Ruwa mai daɗi

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ruwa mai dadi ; duba ƙasa), wanda kuma aka sani da ruwan Australiya, ko Johnstone ko kuma wanda aka fi sani da freshie, nau'in nau'i ne na crocodile endemic zuwa yankunan arewacin Australia . Ba kamar danginsu da ya fi girma a Ostiraliya ba, kada ruwa mai gishiri, crocodiles na ruwa ba a san su da masu cin abinci ba, kodayake sun ciji don kare kansu, kuma a taƙaice, hare-haren da ba na mutuwa ba sun faru, a fili sakamakon kuskuren ainihi.

Taxonomy da etymology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Gerard Krefft ya ba wa nau'in suna a cikin shekarata 1873, ya yi niyya don tunawa da mutumin da ya fara ba shi rahoton shi, ɗan sanda ɗan ƙasar Australiya kuma masanin halitta Robert Arthur Johnstone a shekarun (1843-1905). [1] Duk da haka, Krefft ya yi kuskure wajen rubuta sunan, kuma shekaru da yawa, an san nau'in nau'in C. johnsoni . Nazarin kwanan nan na takaddun Krefft sun ƙayyade madaidaicin rubutun sunan, kuma yawancin wallafe-wallafen an sabunta su zuwa ga daidaitaccen amfani, amma duka nau'ikan suna wanzu. Bisa ga ka'idodin Ƙididdigar Ƙididdigar Ƙira ta Duniya, epithet johnstoni (maimakon ainihin johnsoni ) daidai ne.

Juyin Halitta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Halin Crocodylus mai yiwuwa ya samo asali ne daga Afirka kuma ya haskaka waje zuwa kudu maso gabashin Asiya da Amurka, [2] kodayake an yi la'akari da asalin Ostiraliya / Asiya. Shaidar phylogenetic tana goyan bayan Crocodylus da ke karkata daga danginsa na baya-bayan nan, bacewar Voay na Madagascar, kusan shekaru miliyan 25 da suka gabata, kusa da iyakar Oligocene / Miocene .

Phylogeny[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Below is a cladogram based on a 2018 tip dating study by Lee & Yates simultaneously using morphological, molecular (DNA sequencing), and stratigraphic (fossil age) data,[3] as revised by the 2021 Hekkala et al. paleogenomics study using DNA extracted from the extinct Voay.[2] Template:Clade

Crocodylinae

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Voay

Crocodylus

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Crocodylus anthropophagus

Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni

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Crocodylus palaeindicus

Crocodylus Tirari Desert

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Asia+Australia

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Crocodylus johnstoni Freshwater crocodile Freshwater crocodile white background.jpg

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Crocodylus novaeguineae New Guinea crocodile

Crocodylus mindorensis Philippine crocodile

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Crocodylus porosus Saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus white background.jpg

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Crocodylus siamensis Siamese crocodile Siamese Crocodile white background.jpg

Crocodylus palustris Mugger crocodile Mugger crocodile white background.jpg

Africa+New World

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Crocodylus checchiai

Crocodylus falconensis

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Crocodylus suchus West African crocodile

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Crocodylus niloticus Nile crocodile Nile crocodile white background.jpg

New World

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Crocodylus moreletii Morelet's crocodile

Crocodylus rhombifer Cuban crocodile Cuban crocodile white background.jpg

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Crocodylus intermedius Orinoco crocodile

Crocodylus acutus American crocodile American crocodile white background.jpg

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kadan ruwan ruwa ɗan ƙaramin kada ne. Maza na iya girma zuwa kimanin 2.3–3.0 metres (7.5–9.8 ft) tsayi, yayin da mata suka kai matsakaicin girman 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) . Maza yawanci suna auna kusan 70 kilograms (150 lb), tare da manyan samfurori har zuwa 100 kilograms (220 lb) ko fiye, akan nauyin mace 40 kilograms (88 lb) . A cikin yankuna kamar Lake Argyle da Katherine Gorge, kaɗan na tabbatar da 4 metres (13 ft) akwai mutane. Wannan nau'in nau'in jin kunya ne kuma yana da siririn hanci da ƙananan hakora fiye da ɗan kada na ruwan gishiri mai haɗari. Launin jikin yana da launin ruwan kasa mai haske tare da maɗaura masu duhu a jiki da wutsiya-waɗannan sukan karye a kusa da wuya. Wasu mutane suna da sarƙaƙƙiya daban-daban ko ƙwai a kan hanci. Sikelin jiki yana da girman gaske, tare da fadi, saƙa, faranti masu sulke a baya. Zagaye, ma'aunin tsakuwa ya rufe gefen ƙafafu da wajen ƙafafu. [4]

Rarraba da wurin zama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana samun crocodiles na ruwa a Yammacin Ostiraliya, Queensland, da Arewacin ƙasar . Manyan wuraren zama sun haɗa da wuraren dausayin ruwa, billabongs, koguna, da rafuka. Wannan nau'in na iya zama a wuraren da crocodiles na ruwan gishiri ba za su iya ba, kuma an san su da zama a wuraren da ke sama da gandun daji na Kakadu National Park da kuma cikin yanayi mai banƙyama da dutse (kamar Katherine Gorge, inda suke da yawa kuma ba su da lafiya daga crocodiles na gishiri a lokacin rani). lokacin rani). Hakan tasa Duk da haka, ana samun su akai-akai a cikin ƙananan matakan billabong, suna zaune tare da crocodiles na ruwan gishiri a kusa da magudanar ruwa da hanyoyin shi

A cikin watan Mayun shekarata 2013, an ga wani kada mai ruwa mai daɗi a cikin wani kogi kusa da hamadar garin Birdsville, ɗaruruwan kilomita kudu da kewayon su. Wani ma'aikacin gandun daji ya ba da shawarar cewa ambaliyar ruwa na iya wanke dabbar kudu, ko kuma an jefar da ita a matsayin yarinya.

Biology da hali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Suna yin gasa mara kyau da kadawar ruwan gishiri, amma suna jure wa ruwan gishiri. Adult crocodiles suna cin kifi, tsuntsaye, jemagu, dabbobi masu rarrafe, da masu rarrafe, to Amman ko da yake manyan mutane na iya ɗaukar ganima babba kamar bangon waya .

An yi fim ɗin wani mutumin da zaren zaitun Lias olivaceus ke ci; An ruwaito cewa ya mutu bayan fafatawar ta kusan sa'o'i biyar (5).

Haihuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana sanya ƙwai a cikin ramuka a lokacin rani na Australiya (yawanci a watan Agusta) kuma suna kyankyashe a farkon lokacin damina a watan (Nuwamba/Disamba). Kadan ba sa kare gidajensu a lokacin shiryawa. Daga kwana ɗaya zuwa biyar kafin hatching, matasa suna fara kira daga cikin ƙwai. Wannan yana haifar da aiki tare da ƙyanƙyashe a cikin 'yan'uwa kuma yana motsa manya don buɗe gida. Idan balagaggen da ya buɗe gida da aka ba shi shine macen da ta sanya ƙwai ba a sani ba. Yayin da samari ke fitowa daga cikin gida, babban balagagge ya dauko su daya bayan daya a bakin bakinsa ya kai su ruwa. Manya kuma na iya taimakawa matasa wajen fasa kwai ta hanyar taunawa ko sarrafa qwai a bakinsa.

Abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ciyarwa a cikin daji, crocodiles na ruwa suna cin ganima iri-iri daban-daban na invertebrate da kashin baya. Waɗannan ganima na iya haɗawa da crustaceans, kwari, gizo-gizo, kifi, kwaɗi, kunkuru, maciji, tsuntsaye, da dabbobi masu shayarwa iri-iri. Kwari ya zama abincin da aka fi sani, sai kifi. Ana samun ƙananan ganima ta hanyar 'zauna-da-jira', ta yadda kada ya kwanta ba motsi a cikin ruwa mara zurfi kuma yana jira kifi da kwari su zo kusa da nesa, kafin a kama su a wani gefe. Koyaya, babban ganima kamar wallabies da tsuntsayen ruwa ana iya sawa a yi musu kwanton bauna kamar na kada na ruwan gishiri.

Tsarin narkewar abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kadan na da hakora wadanda suka dace da kamawa da kuma rike ganima, kuma ana hadiye abinci ba tare da tauna ba. Tsarin narkewar abinci gajere ne, saboda abincinsu yana da sauƙin haɗiye da narkewa. Ciki yana da sassa biyu wato - gizzard na tsoka da ke niƙa abinci, sannan kuma da ɗakin narkewa wanda enzymes ke aiki akan abinci. Cikin kada kwatankwacin ya fi na sauran kashin baya acidic kuma yana dauke da jiga-jigan da ke haifar da rushewar abinci. Narkewa yana faruwa a cikin sauri sauri a yanayin zafi.

Tsarin kewayawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An tsara zukatan sauran dabbobi masu rarrafe don ƙunshi sassa guda uku, gami da atria biyu da ventricle ɗaya. Atrium na dama, wanda ke tattara jinin da aka dawo da shi da kuma atrium na hagu, wanda ke tattara jinin oxygen da aka tattara daga arteries na huhu na huhu, yana ɗaukar jinin zuwa ventricle na kowa. Lokacin da ventricle ɗaya kawai ya samu don karɓa kuma a haxa jinin oxygenated da deoxygenated jini a zuga shi zuwa jiki, cakuda jinin da jiki ke karɓa yana da ƙarancin iskar oxygen. Crocodiles suna da tsarin sigina na kashin baya mai rikitarwa, tare da zuciya mai ɗaki huɗu, gami da ventricles biyu. Kamar tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu shayarwa, crocodiles suna da bututun zuciya waɗanda ke tafiyar da jini ta hanya guda ta cikin ɗakunan zuciya. Lokacin karkashin ruwa, bugun zuciyar kada yana raguwa zuwa bugun daya zuwa biyu a minti daya, kuma tsokoki suna samun raguwar kwararar jini. Lokacin da ya fito daga cikin ruwa ya yi numfashi, bugun zuciyarsa yana sauri a cikin dakika, kuma tsokoki suna samun jini mai arzikin oxygen. Sannan Ba kamar yawancin dabbobi masu shayarwa na ruwa ba, crocodiles suna da ƙaramin adadin myoglobin don adana iskar oxygen a cikin tsokoki.

Matsayin kiyayewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ruwan ruwan kada a Zoo na Ostiraliya

Har zuwa kwanan nan, kadawar ruwa ta zama ruwan dare gama gari a arewacin Ostiraliya, musamman ma inda babur ruwa mai gishiri (kamar yankunan da ke cikin ƙasa da bushewa da tudu mafi girma). Kuma A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, yawan jama'a ya ragu da yawa saboda shan barasa mai lalata . Toad yana da guba ga kadawan ruwan gishiri, ko da yake ba ga crocodiles na ruwa mai gishiri ba, kuma kullun yana da yawa a cikin jejin ƙasar Ostiraliya. to Amman kumaHakanan ana kamuwa da crocodiles ta hanyar Griphobilharzia amoena, wani nau'in cutar huhu, a yankuna irin su Darwin .

Dangantaka da mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ko da yake kada ruwa mai dadi ba ya kai hari ga mutane a matsayin abin da zai iya zama ganima, yana iya sadar da mugun cizo. Takaitattun hare-hare da aka yi watsi da su sun faru, kuma wataƙila sakamakon kuskure ne (ɓata wani ɓangaren ɗan adam a matsayin abin ganima). [5] [6] Wasu hare-haren sun faru ne don kare kai lokacin da aka taɓa kada ko kuma kusa da shi sosai. [7] Ba a san mutuwar mutane da wannan nau'in ya haifar ba. [7] to Amman Kuma An ba da rahoton wasu abubuwa da yawa inda aka cije mutane a lokacin da suke ninkaya da kadarorin ruwa, da kuma wasu da suka faru a lokacin binciken kimiyya DA Kuma fasaha. An rubuta wani hari da wani dan kada mai ruwa mai dadi ya kai wa dan Adam a Gorge Barramundi (wanda aka fi sani da Maguk) a dajin Kakadu kuma ya yi sanadin munanan raunuka; wanda aka kashe ya samu yin iyo ya tafi daga harin. Da alama ya wuce kai tsaye kan kada a cikin ruwa. Gabaɗaya, kodayake, Kuma ana ɗaukar yin iyo tare da wannan nau'in har yanzu yana da aminci, muddin ba a tsananta musu ba. Akwai, duk da haka, an kai harin kada ruwa a tafkin Argyle.

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hekkala2021
  3. Michael S. Y. Lee; Adam M. Yates (27 June 2018). "Tip-dating and homoplasy: reconciling the shallow molecular divergences of modern gharials with their long fossil". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 285 (1881). doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.1071. PMC 6030529. PMID 30051855.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named FLMNH
  5. CrocBITE, Worldwide Crocodilian Attack Database: Australian freshwater crocodile, 1 November 2013.
  6. CrocBITE, Worldwide Crocodilian Attack Database: Australian freshwater crocodile, 6 April 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hines, K.N., and Skroblin, A. (2010).

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Boulenger GA (1889). Catalog na Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, da Crocodiles a cikin Gidan Tarihi na Biritaniya (Tarihin Halitta). Sabon Buga. London: Amintattun Gidan Tarihi na Biritaniya (Tarihin Halitta). (Taylor da Francis, masu bugawa). x + 311 shafi. + Faranti I-III. ( Crocodilus johnstonii, shafi. 279-280).
  • Cogger H (2014). Dabbobi da Amphibians na Ostiraliya, Bugu na Bakwai . Clayton, Victoria, Ostiraliya: CSIRO Publishing. xxx + 1,033 pp. ISBN 978-0643100350 .
  • Grey JE (1874). "A kan Crocodilus johnstoni, Krefft". Proc. Zool. Soc London 1874 : 177-178 + Farantin karfe XXVII.
  • Krefft G (1873). "Magana kan Kadarorin Australiya, da Bayanin Sabbin nau'ikan". Proc. Zool. Soc London. 1873 : 334-335. ( Crocodilus johnsoni, sabon nau'in, p. 335).