Wikisource

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Antu tag-places-black.svgWikisource
Wikisource-logo.svg
Wikisource screenshot 2008.png
Uniform Resource Locator (en) Fassara https://wikisource.org
Iri digital library (en) Fassara da yanar gizo
Software engine (en) Fassara MediaWiki (en) Fassara
Mai-iko Wikimedia Foundation
Maƙirƙiri Jimmy Wales
Service entry (en) Fassara 24 Nuwamba, 2003
Wurin hedkwatar Tarayyar Amurka
Alexa rank (en) Fassara 3,824 (28 Nuwamba, 2017)
4,009 (7 Satumba 2018)
4,976 (9 Satumba 2017)
4,630 (24 ga Augusta, 2020)
Twitter wikisource

Wikisource ɗakin karatu ne na dijital na yanar gizo na tushen rubutu na kyauta akan wiki, wanda Wikimedia Foundation ke sarrafa shi. Wikisource shine sunan aikin gaba ɗaya da sunan kowane misali na wannan aikin (kowane misali yawanci yana wakiltar wani harshe daban); Wikisources da yawa sun ƙunshi aikin Wikisource gabaɗaya. Manufar aikin ita ce ta dauki nauyin kowane nau'i na rubutu na kyauta, a cikin yaruka da yawa, da fassarori. Asalin da aka ɗauka a matsayin rumbun adana bayanai masu amfani ko mahimman rubutun tarihi (rubutunsa na farko shine Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme ), ya faɗaɗa ya zama babban ɗakin karatu na abun ciki. An fara aikin a hukumance a ranar 24 ga Nuwamba, 2003 a ƙarƙashin sunan Project Sourceberg, wasan kwaikwayo akan shahararren Project Gutenberg . An karɓi sunan Wikisource daga baya a waccan shekarar kuma ta sami sunan yankin nata .

Aikin yana riƙe da ayyuka ko dai a cikin jama'a ko kuma masu lasisi kyauta ; ƙwararrun ayyukan da aka buga ko takaddun tushen tarihi, ba samfuran banza ba. An fara tabbatarwa ta hanyar layi, ko ta dogara da amincin sauran ɗakunan karatu na dijital. Yanzu ayyuka suna goyan bayan sikanin kan layi ta hanyar tsawaita ProofreadPage, wanda ke tabbatar da aminci da daidaiton rubutun aikin.

Wasu Wikisources guda ɗaya, kowannensu yana wakiltar takamaiman harshe, yanzu kawai yana ba da damar ayyukan da aka goyi baya tare da dubawa. Duk da yake mafi yawan tarinsa rubuce-rubuce ne, Wikisource gabaɗaya tana ɗaukar wasu kafofin watsa labarai, daga ban dariya zuwa fim zuwa littattafan sauti .[1] Wasu kafofin Wiki suna ba da damar bayanan da aka ƙirƙiro mai amfani, dangane da takamaiman manufofin Wikisource da ake tambaya. Aikin dai ya sha suka saboda rashin aminta da shi amma kuma ƙungiyoyi irin su Hukumar Kula da Tarihi ta Ƙasa ta bayyana shi.

Tun daga September 2022, akwai Reshen yanki na Wikisource masu aiki don harsuna 72 wanda ya ƙunshi jimillar labarai 5,388,567 da 2,142 editoci masu aiki kwanan nan. [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin ra'ayi na Wikisource ya kasance azaman ajiya don amfani ko mahimman rubutun tarihi. An yi nufin waɗannan matani don tallafawa labaran Wikipedia, ta hanyar ba da shaida ta farko da rubutun tushe, kuma azaman ma'ajiya ta dama. Tarin ya fara mayar da hankali kan mahimman kayan tarihi da al'adu, wanda ya bambanta shi da sauran ɗakunan ajiya na dijital kamar aikin Project Gutenberg. [1]

Composite photograph showing an iceberg both above and below the waterline.
Asalin tambarin Wikisource

An fara kiran aikin Project Sourceberg a lokacin shirye-shiryensa (wasan kwaikwayo akan kalmomi na Project Gutenberg ). [1]

A cikin 2001, an sami saɓani akan Wikipedia game da ƙarin kayan asali na farko, wanda ke haifar da gyara yaƙe-yaƙe kan haɗa su ko share su. An ba da shawarar Project Sourceberg a matsayin mafita ga wannan. A cikin bayanin aikin da aka tsara, mai amfani The Cunctator ya ce, "Zai kasance ga Project Gutenberg abin da Wikipedia ke nufi Nupedia ," nan da nan yana fayyace bayanin tare da "ba za mu so mu yi ƙoƙarin kwafin ƙoƙarin Gutenberg ba; maimakon haka, mu so su cika su. Wataƙila Project Sourceberg zai iya aiki da yawa azaman hanyar sadarwa don haɗawa cikin sauƙi daga Wikipedia zuwa fayil ɗin Gutenberg na Project, kuma azaman hanyar sadarwa don mutane don ƙaddamar da sabon aiki cikin sauƙi ga PG." Bayanan farko sun kasance masu shakku, tare da Larry Sanger ya yi tambaya game da bukatar aikin, yana rubuta "Tambaya mai wuyar gaske, ina tsammani, me ya sa muke sake inganta motar, lokacin da Project Gutenberg ya riga ya wanzu? Za mu so mu cika Project Gutenberg - ta yaya, daidai?", [3] da Jimmy Wales ya kara da cewa "kamar Larry, Ina sha'awar cewa mu yi tunanin shi don ganin abin da za mu iya ƙarawa zuwa Project Gutenberg. Da alama ba zai yiwu ba cewa tushen farko ya kamata kowa ya iya gyarawa - Ina nufin, Shakespeare ne, sabanin sharhin mu game da aikinsa, wanda shine duk abin da muke so ya kasance." [4]

Aikin ya fara aikinsa a ps.wikipedia.org. Masu ba da gudummawa sun fahimci yanki na "PS" don nufin ko dai " tushen asali" ko Project Sourceberg. Koyaya, wannan ya haifar da Project Sourceberg ya mamaye reshen yanki na Pashto Wikipedia ( lambar yaren ISO na yaren Pashto shine "ps").

An ƙaddamar da Project Sourceberg a hukumance a ranar 24 ga Nuwamba, 2003 lokacin da ya sami URL ɗin nasa na ɗan lokaci, a Source.wikipedia.org, kuma duk rubutu da tattaunawa da aka shirya akan ps.wikipedia.org an koma zuwa adireshin wucin gadi. Kuri'a akan sunan aikin ya canza shi zuwa Wikisource a ranar 6 ga Disamba, 2003. Duk da canjin suna, aikin bai ƙaura zuwa URL ɗinsa na dindindin ba (a http://wikisource.org/ ) har zuwa Yuli 23, 2004.

Logo da taken[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun da farko ana kiran Wikisource "Project Sourceberg", tambarin sa na farko hoton dutsen kankara ne. [1] Ƙuri'u biyu da aka gudanar don zabar wanda zai gaje shi bai cika ba, kuma ainihin tambarin ya kasance har zuwa 2006. A ƙarshe, saboda dalilai na doka da na fasaha—saboda lasisin hoton bai dace da tambarin Gidauniyar Wikimedia ba kuma saboda hoto ba zai iya yin awo da kyau ba—wani salo mai salo na kankara wanda aka yi wahayi zuwa ga ainihin hoton an ba shi izinin zama tambarin aikin.

Fitacciyar hanyar farko ta amfani da taken Wikisource— Laburaren Kyauta — ya kasance a tashar yanar gizo na aikin, lokacin da aka sake fasalin ta bisa ga tashar Wikipedia a ranar 27 ga Agusta, 2005, (sigar tarihi). Kamar yadda yake a cikin tashar Wikipedia, taken Wikisource ya bayyana a kusa da tambarin cikin manyan harsuna goma na aikin.

Danna kan tsakiyar Hotunan portal (tambarin kankara a tsakiya da kuma "Wikisource" a saman shafin) yana haɗe zuwa jerin fassarori na Wikisource da Laburaren Kyauta a cikin harsuna 60.

An gina kayan aikin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Screen shot of Norwegian Wikisource. The text can be seen on the left of the screen with the scanned image displayed on the right.
Ƙaddamar da ProofreadPage yana aiki.

Mai haɓakawa ThomasV ne ya ƙirƙira ƙarin MediaWiki mai suna ProofreadPage don Wikisource don inganta tantance kwafin aikin. Wannan yana nuna shafukan ayyukan da aka duba tare da rubutun da ke da alaƙa da wannan shafin, yana ba da damar karanta rubutun kuma kowane edita ya tabbatar da kansa da kansa. [5] [6] [7] Da zarar an duba littafi, ko wani rubutu, za a iya canza danyen hotuna tare da manhaja na sarrafa hoto don gyara jujjuyawar shafi da wasu matsaloli. Hotunan da aka sake taɓa za a iya canza su zuwa fayil ɗin PDF ko DjVu kuma a loda su zuwa ko dai Wikisource ko Wikimedia Commons . [5]

Wannan tsarin yana taimakawa masu gyara don tabbatar da daidaiton rubutu akan Wikisource. Sikanin shafin na asali na ayyukan da aka kammala suna kasancewa ga kowane mai amfani domin a iya gyara kurakurai daga baya kuma masu karatu su iya duba rubutu akan na asali. ProofreadPage kuma yana ba da damar shiga mafi girma, tun da samun damar yin kwafin ainihin aikin ba lallai ba ne don samun damar ba da gudummawa ga aikin da zarar an ɗora hotuna. Don haka yana haɓaka himmar aikin ga ka'idar Wikimedia wanda kowa zai iya ba da gudummawarsa.

ThomasV ya gina wasu kayan aikin kuma: lokacin da aka tattauna zaɓin ko a buga bayanan ko a'a, ya yi na'ura don ba da zaɓi tsakanin matani kaɗai ko nassosi. Lokacin da aka yi magana game da zaɓi na zamani ko a'a, sai ya sake yin wata na'ura don sabunta ainihin rubutun kawai lokacin da ake so, ta yadda za a iya yanke shawarar cewa nassin da kansu su kasance na asali.</br>

Misali : Tsohuwar <i id="mwfQ">ſ</i> (na s ) da sauran tsoffin rubutun rubutu akan Wikisource na Faransa
Rubutun asali
Ayyukan kayan aikin zamani

Matsaloli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wata ɗaliba da ke karanta shaida yayin aikinta a Kwalejin New Law College (Pune) India

A cikin makonni biyu da fara aikin a hukumance a Source.wikipedia.org, an ƙirƙiri shafuka sama da 1,000, inda aka ayyana kusan 200 a matsayin ainihin labarai. A ranar 4 ga Janairu, 2004, Wikisource ta yi maraba da mai amfani da ita na 100 da aka yi rajista. A farkon Yuli, 2004 adadin labaran ya wuce 2,400, kuma fiye da masu amfani da 500 sun yi rajista. A ranar 30 ga Afrilu, 2005, akwai masu amfani da rajista 2667 (ciki har da masu gudanarwa 18) da kusan labarai 19,000. Aikin ya wuce gyara na 96,000 a wannan rana.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar 27 ga Nuwamba, 2005, Wikisource ta Ingilishi ta ƙaddamar da raka'a 20,000 na rubutu a cikin wata na uku na kasancewarta, wanda ya riga ya riƙe ƙarin rubutu fiye da yadda aka yi gaba ɗayan aikin a cikin Afrilu (kafin ƙaura zuwa ƙananan yanki na harshe). A ranar 14 ga Fabrairu, 2008, Wikisource ta Ingilishi ta wuce raka'a 100,000 na rubutu tare da Babi LXXIV na Watanni Shida a Fadar White House, abin tunawa na mai zane Francis Bicknell Carpenter . [8] A cikin Nuwamba, 2011, 250,000 rubutu-raka'a aka wuce. Amma ƙirgawa yana da wahala saboda abin da ya ƙunshi naúrar rubutu ba za a iya fayyace shi a fili ba.

A ranar 10 ga Mayu, 2006, an ƙirƙiri tashar Wikisource ta farko .

Abubuwan da ke cikin ɗakin karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Venn diagram of the inclusion criteria for works to be added to Wikisource. The three overlapping circles are labelled "Sourced", "Published" and "Licensed". The area where they all overlap is shown in green. The areas where just two overlap are shown in yellow (except the Sourced-Published overlap, which remains blank)
Sharuɗɗan haɗa tushen Wikisource wanda aka bayyana azaman zane na Venn. Green yana nuna mafi kyawun yanayin da zai yiwu, inda aikin ya cika dukkan buƙatun farko guda uku. Yellow yana nuna karɓuwa amma ba dacewa ba.

Wikisource tana tattarawa da adanawa a cikin sigar dijital da aka buga a baya; ciki har da litattafai, ayyukan da ba na almara, haruffa, jawabai, kundin tsarin mulki da na tarihi, dokoki da kewayon sauran takardu. Duk rubutun da aka tattara ko dai kyauta ne na haƙƙin mallaka ko kuma an fitar da su a ƙarƙashin Lasisin Ƙarƙashin Ƙirƙirar Raba-Aiki . [1] Ana maraba da rubutu a cikin duk harsuna, kamar yadda ake fassarorin. Baya ga matani, Wikisource tana ɗaukar abubuwa kamar su ban dariya, fina-finai, rikodi da ayyukan magana. [1] Duk rubutun da Wikisource ke riƙe dole ne an buga shi a baya; aikin ba ya ɗaukar nauyin "littattafai na banza " ko takaddun da masu ba da gudummawa suka samar. [1]

An fi son tushen da aka bincika akan yawancin Wikisources kuma ana buƙata akan wasu. Yawancin majiyoyin Wiki, duk da haka, za su karɓi ayyukan da aka rubuta daga tushen layi ko aka samu daga wasu ɗakunan karatu na dijital . [1] Hakanan za'a iya watsi da buƙatun buƙatun farko a cikin ƙananan lokuta idan aikin ya kasance takaddar tushe mai mahimmancin tarihi. Abubuwan da ake bukata na doka don yin lasisi ko kyauta ba tare da haƙƙin mallaka ba ya kasance koyaushe.

Iyakar asali guda kawai da Wikisource ta karɓa sune bayanai da fassarorin. Wikisource, da ƴar'uwarta aikin Wikibooks, suna da ikon yin rubutun bugu na rubutu. A kan Wikisource, bayanan bayanan sun kasance ƙari ga ainihin rubutun, wanda ya kasance ainihin maƙasudin aikin. Akasin haka, a kan Wikibooks bayanin bayanin sune na farko, tare da ainihin rubutu a matsayin abin tunani ko kari kawai, idan akwai kwata-kwata. Fitattun bugu sun fi shahara akan Wikisource ta Jamus. [9] Aikin kuma yana ɗaukar fassarar rubutun da masu amfani da shi suka bayar. Mahimmin fassarar akan Wikisource na Ingilishi shine aikin Wiki Littafi Mai Tsarki, wanda aka yi niyya don ƙirƙirar sabon, "fassarar laissez-faire" na Littafi Mai-Tsarki .

Tsarin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Reshen yanki na harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ƙirƙiri wani sigar Ibrananci dabam na Wikisource ( he.wikisource.org ) a cikin Agusta 2004. Bukatar shafin yanar gizon Ibrananci na musamman wanda aka samo daga wahalar bugawa da gyara rubutun Ibrananci a cikin mahalli na hagu zuwa dama (an rubuta Ibrananci dama-zuwa-hagu). A cikin watanni masu zuwa, masu ba da gudummawa a cikin wasu harsuna ciki har da Jamusanci sun nemi nasu wikis, amma ƙuri'a da aka yi a watan Disamba kan ƙirƙirar wuraren yare daban-daban ba ta cika ba. A ƙarshe, ƙuri'a ta biyu da ta ƙare ranar 12 ga Mayu, 2005, ta goyi bayan ɗaukar reshen yanki na harshe daban-daban a Wikisource da babban tazara, wanda ya baiwa kowane harshe damar ɗaukar rubutun sa akan nasa wiki.

Bion Vibber ne ya kafa yarukan farko na harsuna 14 a ranar 23 ga Agusta, 2005. [10] Sabbin harsunan ba su haɗa da Ingilishi ba, amma lambar en: an saita na ɗan lokaci don turawa zuwa babban gidan yanar gizon ( wikisource.org ). A wannan lokacin, al'ummar Wikisource, ta hanyar babban aikin da hannu na rarraba dubunnan shafuka da nau'ikan ta hanyar harshe, an shirya don bugu na biyu na shigo da shafuka zuwa wiki na gida. A ranar 11 ga Satumba, 2005, an sake saita wikisource.org wiki don ba da damar fassarar Ingilishi, tare da wasu harsuna 8 waɗanda aka ƙirƙira da sanyin safiyar wannan rana da kuma daren da ya gabata. [11] An ƙirƙiri ƙarin harsuna uku a ranar 29 ga Maris, 2006, sannan aka yi wata babbar ƙirƙira ta harsuna 14 a ranar 2 ga Yuni, 2006.

Harsunan da ba su da yanki suna cikin gida. As of September 2020 harsuna 182 ana gudanar da su a cikin gida .

Tun daga October 2022, akwai wuraren yanki na wikisource don harsuna 74 waɗanda 72 ke aiki kuma 2 ke rufe. Shafukan da ke aiki suna da 5,397,970 kuma rufaffen rukunin yanar gizon suna da labarai 13 . [2] Akwai masu amfani da rajista 4,280,611 waɗanda 2,063 ke aiki kwanan nan. [2]

Manyan ayyukan yaren Wikisource guda goma ta ƙididdigar labarin babban sararin samaniya: [2]

Domin cikakken jeri tare da jimlar duba Ƙididdigar Wikimedia:

wikisource.org[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin ƙaura zuwa ƙananan yanki na harshe, al'umma sun nemi cewa babban gidan yanar gizon wikisource.org ya kasance wiki mai aiki, don yin ayyuka uku:

  1. Don zama rukunin haɗin gwiwar harsuna da yawa don duk aikin Wikisource a cikin duk harsuna. A aikace, amfani da gidan yanar gizon don haɗin gwiwar harsuna da yawa bai yi nauyi ba tun lokacin da aka canza zuwa yankunan harshe. Duk da haka, akwai wasu ayyuka na manufofi a Scriptorium, da kuma sabunta harsuna da yawa don labarai da ci gaban harshe a shafuka kamar Wikisource:2007 .
  2. Don zama gida don rubutu a cikin harsuna ba tare da nasu yanki ba, kowanne yana da babban shafin sa na gida don tsarin kansa. [12] A matsayin incubator na harshe, a halin yanzu wiki yana samar da gida don fiye da harsuna 30 waɗanda har yanzu basu sami nasu yanki na harshe ba. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan suna aiki sosai, kuma sun gina ɗakunan karatu tare da ɗaruruwan rubutu (kamar Esperanto da Volapuk).
  3. Don ba da tallafi kai tsaye, ci gaba ta hanyar al'ummar wiki na gida don ƙaƙƙarfan tashar yanar gizo na harsuna da yawa a Babban Shafi, don masu amfani waɗanda ke zuwa http://wikisource.org. An ƙirƙiri tashar Babban Shafi na yanzu a ranar 26 ga Agusta, 2005, ta ThomasV, wanda ya kafa ta akan tashar Wikipedia.

Tunanin takamaiman tsarin haɗin gwiwar wiki, wanda aka fara gane shi a Wikisource, kuma ya cigaba da kasancewa a cikin wani aikin na Wikimedia, wato a Beta Wiki na Wikiversity. Kamar wikisource.org, tana hidimar haɗin gwiwar Wikiversity a cikin duk harsuna, da kuma azaman incubator. Amma ba kamar Wikisource ba, Babban Shafi nata baya aiki azaman tasharta na harsuna da yawa (wanda ba shafin wiki bane).

liyafa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yin bayani game da Wikisource daga mahalarcin taro

Mawallafin Wikipedia Larry Sanger ya soki Wikisource, da ƴar'uwar aikin Wiktionary, saboda yanayin haɗin gwiwa da fasaha na waɗannan ayyukan yana nufin babu kulawa daga masana kuma don haka abubuwan da ke cikin su ba su da aminci.

Bart D. Ehrman, masanin Sabon Alkawari kuma farfesa a fannin nazarin addini a Jami'ar North Carolina da ke Chapel Hill, ya soki shirin Wikisource na Ingilishi na ƙirƙirar fassarar Littafi Mai-Tsarki da mai amfani ya samar yana mai cewa "Dimokraɗiyya ba lallai ba ne don samun guraben karatu. ." Richard Elliott Friedman, masanin Tsohon Alkawari kuma farfesa na nazarin Yahudawa a Jami'ar Jojiya, ya gano kurakurai a cikin fassarar Littafin Farawa kamar na 2008. [13]

A cikin 2010, Wikimedia Faransa ta rattaɓa hannu kan yarjejeniya tare da Bibliothèque nationale de France (Laburaren Ƙasa na Faransa) don ƙara hotuna daga ɗakin karatu na dijital na Gallica zuwa Wikisource na Faransa. An ƙara rubutun Faransanci na jama'a ɗari goma sha huɗu zuwa ɗakin karatu na Wikisource sakamakon ta hanyar lodawa zuwa Wikimedia Commons. Ana sa ran masu karanta bayanan ɗan adam na Wikisource za su inganta ingancin rubutun, waɗanda a baya ta atomatik ke samarwa ta hanyar gane halayen gani (OCR). [14]

A shekara ta 2011, Wikisource ta Turanci ta sami manyan takardu masu inganci daga Hukumar Kula da Rubuce-Rubuce ta Kasa (NARA) a matsayin wani ɓangare na ƙoƙarinsu na "ƙara samun damar shiga da kuma ganin abubuwan da aka mallaka." Sarrafa da loda zuwa Commons na waɗannan takaddun, tare da hotuna da yawa daga tarin NARA, wani NARA Wikimedian ne ya sauƙaƙa a wurin zama, Dominic McDevitt-Parks. Yawancin waɗannan takaddun an rubuta su kuma an gyara su ta hanyar al'ummar Wikisource kuma an nuna su azaman hanyoyin haɗin kai a cikin kundin tarihin kan layi na Gidan Tarihi na Ƙasa.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Ayers, Phoebe; Matthews, Charles; Yates, Ben (2008). How Wikipedia Works. No Starch Press. pp. 435–436. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3. Unknown parameter |url- access= ignored (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ayersmatthewsyates" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ayersmatthewsyates" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ayersmatthewsyates" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ayersmatthewsyates" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ayersmatthewsyates" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Wikimedia's MediaWiki API:Siteinfo.
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 (Joachim ed.). Invalid |url-access=Karshmer (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Proofread Page extension at MediaWiki.
  7. ProofreadPage at Wikisource.org.
  8. "100K" discussion on Scriptorium.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Boot
  10. Server admin log for August 23, 2005; a fifteenth language (sr:) was created on August 25 (above).
  11. See the Server admin log for September 11, 2005, at 01:20 and below (September 10) at 22:49.
  12. For an automatic list of local main pages, see Category:Main Pages; for a formatted list, see the wikisource.org section of the Wikisource portal.
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named newsweek
  14. "French National Library to cooperate with Wikisource", Wikipedia Signpost. 2010-04-12.