɗannan aski kamar yadda ake amfani da reza kai tsaye amma ba sa buƙatar tsutsawa da honing.

Reza aminci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Madaidaicin reza mai gadin tsefe da ruwan da za a iya zubarwa

Mataki na farko zuwa ga reza mafi aminci don amfani shine reza mai gadi - wanda kuma ake kira reza madaidaiciyar aminci - wanda ya kara mai gadi zuwa madaidaicin reza na yau da kullun. Mai yiyuwa ne irin wannan reza na farko ya ƙirƙira shi ne da wani mai yankan Faransa Jean-Jacques Perret a shekara ta 1762. [3] Wannan ƙirƙira ta samo asali ne daga jirgin mai haɗin gwiwa kuma ainihin reza ce madaidaiciya tare da gemunsa kewaye da hannun katako. [4] Masu gadin reza na farko suna da hakora masu kama da tsefe kuma ana iya haɗa su kawai a gefe ɗaya na reza; wani mai gadi mai juyi yana ɗaya daga cikin gyare-gyaren farko da aka yi don gadin reza. [3]

An samo bayanin farko na reza mai aminci mai kama da waɗanda aka yi amfani da su a yau akan aikace-aikacen haƙƙin mallaka na William Samuel Henson na 1847 don gadin haƙori. Ana iya haɗa wannan gadin zuwa madaidaicin reza ko kuma zuwa reza "yanke ruwa wanda ke kusa da kusurwoyi daidai tare da abin hannu, kuma yayi kama da wani nau'i na farat gama gari." [4]

Around 1875 wani sabon zane tare da ƙarami ruwa sanya a saman wani rike aka sayar da Kampfe Brothers a matsayin "mafi kyawun samuwa Hanyar aski a kasuwa wanda ba zai yanke mai amfani, kamar madaidaiciya karfe reza."

Reza masu cire ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Reza da ruwan wukake na zamani mai kaifi biyu

Kalmar aminci reza an fara amfani da ita ne a cikin 1880 [3] kuma ta kwatanta reza ta asali tare da abin da aka makala a kai inda za'a iya sanya ruwan wuƙaƙe mai cirewa. Sannan an kare gefen ta hanyar tsefe -tsafe a kai don kare fata. A cikin mafi zamani samar da aminci reza, yanzu an fi maye gurbin tsefe da sandar tsaro. Akwai nau'ikan reza masu aminci iri biyu, mai kaifi ɗaya da mai kaifi biyu. Reza mai kaifi ɗaya da gaske shine 4 centimetres (1.6 in) dogon yanki na madaidaicin reza. Gilashin aminci mai kaifi biyu shine reza tare da sanduna mara nauyi wanda za'a iya amfani dashi a bangarorin biyu, tare da buɗaɗɗen gefuna biyu. Wurin da ke kan reza aminci mai kaifi biyu yana ɗan lanƙwasa don ba da izinin aske mai santsi da tsafta.

A cikin 1901, mai ƙirƙira Ba'amurke King Camp Gillette, tare da taimakon William Nickerson, ya ƙaddamar da takardar shaidar sabon saɓani na reza mai aminci tare da ruwan wukake da za a iya zubarwa wanda aka ƙirƙira a cikin 1904. Dalili ɗaya shine cewa aske da aska mai aminci yakamata ya kasance mafi aminci kuma ya fi dacewa fiye da aski tare da reza madaidaiciya madaidaiciya mai kaifi. Za'a iya sake amfani da kauri na waɗannan reza masu aminci. Gillette ta gane cewa za a iya samun riba ta hanyar siyar da reza mara tsada tare da wukake. Wannan an kira shi samfurin kasuwanci na reza da ruwan wukake, kuma ya zama al'ada na yau da kullum don samfurori iri-iri.

Yawancin wasu nau'ikan reza masu aminci sun zo sun tafi. Yawancin gasar ta dogara ne akan zayyana ruwan wukake wanda zai dace da salon reza guda ɗaya kawai har sai an daidaita siffar ruwan wuka ta hanyar shigar da tashar tsakiya mai fuskoki daban-daban zuwa ruwan wukake wanda zai ɗauki nau'ikan ƙira iri-iri na tsare-tsare na shinge; misali fil uku, siririyar karfen karfe, da sauransu. Ko da a yau, waɗannan nau'ikan amintattun nau'ikan har yanzu suna dagewa a cikin nau'ikan su a cikin DE reza, duk suna karɓar ƙirar ƙirar duniya iri ɗaya.

Rezan harsashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Reza aminci na zamani tare da harsashi mai canzawa

Yin amfani da tsarin kasuwanci iri ɗaya da reza da ruwan wukake kamar yadda aka yi majagaba a farkon ƙarni na 20, an ƙera reza harsashi a shekarun 1960 kuma yanzu shine nau'in aske da aka fi sani a ƙasashen da suka ci gaba. Ko da yake an tsara shi don samun ƙarin ergonomic siffa a duka hannu da kai (ciki har da kan daɗaɗɗen kai wanda ke kiyaye ruwan wukake zuwa fata a kusurwar da aka riga aka ƙaddara ta hanyar motsin shaving) ra'ayin yana kama da na reza baki biyu. . Koyaya, a nan an cire duka babban taron shugaban (wanda aka sani da harsashi) kuma ana zubar dashi, ba kawai ruwan wukake ba. Har ila yau, ya zama ruwan dare ga waɗannan kawuna na harsashi suna da ɓangarorin reza da yawa a cikin su, yawanci tsakanin ruwan wukake biyu zuwa biyar.

Reza masu aminci da za a iya zubarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Reza na asali da za a iya zubarwa.

Reza masu aminci da ake zubarwa suna da kamanni sosai a ƙira da reza harsashi, waɗanda aka gina daga kayan marasa tsada (wanda aka ƙera polycarbonate na yau da kullun)[ana buƙatar hujja], duk da haka ana nufin su zama abin zubarwa gaba ɗaya bayan amfani ba tare da ƙwanƙwasa ko maye mai yiwuwa ba. An ƙirƙira na'ura ɗaya a cikin 1963 ta Ba'amurke ɗan wasan kwaikwayo kuma mai ƙirƙira Paul Winchell .

Tsawon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za a iya tsawaita rayuwar reza ta hanyar bushewar ruwan wukake bayan amfani.

Reza mai amfani da Wutar lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Askin lantarki irin na foil

Reza na lantarki (wanda kuma aka sani da busasshen aski) yana da wuƙa mai juyawa ko motsi. Reza na lantarki yawanci baya buƙatar amfani da kirim, sabulu, ko ruwa. Ana iya yin amfani da reza ta ƙaramin motar DC, wanda ko dai ana amfani da shi ta batura ko wutar lantarki . Yawancin na zamani ana amfani da su ta amfani da batura masu caji . A madadin, za a iya amfani da oscillator-mechanical oscillator wanda na'urar solenoid mai kuzarin AC ke motsawa. Wasu injinan aski na farko ba su da injin lantarki kuma dole ne a yi amfani da su da hannu, misali ta hanyar jan igiya don tuƙi.

John F. O'Rourke ya kirkiro reza na farko na lantarki a shekara ta 1898. An fara samar da injunan reza na lantarki a cikin 1937 ta kamfanin Amurka Remington Rand bisa haƙƙin mallaka na Jacob Schick daga 1928. Tun 1939 kamfanin Philips na Holland ya ƙera injin reza na lantarki. Daya daga cikin manyan bambance-bambance tsakanin reza na lantarki shine fasahar aske da suke amfani da ita. Galibi injunan aski na lantarki suna amfani da wukake mai jujjuyawa da yawa ko kuma fasahar askewa a kwance.

Sauran reza[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanke gemu da hannu

Masu kauri, reza mai kaifi ɗaya kamar wuƙaƙen kayan aiki ana amfani da su don ayyuka daban-daban na hannu. Aikace-aikace sun haɗa da cikakken aikin kafinta kamar yashi da gogewa (a cikin ƙwararriyar mariƙi), yankan takarda don zanen fasaha, aikin famfo da gamawa kamar grouting da tsaftacewa, da cire fenti daga filaye masu lebur kamar gilashin gilashi. Ba kamar aske reza ba, nau'Ikan masana'antu da ake amfani da su a cikin waɗannan kayan aikin galibi ana yin su ne daga ƙarfe mara ƙarfe kamar ƙarfe na carbon, kuma suna da ƙaƙƙarfan baki kuma mara nauyi.

Gurguwa reza ce da ake amfani da ita wajen samar da biredi don yanke saman biredi da ba a toya ba.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Gyaran gashi
  • Ciwon kai
  • Razor ruwa karfe

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

ambato[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Warwickshire County Council: New Prehistoric Archaeology Objects
    "Even further away in time, during the Bronze Age, we now have evidence of people taking care of their appearance. This leaf-shaped bronze razor was found near Bidford on Avon and is one of only a few of this type of Bronze Age razor to be found in this country."
  2. Kincade, Kaitlin, "The Razor's Edge: Constructing Male Identity in Bronze and Iron Age Northern Europe" (2014). Theses and Dissertations. Paper 500
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Waits 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Waits 2013.