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Titanic

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Titanic
four funnel liner (en) Fassara, shipwreck (en) Fassara, steamship (en) Fassara da passenger vessel (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Vessel class (en) Fassara Olympic-class ocean liner (en) Fassara
Suna a harshen gida Titanic
Suna saboda titan (en) Fassara
Mamallaki White Star Line (en) Fassara da International Mercantile Marine Company (en) Fassara
Ƙasa da aka fara Ireland ta Arewa
Lokacin farawa 31 ga Maris, 1909
Start point (en) Fassara Southampton
Manufacturer (en) Fassara Harland and Wolff (en) Fassara
Location of creation (en) Fassara Belfast (en) Fassara
Powered by (en) Fassara Parsons turbine (en) Fassara
Service entry (en) Fassara 31 ga Maris, 1912
Service retirement (en) Fassara 14 ga Afirilu, 1912
Dissolved, abolished or demolished date (en) Fassara 15 ga Afirilu, 1912
Cause of destruction (en) Fassara impact (en) Fassara
Shipping port (en) Fassara Liverpool
Has facility (en) Fassara Welin davit (en) Fassara
Port of registry (en) Fassara Liverpool
Significant place (en) Fassara North Atlantic Ocean (en) Fassara
Country of registry (en) Fassara United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Call sign (en) Fassara MGY da HVMP
Yard number (en) Fassara 401
Wuri
Map
 41°43′57″N 49°56′49″W / 41.7325°N 49.94694°W / 41.7325; -49.94694

Wani jirgin saman fasinja ne na kasar Biritaniya, wanda ke karkashin layin White Star, wanda ya nutse a Arewacin Tekun Atlantika a ranar 15 ga Afrilun 1912 bayan ta buge wani dutsen kankara yayin balaguron farko da ta yi daga Southampton, Ingila zuwa birnin New York na Amurka. Daga cikin fasinjoji da ma'aikatan jirgin 2,224 da aka kiyasta, sama da 1,500 ne suka mutu, wanda ya zama mafi muni a nutsewar jirgin ruwa guda har zuwa wannan lokacin. [lower-alpha 1] Ya kasance mafi munin lokacin kwanciyar hankali nutsewar jirgin ruwa ko jirgin ruwa . Bala'in ya ja hankalin jama'a, ya ba da kayan tushe don nau'in fim ɗin bala'i, kuma ya ƙarfafa ayyukan fasaha da yawa. UpRMS Titanic

RMS Titanic shi ne jirgin ruwa mafi girma a duniya da ke shawagi a lokacin da ta shiga sabis kuma na biyu na OlympicOlympics da ke karkashin White Star Line. Gidan jirgin ruwa na Harland da Wolff ne suka gina ta a Belfast . Thomas Andrews, babban jami'in gine-ginen jiragen ruwa na filin jirgin ruwa, ya mutu a cikin bala'in. Titanic yana karkashin jagorancin Kyaftin Edward Smith, wanda ya sauka tare da jirgin . Jirgin ruwan ya dauki wasu daga cikin masu hannu da shuni a duniya, da kuma daruruwan bakin haure daga tsibirin Biritaniya, Scandinavia, da sauran wurare a Turai, wadanda ke neman sabuwar rayuwa a Amurka da Kanada.

An tsara masaukin na matakin farko don zama kololuwar jin daɗi da jin daɗi, tare da dakin motsa jiki, wurin shakatawa, dakunan shan taba, manyan gidajen cin abinci da wuraren shaye-shaye, wurin wanka na Turkawa da ɗaruruwan ɗakuna masu dumbin yawa. Ana samun mai watsa shirye -shiryen rediyo mai ƙarfi don aika fasinja "marconigrams" da kuma aikin aikin jirgin. Titanic yana da manyan fasalulluka na aminci, kamar ɗakunan da ba su da ruwa da kuma kunna kofofin da ba su da ruwa daga nesa, suna ba da gudummawa ga sunansa a matsayin "marasa nitsewa".

Titanic an sanye shi da jiragen ruwa na ceto guda 16, kowannensu yana iya sauke kwale-kwalen ceto guda uku, domin jimillar jiragen ruwa 48. Koyaya, a zahiri ta ɗauki kwale-kwale na ceto guda 20 ne kawai, huɗu daga cikinsu sun ruguje kuma sun nuna wuya a harba yayin da take nutsewa (Collapsible A ya kusan fadama kuma an cika da ƙafar ruwa har sai an ceto; Collapsible B gaba ɗaya ya kife yayin ƙaddamarwa). Tare, kwale-kwalen ceto 20 na iya ɗaukar mutane 1,178—kusan rabin adadin fasinjojin da ke cikin jirgin, kuma kashi ɗaya bisa uku na adadin fasinjojin da jirgin zai iya ɗauka da cikakken iko (daidai da ka'idojin kiyaye teku na zamanin). Lokacin da jirgin ya nutse, kwale-kwalen ceton da aka saukar sun cika kusan kashi 60 ne kawai.

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gaumont newsreel dauke da sanannen fim din Titanic, 1912

Sunan Titanic ya samo asali ne daga Titans na tatsuniyoyi na Girka . An gina shi a Belfast, Ireland, a lokacin da United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, RMS Titanic shi ne na biyu a cikin OlympicOlympics uku - na farko shi ne RMS . Olympic kuma na uku shine HMHS Britanniya . [1] Britannic asalin ana kiransa Gigantic[ana buƙatar hujja] kuma ya kasance sama da 1,000 feet (300 m) dogon.  Sun kasance da nisa mafi girma na jiragen ruwa na jirgin ruwa na kamfanin jirgin ruwa [2] White Star Line na Birtaniya, 29 steamers da tender a 1912. Shugaban White Star Line, J. Bruce Ismay, da kuma mai ba da kudi na Amurka JP Morgan, wanda ke kula da iyaye na White Star Line, International Mercantile Marine Co. (IMM).

Layin White Star ya fuskanci ƙalubale daga manyan abokan hamayyarsa, Cunard - wanda kwanan nan ya ƙaddamar da Lusitania da Mauretania, jiragen ruwa mafi sauri a lokacin da suke aiki - da kuma layin Jamus Hamburg America da Norddeutscher Lloyd . Ismay ya gwammace ya yi gasa a kan girma maimakon sauri kuma ya ba da shawarar ƙaddamar da sabon nau'in layin layi wanda zai fi duk wani abu da ya gabata, da kuma kasancewa kalma ta ƙarshe a cikin jin daɗi da jin daɗi. [3] Layin White Star ya nemi haɓaka rundunarta da farko don amsa gabatar da kattai na Cunard amma kuma don ƙarfafa matsayinsa sosai kan sabis na Southampton – Cherbourg – New York wanda aka buɗe a 1907. Sabbin jiragen ruwa za su sami isasshen gudun don kula da sabis na mako-mako tare da jiragen ruwa uku kawai maimakon hudu na asali. Don haka, Olympic da Titanic za su maye gurbin RMS Teutonic na 1889, RMS Majestic na 1890 da RMS Adriatic ta 1907. RMS Oceanic zai ci gaba da kasancewa a kan hanyar har sai an kawo sabon jirgi na uku.[ana buƙatar hujja]Za a dawo da Majestic akan sabis na White Star Line na New York bayan ' Titanic .

Gabaɗayan tsayinta, wanda aka auna daga gindin keel zuwa saman gada, ya kai 104 feet (32 m) . [4] Ta auna 46,329 GRT da 21,831 NRT kuma tare da daftarin aiki na 34 feet 7 inches (10.54 m), ta raba tan 52,310. [1] Dukkan jiragen ruwa guda uku na gasar Olympics suna da benaye goma (ban da saman guraben jami'an), takwas daga cikinsu na amfani da fasinja ne. Daga sama zuwa kasa, benen sun kasance:Harland & Wolff na Belfast ne ya gina jiragen ruwa, wanda ke da dangantaka mai tsawo da White Star Line tun [3] 1867. ; Hanyar da aka saba shine Wilhelm Wolff ya zana ra'ayi na gaba ɗaya, wanda Edward James Harland zai juya ya zama ƙirar jirgi. La'akarin farashi ya kasance mafi ƙarancin fifiko; Harland & Wolff an ba su izinin kashe abin da suke buƙata a kan jiragen ruwa, da ribar kashi biyar cikin ɗari. [3] A cikin yanayin jiragen ruwa na Olympics, farashin £ 3 miliyan (kimanin £ 310 miliyan a cikin 2019 ) na jiragen ruwa biyu na farko an amince da "karin kwangila" da kuma kuɗin da aka saba da kashi biyar. [5]

Harland da Wolff sun sanya manyan masu zanen su yin aikin kera jiragen ruwa na Olympics . An kula da zane ta hanyar Lord Pirrie, darektan Harland da Wolff da White Star Line; Architecture na ruwa Thomas Andrews, Manajan Daraktan Harland da Wolff's zane sashen; Edward Wilding, mataimakin Andrews kuma ke da alhakin ƙididdige ƙirar jirgin, kwanciyar hankali da datsa; da kuma Alexander Carlisle, babban mai tsara aikin jirgin ruwa kuma babban manajan. [5] Ayyukan Carlisle sun haɗa da kayan ado, kayan aiki, da duk shirye-shirye na gabaɗaya, gami da aiwatar da ingantaccen ƙirar davit jirgin ruwa . [lower-alpha 2]


A ranar 29 ga Yuli, 1908, Harland da Wolff sun gabatar da zanen ga J. Bruce Ismay da sauran shugabannin White Star Line. Ismay ya amince da tsarin kuma ya sanya hannu kan "wasiƙun yarjejeniya" guda uku bayan kwana biyu, wanda ya ba da izinin fara ginin. [8] A wannan lokacin, jirgin na farko - wanda daga baya ya zama Olympic - ba shi da suna amma an kira shi kawai "Lambar 400", kamar yadda Harland da Wolff na dari hudu. Titanic ya dogara ne akan sigar da aka sabunta na ƙirar iri ɗaya kuma an ba shi lamba 401. [8]

Tauraron allo na Titanic

Titanic ya kasance 882 feet 9 inches (269.06 m) tsawo tare da iyakar fadin 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) .

  • Jirgin ruwan, wanda aka ajiye kwale-kwalen ceto. Daga nan ne a farkon 15 ga Afrilu 1912 aka saukar da kwale ' kwalen ceton Titanic zuwa Arewacin Atlantic. Gada da keken keken sun kasance a ƙarshen gaba, a gaban ɗakin kyaftin da jami'ai. Gadar ta tsaya 8 feet (2.4 m) sama da bene, yana shimfiɗa zuwa kowane gefe don a iya sarrafa jirgin yayin da yake docking. Gidan motar ya tsaya a cikin gadar. Ƙofar Babban Matakai na Ajin Farko da Gymnasium suna tsakiyar jiragen ruwa ne tare da ɗagarar rufin falon falon ajin farko, yayin da a bayan bene akwai rufin ɗakin hayaƙi na aji na farko da ƙofar aji na biyu mafi ƙanƙanta. An raba benen da aka lulluɓe da itace zuwa manyan hanyoyin balaguro guda huɗu: na jami'ai, fasinjojin ajin farko, injiniyoyi, da fasinjojin aji na biyu bi da bi. Kwale-kwale na ceto sun yi layi a gefen jirgin sai dai a yankin da ake kira First Class, inda aka samu gibi don kada abin ya lalace. [5] [9]
  • Deck, wanda kuma ake kira filin jirgin sama, wanda aka shimfida tare da dukan 546 feet (166 m) tsayin babban tsari . An keɓe shi ne kawai don fasinjojin aji na farko kuma yana ɗauke da ɗakunan ajiya na ajin farko, ɗakin kwana na farko, ɗakin hayaki, ɗakunan karatu da rubutu, da Kotun Dabino. [5]
  • B Deck, benen gada, shine babban bene mai ɗaukar nauyi da matakin babba na ƙwanƙwasa. Ana samun ƙarin masaukin fasinja aji na farko a nan tare da dakunan fasinja guda shida (cabin) waɗanda ke da nasu balaguron balaguro. A kan Titanic, gidan cin abinci na à la carte da Café Parisien sun ba da wuraren cin abinci na alfarma ga fasinjojin Class Class. Dukansu biyun suna ƙarƙashin wasu masu dafa abinci ne da ma'aikatansu; duk sun yi asara a cikin bala'in. Dakin shan taba mai daraja na biyu da zauren shiga duk suna kan wannan bene. Hasashen da aka taso na jirgin yana gaba da bene na gada, yana ɗaukar ƙyanƙyashe lamba 1 (babban ƙyanƙyashe har zuwa ɗimbin kaya), manyan injina da gidajen anka. [lower-alpha 3] Bayan benen gada shine bene mai ɗagawa, 106 feet (32 m) dogon, wanda fasinjojin aji na uku ke amfani da shi azaman balaguro. A nan ne yawancin fasinjojin Titanic da ma'aikatan jirgin suka tsaya tsayin ' na ƙarshe yayin da jirgin ya nutse. An raba wurin hasashe da bene na gada da rijiyoyin rijiyoyin . [5] [9]
  • C Deck, benen tsari, shine mafi girman bene don gudana ba tare da katsewa ba daga kara zuwa baya. Ya haɗa da ɗakunan rijiyoyin biyu; wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin wani ɓangare na balaguron aji na uku. An ajiye dakunan jirgin a ƙasan hasashe kuma an ajiye dakunan jama'a na aji na uku a ƙasan bene. A tsakanin akwai mafi yawan gidajen kwana na Ajin Farko da ɗakin karatu na aji na biyu. [5] [9]
  • D Deck, bene na saloon, ya mamaye manyan dakuna uku na jama'a-ɗakin liyafar ajin farko, salon cin abinci na aji na farko da salon cin abinci na aji na biyu. An samar da fili ga fasinjojin aji na uku. Fasinjoji na farko, na biyu da na uku suna da dakuna a wannan bene, tare da wuraren kwana na masu kashe gobara a cikin baka. Ya kasance mafi girman matakin da manyan ɗigon ruwa na jirgin ya kai (ko da yake kawai takwas daga cikin goma sha biyar). [5] [9]
  • E Deck, bene na sama, an fi amfani dashi don masaukin fasinja don duk azuzuwan uku tare da wuraren dafa abinci, ma'aikatan jirgin ruwa, masu kula da masu gyarawa . Tare da tsawon sa an yi wata doguwar hanya mai suna 'Scotland Road', dangane da wani sanannen titi a Liverpool . Fasinjojin aji na uku da ma'aikatan jirgin ne suka yi amfani da titin Scotland Road. [5] [9]
  • F Deck, tsakiyar bene, shine cikakken bene na ƙarshe, kuma galibi yana ɗaukar fasinjoji na biyu da na uku da sassa da yawa na ma'aikatan jirgin. Salon cin abinci na aji uku yana nan, haka kuma wurin wanka, wankan Turkawa da dakunan kwana. [5] [9]
  • G Deck, ƙananan bene, shine mafi ƙasƙanci cikakken bene wanda ke ɗaukar fasinjoji, kuma yana da ƙananan ramuka, kusa da layin ruwa. Kotun squash tana nan tare da gidan waya mai balaguro inda aka jera wasiƙu da fakiti a shirye don isarwa lokacin da jirgin ya tsaya. An kuma ajiye abinci a nan. An katse bene a wurare da yawa ta hanyar bene na orlop (bangare) akan tukunyar jirgi, injin da dakunan injin turbine. [5] [9]
  • Wuraren orlop, da saman tanki da ke ƙasa da wancan, sun kasance a kan matakin mafi ƙasƙanci na jirgin, a ƙarƙashin layin ruwa. An yi amfani da bene na orlop a matsayin wuraren dakon kaya, yayin da babban tanki—ƙasa na cikin jirgin ruwa—ya samar da dandamalin da ake ajiye tukunyar jirgi, injina, injina da injinan lantarki. Wannan yanki na jirgin ya kasance a cikin injin da dakunan tanki, wuraren da za a hana fasinjoji gani. An haɗa su tare da matakan mafi girma na jirgin ta matakan matakan hawa; Matakan karkace tagwaye kusa da baka sun ba da damar zuwa D Deck. [5] [9]

Siffofin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Chirnside 2004.
  2. Beveridge & Hall 2011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bartlett 2011.
  4. McCluskie 1998.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Hutchings & de Kerbrech 2011.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TIPCarlisle
  7. McCluskie 1998, p. 20.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Eaton & Haas 1995.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Gill 2010.


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