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Yaƙin Masts

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Yaƙin Masts
naval battle (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na Arab–Byzantine Wars (en) Fassara
Kwanan wata 655
Participant (en) Fassara Khulafa'hur-Rashidun da Daular Rumawa
Wuri
Map
 36°16′55″N 30°15′39″E / 36.28189°N 30.26073°E / 36.28189; 30.26073

Yaƙin Masts (Larabci: معركة ذات الصواري, romanized: Ma'rakat Dhāt al-Ṣawārī) ko Yaƙin Phoenix ya kasance muhimmin yaƙin sojan ruwa da aka yi a 654 (AH 34) tsakanin Larabawa Musulmai da Abu al-A'war ke jagoranta. da rundunar jiragen ruwa ta Byzantine a karkashin umurnin sarki Constans II.[1][2][3] Ana ganin yaƙin shine "rikicin farko na musulinci mai zurfi"[4] da kuma wani ɓangare na farkon kamfen ɗin da Muawiyah ya yi don cin Constantinople.[1]

Saduwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Al-Tabari ya rubuta ranakun biyu masu yiwuwa don wannan yaƙin na sojan ruwa: 651-2 (AH 31) akan al-Waqidi da 654-5 (A.H. 34) akan ikon Abu Ma'shar al-Sindi.[3] Tarihin Sebeos na Armeniyawa da Byzantine Theophanes sun yi daidai da ƙarshen kwanan wata.[5]

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarun 650s Halifancin Larabawa ya gama daular Sasanian kuma ya ci gaba da samun nasarar faɗaɗa cikin yankunan daular Byzantine. A shekara ta 645, dan uwansa Rashidun Khalifa Uthman ya nada Abdallah ibn Sa'ad a matsayin gwamnan Masar, inda ya maye gurbin Amr bn al-As. Uthman ya ba da damar Muawiyah ya kai hari tsibirin Cyprus a 649 kuma nasarar wannan kamfen ɗin ya kafa matakin aiwatar da ayyukan sojan ruwa na Gwamnatin Masar. Abdallah ibn Sa’ad ya gina rundunar sojan ruwa mai ƙarfi kuma ya tabbatar da ƙwararren kwamandan sojan ruwa. A karkashinsa sojojin ruwa na musulmai sun sami nasarori da dama na sojan ruwa ciki har da fatattakar harin da Byzantine ta kai Alexandria a 646.[6]

A cikin 654, Muawiyah ya yi balaguro a Kapadokya yayin da jirginsa, a ƙarƙashin umurnin Abu'l-Awar, ya ci gaba da gabar tekun kudancin Anatolia. Sarkin sarakuna Constans ya fara yaƙi da shi da manyan jiragen ruwa.[1]

Yaƙi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sojojin biyu sun hadu ne a gabar Tekun Phoenix a Lycia,[7] kusa da tashar jiragen ruwan Phoenix (Finike ta zamani). A cewar marubucin tarihin karni na 9 Theophanes the Confessor, yayin da Sarkin sarakuna ke shirin yaƙi, a daren da ya gabata ya yi mafarkin yana Tasalonika; yana farkawa ya danganta mafarkin ga mai fassarar mafarkai wanda ya ce: Sarkin sarakuna, da ba ku yi barci ba kuma ba ku ga wannan mafarkin don kasancewar ku a Tasalonika ba - a cewar mai fassara, nasara ta karkata ga abokan gaban Sarkin.[5][8] Mai fassarar ya fassara mafarkin ta wannan hanya saboda Θεσσαλονίκη ("Thessaloniki") sauti yayi kama da kalmomin 'θές άλλω νίκη' (thes allo nike), wanda ke nufin 'ba da nasara ga wani'.[9]

Saboda muguwar tekun, Tabari ya bayyana jirgin ruwa na Rumawa da na Larabawa da aka shirya cikin layika tare da yin jugum tare, don ba da damar yaƙi. Larabawa sun ci nasara a yaƙi, duk da cewa asara ta yi yawa ga ɓangarorin biyu, kuma da kyar Constans ya tsere zuwa Konstantinoful.[10] A cewar Theophanes, ya yi nasarar tserewa ne ta hanyar musayar riguna da daya daga cikin jami’ansa.[5]

Siege na Konstantinoful na 654[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan cin nasararsu, jinkirin da aka ba Bazantiya yawanci ana danganta shi da jiragen larabawa da ke ja da baya bayan cin nasara da rikici kan ikon Uthman a tsakanin matukan jirgin, tashin farko na yakin basasa tsakanin Musulmai.[3][10] Babu wani ƙarin hare -hare na sojan ruwa akan wannan balaguron da aka rubuta a cikin asalin larabci na gargajiya.

Duk da haka masanin tarihin Armeniya Sebeos ya rubuta cewa rundunar larabawa ta ci gaba da wuce yaƙin da aka yi a Phoenix don yunƙurin mamaye Konstantinoful. Kamewa bai ci nasara ba, duk da haka, saboda tsananin guguwar da ta nutse jiragen ruwa da injin yaƙi a ciki, lamarin da Rumawa suka danganta da sa hannun Allah. Sojojin ƙasa da Muawiyah ke jagoranta a Chalcedon, bayan sun rasa manyan bindigogi da injunan yaƙi, sun koma Siriya daga baya.[11][2]

Majiyoyin Musulmai ba su ambaci wannan taron ba amma ya yi daidai da sanarwa a cikin sauran tarihin Kirista na gabashin Bahar Rum, kamar tarihin Theophanes. Yana ba da shawarar farkon mamayar 650s na Rhodes, Cyprus, da Asiya Ƙananan suna shirye-shiryen kai farmaki a kan bangon Byzantium. Hakanan yana ba da bayani na dabarun ja da baya na rundunar sojan larabawa bayan nasarar da aka samu a Yaƙin Masts, tunda Fitna ta Farko ba za ta barke ba sai bayan shekara guda, wataƙila koma baya ya yi tasiri a kan Rumawa da cikin Caucasus.[11][1]

Bayan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dukan jiragen ruwa na Rashidun da na Rum sun jimre manyan asara. Kuma duk da cewa halifancin ya fito da nasara, amma sun ja da baya don dawo da asarar da suka yi. Duk da haka, nasarar ta kasance wani muhimmin lamari a tarihin sojojin ruwa na Bahar Rum. Tun da daɗewa ana ɗaukarsa 'Tekun Rum', Bahar Rum ya zama wuri mai fa'ida tsakanin ƙarfin sojan ruwa na Halifanci mai tasowa da Daular Roma ta Gabas.

Wannan rikicin zai ci gaba a cikin shekarun da suka biyo baya, inda Musulmai ke amfani da karfinsu a tekun Bahar Rum don zuwa Sicily da kafa wurare masu karfi a Yammacin Turai. Nasarar ta kuma share fagen fadada musulmin da ba a fafata da shi ba a gabar tekun Arewacin Afirka.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Salvatore, Cosentino. "Constans II and the Byzantine navy". Byzantinische Zeitschrift (in Turanci). 100 (2). ISSN 0007-7704.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hoyland, Robert G. (2014-01-01). In God's Path: The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire (in Turanci). Oxford University Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780199916368.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Samfuri:The History of al-Tabari
  4. Ridpath, John Clark. Ridpath's Universal History, Merrill & Baker, Vol. 12, New York, p. 483.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Theophanes the Confessor, Chronographia, in J.P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol.108, col.705
  6. Carl F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume One, Islamic Egypt 640–1517, Cambridge University Press, 1998, 67. 08033994793.ABA
  7. Probably Mount Olympos south of Antalya, see "Olympus Phoinikous Mons" in Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, map 65, D4.
  8. Thessalonike can be read as «θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην», i.e., «give victory to another». See Bury, John Bagnell (1889), A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, Adamant Media Corporation, 2005, p.290. 08033994793.ABA
  9. Ekonomou, Andrew J. (2007). Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-1977-8.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Samfuri:A History of the Byzantine State and Society
  11. 11.0 11.1 O'Sullivan, Shaun (2004-01-01). "Sebeos' account of an Arab attack on Constantinople in 654". Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies. 28 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1179/byz.2004.28.1.67. ISSN 0307-0131. S2CID 161590308.