Nupedia

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
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Antu tag-places-black.svgNupedia
Nupedia logo and wordmark.png
Nupedia, the open content encyclopedia 2000-08-15.png
Uniform Resource Locator (en) Fassara www.nupedia.com at the Wayback Machine (archived ga Faburairu, 15, 2003)
www.nupedia.com at the Wayback Machine (archived 7 ga Afirilu, 2000)
Iri Online encyclopedia
Slogan (en) Fassara the open content encyclopedia da the free encyclopedia
Langue (en) Fassara English, German, Spanish, French, Italian
Mai-iko Bomis
Maƙirƙiri Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger
Service entry (en) Fassara 9 Maris 2000; 21 shekara da suka wuce (2000-03-09)
Service retirement (en) Fassara 26 Satumba 2003
State (en) Fassara Defunct since 26 September 2003; succeeded by Wikipedia
Duk alamun tambarin guda uku da Nupedia yayi amfani dasu. An yi amfani da tambari na farko daga Maris zuwa Agusta 2000, na biyu daga Agusta 2000 zuwa Fabrairu 2001, kuma na uku daga Fabrairu 2001 zuwa Satumba 2003.

Nupedia yaren Ingilishi ne, encyclopedia na yanar gizo wanda masu ba da gudummawa suka rubuta labaransu tare da ƙwarewar batun da ya dace, ƙwararrun editoci suka duba su kafin a wallafa su, kuma a basu lasisi azaman abun ciki kyauta . Jimmy Wales ne ya kafa ta kuma Bomis ya kirkira ta, tare da Larry Sanger a matsayin babban edita. Nupedia yayi aiki daga watan Oktobar 1999[1][2]har zuwa Satan Satumbar 2003. Mafi shahararren sananne a yau shine magabacin Wikipedia, amma Nupedia yana da tsari na yarda da matakai guda bakwai don sarrafa abubuwan cikin labarai kafin a sanya shi, maimakon rayayyar sabunta wiki. Nupedia ya tsara wata kwamiti, tare da masana don tsara dokokin, kuma ta amince da abubuwa 21 ne kawai a cikin shekarar farko, idan aka kwatanta da Wikipedia da take sanya labarai 200 a watan farko, da 18,000 a shekarar farko.[3] Ba kamar Wikipedia ba, Nupedia ba wiki bane; a maimakon haka ya kasance yana da kyakkyawan tsarin sake duba takwarorinmu, wanda aka tsara shi don sanya kayan aikinta masu inganci kwatankwacin na ƙwararrun masana ƙwararru. Nupedia ya bukaci malamai (daidai da PhD) don ba da gudummawar abubuwan ciki. [4] Kafin ta daina aiki, Nupedia ta samar da kasidu guda 25 da aka yarda dasu [5] wadanda suka kammala aikin binciken su (labaran guda uku sun wanzu a siga iri biyu daban daban)  kuma akwai wasu labarai guda 150 da suke kan aiki. [6] Wales ta fi son sauƙin Wikipedia ta sauƙaƙan labarai, yayin da Sanger ya gwammace tsarin duban da Nupedia ya yi amfani da shi [7] kuma daga baya ya kafa Citizendium a 2006 a matsayin ƙwararren masanin da aka sake dubawa zuwa Wikipedia. [8]

A watan Yunin shekarar 2008, CNET UK sun jera Nupedia a matsayin ɗayan manyan rukunin yanar gizon da ba su da kyau a cikin karamin history of the Internet, , tare da lura da yadda tsananin iko ya iyakance aika bayanan.[9]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Oktoba shekarar 1999,[10] Jimmy Wales ya fara tunani game da kundin encyclopedia na intanet wanda masu sa kai suka gina kuma, a cikin watan Janairu shekarar 2000, ya ɗauki Larry Sanger don kula da ci gabanta. [11] Aikin ya tafi kan layi bisa hukuma a ranar 9 ga watan Maris, 2000. [12] A watan Nuwamba na 2000, duk da haka, an buga takardu masu tsayi guda biyu.[13]

Tun daga farkonta, Nupedia kyauta ne na kayan kyauta,[14] tare da Bomis da nufin samar da kudaden shiga daga tallace-tallacen kan layi akan Nupedia.com.[15] Da farko aikin ya yi amfani da lasisin gida, Nupedia Open Content License. A watan Janairun 2001, ta sauya zuwa <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License" rel="mw:ExtLink" title="GNU Free Documentation License" class="cx-link" data-linkid="75">lasisin samun takardu na kyauta na GNU</a> bisa roƙon Richard Stallman da Free Software Foundation.[16]

Hakanan a cikin watan Janairu shekarar 2001, Nupedia ya fara Wikipedia a matsayin aiki na gefe don ba da damar haɗin kai a kan labarai kafin shiga cikin tsarin duba abokan. [17] Wannan ya jawo hankulan bangarorin biyu, saboda hakan ya samar da tsarin tsarin mulki wanda yafi dacewa da masu ra'ayin GNE encyclopedia. Sakamakon haka ne, GNE bai taɓa haɓaka ba da gaske, kuma an kawar da barazanar gasa tsakanin ayyukan. Yayinda Wikipedia ke bunkasa da kuma jan hankalin masu bayar da gudummawa, nan take ta bunkasa rayuwa ta kashin kanta kuma ta fara gudanar da ayyukanta ba tare da Nupedia ba, kodayake Sanger da farko ya jagoranci aiki a Wikipedia ta hanyar amatsayinsa na babban editan Nupedia.

Baya ga haifar da dakatar da aikin GNE, Wikipedia ya haifar da mutuwar Nupedia a hankali. Sakamakon durkushewar tattalin arzikin intanet a wancan lokacin, Jimmy Wales ya yanke shawarar daina bayar da tallafi ga babban edita mai karbar albashi a watan Disambar 2001,[18] kuma Sanger ya yi murabus daga ayyukan biyu jim kadan bayan haka.[19] Bayan tafiyar Sanger, Nupedia ya zama abin da Wikipedia za ta yi tunani akai; na labaran Nupedia da suka kammala aikin bita, biyu ne kawai suka yi hakan bayan 2001. Yayin da Nupedia ya ragu cikin rashin aiki, to tunanin sauya shi zuwa ingantaccen sigar abubuwan Wikipedia da aka amince da su lokaci-lokaci ana warware su, amma ba a aiwatar da su ba. An rufe gidan yanar gizon Nupedia.com ne a ranar 26 ga watan Satumba, 2003.[20] Nupedia ta encyclopedic abun ciki, wanda galibi aka bayyana shi da iyakantacce, tun daga lokacin aka shiga cikin Wikipedia.

Tsarin edita[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Misali na labarin Nupedia akan zamanin gargajiya na kiɗa .

Nupedia yana da tsarin edita mai matakai bakwai, wanda ya kunshi:

  1. Sanyawa
  2. Neman mai bibiyar jagora
  3. Gudanar da bita
  4. Bude bita
  5. Gubar kwafa
  6. Bude kwafe
  7. Approvalarshe yarda da alama

Authors aka sa ran samun gwani ilmi (ko da yake da definition gwani a yarda a gare wani mataki na sassauci, kuma an yarda cewa wasu articles za a iya rubuta da mai kyau marubuci, maimakon wani gwani da se) [21], kuma masu gyara approving articles don ana tsammanin bugawa "ya zama gwanaye na gaske a fannoninsu kuma (tare da 'yan kaɗan) [su] mallaki PhD". [22]

Ruth Ifcher wani mutum ne Sanger ya dogara kuma yayi aiki tare tare da manufofin Nupedia da hanyoyin farko. Ifcher, yana riƙe da digiri mafi girma, ya kasance mai shirye-shiryen kwamfuta kuma tsohon editan kwafi kuma ya yarda ya zama babban editan kwafin sa kai.[23]

Ci gaban software[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nupedia ya sami karbuwa daga software na haɗin gwiwar NupeCode. NupeCode kyauta ce / buɗaɗɗen software (wanda aka saki a ƙarƙashin GNU General Public License) an tsara shi don manyan ayyukan nazarin ƙwararru . An samo lambar ta hanyar wurin ajiyar CVS na Nupedia. Daya daga cikin matsalolin da Nupedia ya fuskanta a tsawon rayuwarsa shine cewa software bata aiki. Yawancin ayyukan da aka ɓata an yi izgili da su ta amfani da tubalin rubutu da aka ja layi a ƙarƙashinsu wanda ya zama alamun haɗi, amma a zahiri ba haka bane. 

A zaman wani ɓangare na aikin, sabon sigar asalin software (wanda ake kira "NuNupedia") yana kan ci gaba. An aiwatar da NuNupedia don gwaji a SourceForge, amma bai taɓa isa matakin ci gaba don maye gurbin asalin software ba.[24]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin kundin bayanan yanar gizo
  • Jerin wikis
  • Scholarpedia
  • Wikipedia:Nupedia and Wikipedia § An kwashe labaran zuwa Wikipedia

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Nupedia.com WHOIS, DNS, & DomainTools". WHOIS. 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  2. Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  3. Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". Slashdot. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  4. Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. London: Aurum. p. 38. ISBN 9781845134730. OCLC 280430641. His academic roots compelled Sanger to insist on one rigid requirement for his editors: a pedigree. "We wish editors to be true experts in their fields and (with a few exceptions) possess Ph.Ds." read the Nupedia policy.
  5. Shun-Ling, Chen (May 5, 2010). "Self-governing online communities in Web 2.0: privacy, anonymity and accountability in Wikipedia" (PDF). Albany Law Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
  6. "When Wikipedia was young: the early years". VatorNews (in Turanci). 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  7. Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". Slashdot. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  8. "Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia" (in Turanci). Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  9. Lanxon, Nate (June 5, 2008). "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters". CNET UK. p. 5.
  10. "NuPedia.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
  11. Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  12. Gouthro, Liane (10 March 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PC World. Retrieved 19 January 2008.[permanent dead link]
  13. Frauenfelder, Mark (November 21, 2000). "The next generation of online encyclopedias". The Industry Standard/CNN.
  14. Gouthro, Liane (10 March 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PC World. Retrieved 19 January 2008.[permanent dead link]
  15. Frauenfelder, Mark (November 21, 2000). "The next generation of online encyclopedias". The Industry Standard/CNN.
  16. jwales (January 17, 2001). "Re:GNUPedia = Nupedia?". GNUPedia Project Starting. Slashdot.
  17. Larry Sanger (January 10, 2001). "Let's make a wiki". Nupedia-l mailing list. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 14, 2003.
  18. Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  19. Sanger, Larry. "My Resignation". Wikipedia-L. Bomis, Inc. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  20. "1 Nazis and Norms". reagle.org. Retrieved 2020-04-25.
  21. "Nupedia.com Editorial Policy Guidelines (Version 3.31)". Nupedia. November 16, 2000. Archived from the original on March 31, 2001. Retrieved June 3, 2010. The rule of thumb an editor should bear in mind is: would an article on this topic be of significantly greater quality if it were written by an expert on the subject? If yes, we will require that the writer be an expert on the subject. If no, nonspecialists (who are good writers) are more than welcome.
  22. "How to be an editor or peer reviewer for Nupedia". Nupedia. Archived from the original on April 10, 2001. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  23. Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution. New York: Hyperion. p. 37. ISBN 9781401303716.
  24. "NuNupedia". SourceForge (in Turanci). Retrieved 2017-02-16.

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