Tarihin Laberiya

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Tarihin Laberiya
history of a country or state (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na history of West Africa (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara Laberiya
Ƙasa Laberiya

Laberiya kasa ce da ke yammacin Afirka da aka kafa ta mutane masu launi daga Amurka . Kungiyar Bakar Mulki ta Amirka ce ta ba da tallafi da kuma shirya ƙaura na Ba-Amurkan Amirka, na kyauta. Adadin mace-mace na waɗannan matsugunan ya kasance mafi girma a cikin ƙauyuka da aka ruwaito tare da rikodin zamani. [1] Daga cikin bakin haure kusan kimanin 4,571 da suka isa Laberiya tsakanin shekarar 1820 zuwa shekarar 1843, mutane 1,819 ne kawai suka tsira (39.8%). [2]

A shekara ta 1846, bakar fata na farko gwamnan Laberiya, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, ya bukaci majalisar dokokin Liberiya da ta ayyana 'yancin kai, amma ta hanyar da za ta ba su damar ci gaba da tuntuɓar ACS. Majalisar ta yi kira da a gudanar da zaben raba gardama, inda 'yan kasar Laberiya suka zabi 'yancin kai. A ranar 26 ga Yuli, shekara ta 1847, ƙungiyar masu rattaba hannu ta goma sha ɗaya ta ayyana Laberiya a matsayin ƙasa mai cin gashin kanta . ACS da gwamnatocin jahohin arewa da dama da ɓangarorin mulkin mallaka sun ci gaba da ba da kuɗi da tallafi har zuwa ƙarshen shekarar 1870s. Gwamnatin Amurka ta ƙi yin aiki bisa buƙatun ACS na mayar da Laberiya ta zama mulkin mallaka na Amurka ko kuma ta kafa wata hukuma ta musamman a kan Laberiya, amma ta yi amfani da "kariyar ɗabi'a" akan Laberiya, tana shiga tsakani lokacin da barazana ta bayyana ga fadada yankunan Laberiya ko ikon mallakar ƙasa. Bayan 'yancin kai na Laberiya, an zabi Roberts a matsayin shugaban farko na Laberiya . [3]

Laberiya ta ci gaba da samun 'yancin kai a duk lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka suka yi wa Afirka a karshen karni na 19, yayin da ta ci gaba da zama a fagen tasirin Amurka. Shugaba William Howard Taft ya bama Amirka goyon bayan da ke ba Laberiya a matsayin fifiko a manufofinsa na ketare. Tun daga shekarar 1920, tattalin arzikin ya mayar da hankali ne kan cin gajiyar albarkatun kasa. Masana'antar roba, musamman Kamfanin Firestone, ya mamaye tattalin arzikin. Har zuwa 1980, 'ya'yan asalin Ba'amurke Ba'amurke ne ke sarrafa Laberiya ta hanyar siyasa, waɗanda aka sani tare da Americo-Liberian, waɗanda suka ƙunshi ƴan tsiraru na jama'a. Mummunan hambarar da gwamnatin Americo-Liberia a waccan shekarar ya haifar da yakin basasa guda biyu da ya lalata kasar, na farko daga 1989 zuwa 1997 da na biyu daga 1999 zuwa 2003 .

Tarihin Farko (kafin-1821)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Laberiya kusan 1830

Masana tarihi sun yi imanin cewa yawancin ƴan asalin ƙasar Laberiya sun yi hijra zuwa gabas tsakanin ƙarni na 12 zuwa 16 miladiyya. Masu binciken Kasar Portuguese sun kafa hulɗa da mutanen ƙasar daga baya aka sani da "Liberia" a farkon shekarar 1462. Sun sanya wa yankin suna Costa da Pimenta ( Pepper Coast ), ko Tekun hatsi, saboda yawan barkono na melegueta, wanda ya zama abin so a dafa abinci na Turai.[4]

A shekarar 1602 mutanen Holland sun kafa wurin kasuwanci a Grand Cape Mount amma sun lalata shi bayan shekara guda. A shekarar 1663, Ingilishi ya kafa ƴan wuraren kasuwanci a Tekun Pepper . Ba a sami ƙarin sanannun ƙauyuka da Turawa suka yi ba har zuwa 1821 na baƙar fata masu 'yanci daga Amurka.[5]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  4. Shick, Tom W. (1980). Behold the promised land: a history of Afro-American settler society in nineteenth-century Liberia. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801823091.
  5. Huberich, Charles Henry (1947). The political and legislative history of Liberia. New York: Central Book Company. pp. 231–233. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020.