Tanya Atwater

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Rayuwa
Haihuwa Los Angeles, 27 ga Augusta, 1942 (79 shekaru)
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Karatu
Makaranta University of California, Berkeley (en) Fassara
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (en) Fassara 1972) Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara
University of California, San Diego (en) Fassara
Santa Barbara High School (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a university teacher (en) Fassara, geologist (en) Fassara da geophysicist (en) Fassara
Employers Massachusetts Institute of Technology (en) Fassara
University of California, Santa Barbara (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara

Tanya Atwater (an haife ta a shekara ta 1942) ita 'yar ƙasar Amurka ce ƙwararren masanin ilimin kimiya na ƙasa kuma ƙwararriyar ilimin ƙasa ta ruwa wacce ta kware a fannin tectonics. Ta shahara musamman don bincikenta na farko akan tarihin tectonic plate na yammacin Arewacin Amurka.

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haife Atwater a Los Angeles, California a shekara ta 1942.[1] Mahaifinta injiniya ne kuma mahaifiyarta ƙwararriyar kimiya ce. Atwater na daya daga cikin matan farko da suka yi bincike a kan tekun ta fuskar Geology.[2]

Atwater ta fara karatun ta a shekarar 1960 a Cibiyar Fasaha ta Massachusetts, sannan ta sami B.A. a Geophysics daga Jami'ar California, Berkeley a 1965.[3] Ta sami digiri na uku. (1972) a cikin geophysics na ruwa daga Cibiyar Scripps na Oceanography, Jami'ar California, San Diego. Ita ce darekta na Jami'ar California, Santa Barbara Educational Multimedia Visualization Center inda ta kasance farfesa a fannin kimiyyar ƙasa. Ta kasance farfesa a Cibiyar Fasaha ta Massachusetts kafin ta shiga jami'a a UCSB a 1980. Atwater ya yi ritaya daga UCSB a 2007.[4]

Aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Atwater ta kasa nce farfesa a fannin tectonics, a Sashen Kimiyyar Geological a Jami'ar California, Santa Barbara kafin ta yi ritaya. Ta rubuta tare da haɗin gwiwar rubuce-rubuce 50 a cikin mujallu na duniya, kundin ƙwararru, da manyan rahotanni. Bakwai daga cikin waɗannan takardu an buga su a cikin mujallu na Nature ko Kimiyya. A cikin 1975, ta zama Fellow of the American Geophysical Union don aikinta a fannin ilimin kimiyyar fasaha.[5] Daga 1975 zuwa 1977, Atwater ya kasance mai karɓar Fellowship Fellowship Sloan a Physics.[6] A cikin 1984, ta sami lambar yabo ta Ƙarfafawa daga Ƙungiyar Matan Masana Geoscientists.[7] Atwater memba ce ta Kwalejin Kimiyya ta Kasa[8] da aka zaba don gudunmuwarta ga ilimin geophysics na ruwa da tectonics. A cikin 2019 ta sami lambar yabo mafi girma na Geological Society of America, Penrose Medal.[9]

Binciken kimiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Atwater ta kasance cikin balaguron balaguron teku ta hanyar amfani da zurfafan kida da aka ja don bincikar benen teku. Har zuwa yau, ta shiga cikin nutsewar ruwa mai zurfi 12 a cikin zurfin teku mai zurfi Alvin. Ta yi bincike kan hanyoyin tsaurin wuta-tectonic da ke da alhakin ƙirƙirar sabon ɓawon ruwa a wuraren shimfida saman teku. A cikin 1968, ta haɗu da rubuta takardar bincike da ke nuna aikin daɗaɗɗa a cikin ɓoyayyen yanayin yada cibiyoyin.[10] Tare da Jack Corliss, Fred Spiess, da Kenneth Macdonald, ta taka muhimmiyar rawa a balaguron balaguron balaguron balaguro wanda ya gano nau'ikan ilimin halitta na maɓuɓɓugan ruwan teku, wanda ya haifar da ganowa yayin aikin RISE na masu yawan zafin jiki na masu shan sigari, iska mai ƙarfi ta ruwa.

A cikin binciken Atwater da ta yi kan yada baragurbi a kusa da tsibiran Galapagos,[11] ta gano cewa an haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna a lokacin da ake yada cibiyoyi a bakin tekun da motsin tectonic ko magma ya dame shi, don haka sai da ta canza hanya don daidaitawa. Wannan ya taimaka wajen bayyana hadadden tsari na shimfidar teku.

Wataƙila an fi sanin Atwater da aikinta akan tarihin tectonic plate na yammacin Arewacin Amurka.[12] Ta rubuta manyan takaddun bincike guda biyu da ke bayyana tarihin juyin halittar tectonic na Arewacin Amurka da matsalolin tectonic na San Andreas Fault, wanda ya taimaka wajen tattara tarihin Layin Laifin San Andreas.[13][14]

Ta kuma yi nazarin juyin halitta na geometric, haɗawa da kwatanta bayanan motsin faranti na duniya tare da bayanan yanayin ƙasa na yanki. Ta sami alaƙar da ta kunno kai waɗanda suka bayyana asalin manyan fassarori masu girma dabam (misali Dutsen Rocky, Yellowstone, Death Valley, Cascade Volcanoes, California Coast Ranges).[8]

Takardar bincike ta Atwater, "Tasirin Tectonics na Plate Tectonics ga Cenozoic Tectonic Juyin Halitta na Yammacin Arewacin Amirka",[13] ya kafa mahimman tsari don tectonics farantin karfe na yammacin Arewacin Amirka. A cikin aikinta, ta bayyana cewa kimanin shekaru miliyan 40 da suka wuce, Farallon Plate yana raguwa a ƙarƙashin Plate na Arewacin Amirka da Pacific Plate. Ƙasar rabin farantin Farallon gaba ɗaya an rushe a ƙarƙashin Kudancin California kuma rabin na sama bai nutse ba, wanda a ƙarshe ya zama sananne da sunan Juan de Fuca Plate. Tunda kudancin yankin Farallon ya ɓace gaba ɗaya, iyakar kudancin California ta kasance tsakanin Plate Pacific da Plate na Arewacin Amurka. Laifin San Andreas na musamman ne saboda yana aiki azaman babban layin kuskure haka kuma yana iyaka tsakanin Plate Pacific da Plate ta Arewacin Amurka.[13] Ta sabunta wannan aikin a 1989.[15]

Atwater tana sha'awar sadarwa da ilimi a kowane mataki. Ta haɓaka kafofin watsa labarai da yawa na lantarki (Cibiyar Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Ilmi a UCSB) don haɓaka hangen nesa da fahimtar yanayin ƙasa, musamman masu alaƙa da tarihin faranti na tectonic.[16]

Kyaututtuka da karramawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 1975, Fellow, American Geophysical Union[17]
  • 1980, AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize don babban labarin bincike a cikin mujallar Kimiyya[18]
  • 1997, an zabe shi zuwa Kwalejin Kimiyya ta Kasa[19]
  • 2002, Kyautar Darakta na Gidauniyar Kimiyya ta Kasa don Manyan Malaman Koyarwa. Wannan lambar yabo, na $300,000 a cikin shekaru hudu, an ba da ita don taimakawa da kuma girmama fitattun masana kimiyya waɗanda ke aiwatar da hanyoyin fassara bincike zuwa ilimi. Kudin an yi shi ne domin baiwa malaman koyarwa damar fadada ayyukansu fiye da cibiyoyinsu na gida.[20]
  • Leopold von Buch Medal, Jamus Geosciences Society[18]
  • Lambar Zinariya ta 2005, Ƙungiyar Ma'aikatan Geographers[21][22]
  • Medal Penrose na 2019 na Ƙungiyar Geological Society of America.[23]

Ayyukan da aka zaɓa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Menard, H.W., da Tanya Atwater, 1968, Canje-canje a cikin alkiblar shimfidar teku. Hali, aya 219, shafi. 463-467. Sake bugawa a cikin Plate Tectonics da Geomagnetic Reversals, p. 412-419, W.H. Freeman Co. San Francisco, 1973.
  • Atwater, Tanya, 1970, Tasirin Tectonics na farantin karfe don juyin halittar Tectonic Cenozoic na yammacin Arewacin Amurka. Bijimin Geol. Soc Amuri., aya ta 81, shafi. 3513-3536. Sake bugawa a cikin Plate Tectonics da Geomagnetic Reversals, p. 583-609, W.H. Freeman Co., San Francisco, 1973. An sake bugawa a U.C.SD., Scripps Inst. Oceanography., Gudunmawa, Vol. 40, Kashi na 2, p. 1249-1271, 1970.
  • Atwater, Tanya, da P. Molnar, 1973, Dangantakar motsin faranti na Pasifik da Arewacin Amurka da aka samo daga benen teku da ke yaduwa a cikin Tekun Atlantika, Indiya da Kudancin Pasifik. R.L. Kovach da A. Nur, ed., Proc. na Conf. akan Matsalolin Tectonic na Laifin San Andreas, Kimiyyar Geological, v. XIII, Stanford Univ., p. 136-148. •An sake bugawa a U.C.S.D., Scripps Inst. Oceanography., Gudunmawa, Vol. 44, Kashi na 2, p. 1362-1374, 1974.
  • Atwater, Tanya, 1981, Yada rarrabuwa a cikin shimfidar shimfidar bene na teku. Nature, aya 290, shafi. 185 186.
  • Severinghaus, J. da Atwater, T., 1990. Cenozoic geometry da yanayin zafi na ɓangarorin subducting a ƙarƙashin yammacin Arewacin Amurka. Basin da kewayon tectonics na tsawo kusa da latitude na Las Vegas, Nevada: Memoir Society of America Memoir, 176, shafi 1-22.
  • Atwater, T., 1991, Tectonics na Arewa maso Gabashin Pacific, Ma'amaloli na Royal Society of Canada, Series I, v. I, shafi 295-318.
  • Atwater, T., 1998, Plate Tectonic History of Southern California tare da girmamawa a kan Western Transverse Ranges da Santa Rosa Island, a Weigand, PW, ed., Gudunmawa ga ilimin geology na Arewacin Channel Islands, Southern California: American Association of Petroleum Masanan Geologists, Sashen Pacific, MP 45, p. 1-8.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Atwater, Tanya. "Tanya Atwater". John A. Dutton e-Education Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  2. Atwater 2017.
  3. Gates, Alexander E. (2003), ""Atwater, Tanya"", A to Z of earth scientists, New York: Facts on File, pp. 10–12, ISBN 978-0816045808
  4. "EMVC Web Page".
  5. "Tanya M. Atwater". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  6. ""Atwater, Tanya"". Postdoctoral Pathways: Preparation, Holding Pattern of Jumping off point?. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-1421403632.
  7. Atwater2 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Tanya Atwater". National Academies of Science. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  9. "The Penrose Medal".
  10. Menard, H.W.; Atwater, T.M. (1968). "Changes in direction of sea floor spreading". Nature. 219 (5153): 463–467. Bibcode:1968Natur.219..463M. doi:10.1038/219463a0. S2CID 38388804.
  11. Atwater, Tanya (1981). "Propagating rifts in seafloor spreading patterns". Nature. 290 (5803): 185–186. Bibcode:1981Natur.290..185A. doi:10.1038/290185a0. S2CID 4366184.
  12. Stock, J. M. (2018). "Tanya Atwater: Using Plate Tectonics to Explain Geologic History of Western North America". AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2018: T24C–07. Bibcode:2018AGUFM.T24C..07S.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Atwater, Tanya (1970). "Implications of Plate Tectonics for the Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of Western North America". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 81 (12): 3513–3536. Bibcode:1970GSAB...81.3513A. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1970)81[3513:IOPTFT]2.0.CO;2.
  14. Atwater, Tanya; Molnar, Peter (1973). "Relative motion of the Pacific and North American plates deduced from sea-floor spreading in the Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific Oceans". 13. R. L. Kovach and A. Nur, eds., Proc. of the Conf. on Tectonic Problems of the San Andreas Fault: Stanford University Publication: 136–148. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. Atwater, T. M. 1989. “Plate tectonic history of the northeast Pacific and western North America”. In The geology of North America: The northeastern Pacific Ocean and Hawaii, Edited by: Winterer, E. L., Hussong, D. M. and Decker, R. W. Vol. N, 21–72. Boulder, CO: Geol. Soc. Amer.
  16. "Tanya Atwater Homepage". Tanya Atwater Home Page. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  17. "AGU Fellows". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Atwater, Tanya. "Faculty Accolades Earth Sciences, UC Santa Barbara". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  19. "National Academy of Sciences, Member Directory".
  20. "Calling all geologists: Put your mental pictures here". Geotimes. American Geological Institute. July 2002. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  21. Pike, Kaitlin (February 15, 2005). "Field Lauds Atwater's Earth-Shaking Work". The Daily Nexus. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  22. "SWG Gold Medalists". Society of Woman Geographers. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  23. "Atwater receives Penrose".

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]