Sadarwa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wikidata.svgSadarwa
branch of science (en) Fassara da academic discipline (en) Fassara
Amfm3.gif
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na remote communication (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of telecommunication (en) Fassara
Tashar duniya a cibiyar sadarwar tauraron dan adam a Raisting, Bavaria, Jamus

Sadarwa ita ce watsa bayanai ta nau'ikan fasaha daban-daban ta hanyar waya, rediyo, na gani, ko wasu tsarin lantarki. [1] ta samo asali ne a cikin sha'awar mutane don sadarwa a kan nisa fiye da yadda za a iya yiwuwa tare da muryar mutum, amma tare da ma'auni na dacewa; don haka, tsarin jinkirin (kamar saƙon gidan waya) an cire su daga filin.

Kafofin watsa labarai na watsawa a cikin sadarwa sun samo asali ne ta matakai masu yawa na fasaha, daga tashoshi da sauran sigina na gani (kamar siginar hayaki, telegraphs na semaphore, siginar sigina, da heliographs na gani), zuwa kebul na lantarki da hasken lantarki, gami da haske. Irin waɗannan hanyoyin watsawa galibi ana rarraba su zuwa tashoshi na sadarwa, waɗanda ke ba da fa'ida ta mafi yawan lokutan sadarwar lokaci guda. Ana yawan amfani da sadarwa ta jam'i.

Sauran misalan sadarwar na nesa na zamani sun haɗa da saƙon sauti, kamar ƙwaƙƙwaran ganga, ƙaho mai huhu, da ƙarar busa. Fasaha na ƙarni na 20 da 21 da sadarwa mai nisa yawanci sun haɗa da fasahar lantarki , kamar telegraph, tarho, talabijin da na'urar buga waya, cibiyoyin sadarwa, rediyo, microwave, fiber na gani, da tauraron dan adam na sadarwa.

An fara juyin juya hali a cikin sadarwar wireless a cikin shekaru goma na farko na karni na 20 tare da ci gaban farko a cikin sadarwar rediyo ta Guglielmo Marconi, wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel a Physics a 1909, da sauran fitattun majagaba masu ƙirƙira da masu haɓakawa a fagen sadarwar lantarki. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Charles Wheatstone da Samuel Morse (masu ƙirƙira na telegraph), Antonio Meucci da Alexander Graham Bell (wasu masu ƙirƙira da masu haɓaka tarho, duba Invention of the telephone), Edwin Armstrong da Lee de Forest (masu ƙirƙira na rediyo), haka kuma Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird da Philo Farnsworth (wasu daga cikin masu kirkiro talabijin).

An ƙirƙiri cibiyoyin sadarwa na farko tare da wayoyi na tagulla a matsayin matsakaici na zahiri don watsa sigina. Shekaru da yawa, ana amfani da waɗannan cibiyoyin sadarwa don sabis na waya na asali, wato murya da telegram. Tun daga tsakiyar 1990s, yayin da intanit ta haɓaka cikin shahara, a hankali an maye gurbin murya ta hanyar bayanai. Ba da daɗewa ba wannan ya nuna ƙarancin jan ƙarfe a cikin watsa bayanai, wanda ya haifar da haɓaka na'urorin gani.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar sadarwa wani fili ne na prefix na Hellenanci tele-(τῆλε), ma'ana nesa, nesa, ko nesa, da kuma sadarwar Latin, ma'ana raba. An daidaita amfani da shi na zamani daga Faransanci, saboda rubutaccen amfani da shi an rubuta shi a cikin shekarar 1904 ta injiniyan Faransa kuma marubuci Édouard Estaunié. [2] An fara amfani da sadarwa a kalmar Ingilishi a ƙarshen karni na 14. Ya fito ne daga Tsohuwar Sadarwar ta Faransa (14c., Sadarwar Faransa na zamani), daga Latin communicationem (communicatio nominative), sunan aiki daga ɓangaren ɓangaren sadarwa na baya, "don raba, rarraba; sadarwa, bayarwa, sanarwa; shiga, haɗin kai, shiga," a zahiri, "don zama gama gari," daga kwaminis."

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwafi na ɗaya daga cikin hasumiya na semaphore na Chappe
  1. Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union, Annex (Geneva, 1992)
  2. Telecommunication, tele- and communication, New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd edition), 2005.