Yaƙin Siffin

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentYaƙin Siffin
Balami - Tarikhnama - Battle of Siffin (cropped).jpg
 35°57′N 39°01′E / 35.95°N 39.02°E / 35.95; 39.02
Iri faɗa
Bangare na First Fitna (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 26 (Gregorian) –  28 ga Yuli, 657 (Gregorian)
Wuri Raqqa (en) Fassara

An gwabza Yakin Siffin ne a shekara ta 657 miladiyya (37H) tsakanin Ali bin Abi Talib na hudu na Khalifofin Rashidun kuma Imamin Shi'a na farko da Mu'awiyah bn Abi Sufyan, gwamnan Sham mai tawaye.[1] An yi wa yakin suna ne bayan wurin da yake, Siffin, a gabar kogin Furat.[2] Fadan dai ya tsaya ne bayan da 'yan kasar Siriyan suka fuskanci kalubale mai karfin gaske, suka bukaci a shiga tsakani.[3] Tsarin sasantawa ya ƙare ba tare da cikawa ba a cikin 658 AZ.[4] Ana daukar yakin a matsayin wani bangare na Fitna ta Farko.

Wuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Filin yaƙin ya kasance a Siffin, ƙauyen ƙauyen Rumawa da aka lalatar da ke da nisan yadi ɗari daga hannun dama na Kogin Furat da ke kusa da Raqqa a Siriya ta yau. An gano shi da ƙauyen Abu Hureyra na zamani a cikin gundumar Raqqa.[5]

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kisan Usman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin halifa na uku, Usman, ya kasance mai cike da nuna son kai da tabarbarewar tarbiyya.[6] A shekara ta 656 AZ, yayin da rashin gamsuwar jama'a da son zuciya da cin hanci da rashawa ya kai ga tafasa, 'yan tawaye sun kashe Usman a wani farmaki da suka kai masa.[7]

Ali ya kasance mai shiga tsakani tsakanin ‘yan tawaye da Usman.[8] A cewar Jafri, duk da cewa ya yi Allah wadai da kisan Uthman, amma mai yiyuwa ne Ali ya dauki gwagwarmayar juriya a matsayin wani sashe na adalci na talakawa da wadanda ba a basu hakkinsu ba. Fusatattun ’yan iska sun ji wa dansa Hasan rauni a lokacin da yake gadi a gidan Uthman bisa bukatar Ali.

Jim kadan bayan kashe Usman, jama’ar Madina suka koma ga Ali domin ya shugabanci, aka ki tun farko.[9] Aslan ya danganta kin farko da Ali ya yi da tada zaune tsaye tsakanin al’ummar Musulmi bayan kisan Uthman.[10] A gefe guda kuma, Durant ya ba da shawarar cewa, "[Ali] ya nisanta daga wasan kwaikwayo wanda siyasa ta raba addini, da sadaukarwa ta hanyar makirci."[11] Amma duk da haka, in ba a samu wata babbar adawa da kuma buqatar ta musamman daga ‘yan tawayen Iraqi da Ansar ba, daga qarshe Ali ya xaukar nauyin halifa da musulmi ya cika masallacin Annabi da ke Madina da harabar gidansa don yi masa mubaya’a.[12] A cewar Shaban, yanayin tashin hankali bayan kisan Uthman, mai yiwuwa ne ya sa Ali ya amince da halifanci don gudun tashin hankali.[13]

Ba da jimawa Ali ya hau mulki ba, sai ya kori mafi yawan gwamnonin Usman, wadanda ya ke ganin gurbacewarsu, ciki har da Muawiya, dan Uthman. A karkashin Uthman mai sassaucin ra'ayi, a cewar Madelung, Mu'awiya ya gina wani tsarin wutar lantarki mai kama da juna a kasar Siriya wanda ya yi kama da kishin daular Rumawa.[14] Halifa na biyu Umar ya nada shi gwamnan Sham, sannan Usman ya sake tabbatar da shi.[15] An lura cewa Muawiya ya kasance marigayi musulunta wanda mahaifiyarsa Hind ce ke da alhakin yanke gawar kawun Muhammad, Hamza.[16] Mahaifin Mu’awiya, Abu Sufyan, shi ne ya jagoranci sojojin Makka a kan musulmi a lokacin yakin Uhudu da yakin Khandaq.[17]

Ali ya ki amincewa da shawarar jinkirta shirin tsige Mu'awiya har sai lokacin da ikonsa ya tabbata. A cewar Hazleton, dangane da wannan shawara, Ali ya yi tsokaci kan cewa ba zai yi sulhu da imaninsa ba, ya kuma tabbatar da Muawiya, mutum mai raini a wajen Ali, a matsayin gwamna ko da na kwana biyu.[18]

Ayyana yakin Muawiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin da Muawiya ya ki komawa Madina, Ali ya rubuta masa cewa wata mubaya’a ta jama’a a Madina tana kan Mu’awiyya, yana mai cewa mutanen da suka yi mubaya’a ga halifofin da suka gabata ne.[19] A martanin da Mu'awiya ya mayar, ya nemi a ba shi lokaci domin neman ra'ayin 'yan kasar Sham, a wani mataki da aka fassara a matsayin wani mataki na jinkirtar da Mu'awiya wajen hada dakarunsa don yakar Ali.[20] A cewar Madelung, Mu’awiya ya kuma kaddamar da farfaganda a tsakanin ‘yan kasar Sham wanda ke nuna kishin kasa da kuma nuna kansa a matsayin dangin Uthman, wanda ke da alhakin daukar fansa.[21]

Har ila yau, ta bakin wani wakili, Mu’awiya ya sanar da Ali a asirce cewa zai amince da halifancin Ali idan har yana so ya mikawa Sham da Masar ga Mu’awiya.[22] An yi wannan shawara ne a asirce, a cewar Madelung, domin wata shawara da jama’a za su yi za ta tona asirin da’awar Mu’awiya na ramuwar gayya ga Uthman.[23] Mai yiyuwa ne Ali ya fahimci wannan shawara a matsayin wata dabara ce daga Mu’awiya ta karbe mulkin halifanci mataki-mataki.[24]

Yayin da aka ki amincewa da shawararsa, Muawiya ya shelanta yaki da Ali a wata wasika a madadin mutanen Sham, da nufin kashe wadanda suka kashe Usman, da tsige Ali, da kafa majalisar (shura) ta Sham don nada halifa na gaba, mai yiwuwa Muawiya.[25] Game da wannan wasika, Madelung ya lura da haka[26]

Uthman ba ya nufin kadan a gare shi Muawiya, shi Muawiya bai yi wani abu don taimaka masa Usman, kuma ya ji wani sirri wajibai na neman fansa. Amma duk da haka nan take Mu’awiya ya fahimci amfanin siyasa na da’awar daukar fansa ga jinin halifan da aka zalunta, matukar shi Mu’awiya zai iya yanke hukunci a kan wanda zai dora laifin.

Wasu majiyoyi da dama sun ci gaba da cewa, Marwan ne ya dasa umarnin hukunta 'yan tawaye bisa ingizawar Mu'awiya, domin tada zaune tsaye a kan Uthman.[27] Ana zargin cewa da gangan Mu'awiya ya hana taimakon da Uthman da aka yiwa kawanya ya nema jim kadan kafin kashe shi.[28]

Dangane da shelanta yaki da Mu'awiya ya yi, Ali ya rubuta masa wasika yana mai nuni da cewa Muawiya ba dangin Usman ba ne don daukar fansa a kan mutuwarsa amma har yanzu yana maraba da gabatar da kararsa a gaban kotun shari'ar Ali. Sannan ya kalubalanci Mu’awiya da ya bayar da duk wata hujja da za ta sa shi a kashe Usman. Har ila yau Ali ya kalubalanci Muawiya da ya bayyana sunan duk wani dan kasar Sham da zai cancanci zama majalisa.[29]

Shi ma Mu'awiya ya yi amfani da wannan taga wajen fadada kawancensa.[30] Musamman tare da alkawarin zama gwamnan Masar, Muawiya ya kawo Amr bn al-As sansaninsa.[31] Amr, masanin dabarun siyasa, an yi imanin cewa shi ne shege dan baban Muawiya, Abu Sufyan.[32] Amr kuma ya kasance babban mai tada hankali a kisan Uthman kuma ya fito fili ya dauki wani abu a kansa.[33] Sai dai daga baya Amr ya nisanta kansa daga kisan Uthman kuma ya yi kawance da Mu’awiya, inda suka zargi Ali a maimakon haka.[34]

Farkon tashin hankali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan ayyana yaki da Mu'awiya Ali ya kira wata majalisar sarakunan musulunci wadda ta bukace shi da ya yaki Muawiya.[35] Duk da haka, Ali ya hana mabiyansa la'antar Siriyawa, yana mai cewa hakan na iya kawo cikas ga duk wani fatan da ya rage na gujewa zubar da jinin da ke kusa.[36] A farkon lokacin rani na shekara ta 657 AZ, sojojin Ali sun isa Siffin da ke yammacin kogin Furat, inda sojojin Muawiya suka yi ta jiransu.[37] An umurci sojojin Siriya da su katse hanyoyin da makiya suke da shi na ruwan sha. Mu’awiya, a cewar Madelung, mai yiyuwa ne farfagandarsa ta tafi da ita cewa waxannan su ne waxanda suka kashe Usman da ya kamata a kashe su da qishirwa.”[38] Amma sojojin Ali sun samu nasarar korar mutanen Sham tare da karva iko da wurin ruwa. Ali ya ba wa Siriyawa damar shiga ruwan cikin 'yanci.[39]

Bayan haka, tsawon makonni, bangarorin biyu sun yi shawarwari.[40] Musamman Mu'awiya ya sake maimaita shawararsa na amincewa da Ali a matsayin mayar da martani ga Siriya da Masar, wanda kuma aka yi watsi da shi.[41] Shi kuma Ali ya kalubalanci Mu’awiya da a yi fada-a-ce-ku-ce don daidaita al’amura da kaucewa zubar da jini. Muawiya ya ki amincewa da wannan tayin.[42]

Tattaunawar ta ci nasara a ranar 18 ga Yuli 657 kuma bangarorin biyu sun shirya don yakin.[43] Madina, da Kufan, da Basranawa ne suka kasance a matsayi na rundunar Ali.[44] Sahabbai masu yawa sun kasance a cikin rundunar Ali. Sojojin Muawiya dai sun kunshi wadanda suka makara zuwa Musulunci wadanda aka jawo su zuwa lardunan da ke kan iyaka da fatan samun ganima.[45]

Babban alkawari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban yakin ya fara ne a ranar Laraba, 26 ga Yuli, kuma ya ci gaba har zuwa Juma'a ko safiyar Asabar.[46] Ali ya yi yaki da mutanensa a fagen daga yayin da Muawiya ya jagoranci daga rumfarsa.[47] A ƙarshen rana ta farko, bayan ya ture reshen dama na Ali, Muawiya ya yi kyau gaba ɗaya.[48]

A rana ta biyu, Mu'awiya ya mayar da hankalinsa kan bangaren hagu na Ali, amma sai yaki ya rikide, aka kori mutanen Sham.[49] Mu'awiya ya gudu daga rumfarsa ya fake a cikin tantin sojoji.[50] A wannan rana ne aka kashe Ubayd Allah dan halifa na biyu Umar kuma mai kisan kai sau uku yana yakar Mu'awiya.[51] A daya bangaren kuma, an kashe Ammar bn Yasir, wani sahabi Muhammad dari bisa dari yana yakar Ali.[52] Kamar yadda Sahihul Bukhari da Sahih Muslim suka ruwaito, hadisin da aka jingina wa Muhammad ya yi annabcin mutuwar Ammar, inda ya kara da cewa, “Shi (Ammar) zai kira su (Rundunar Mu’awiya) zuwa ga Allah, kuma za su kira shi zuwa wuta”.[53]

A rana ta uku, duk da roƙon da sojojinsa suka yi, Muawiya ya ƙi amincewa da fafatawar da Ali don kawo ƙarshen kisan.[54] Bayan wata rana da ba a tantance ba, an ci gaba da gwabzawa cikin dare a cikin abin da ake tunawa da daren lailatul kadari.[55]

Washe gari ma'auni ya koma ga Ali.[56] Sai dai kafin azahar wasu daga cikin mutanen Sham suka daga magunansu na Alkur'ani, suna ta kirari guda suna cewa, "Bari littafin Allah ya yi hukunci a tsakaninmu." Fadan ya tsaya.[57] Daga cikin wadanda suka mutu, an kiyasta cewa Ali ya rasa mazaje 25,000, yayin da Muawiyah ya rasa 45,000.[58][59][60]

Sulhu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi imanin cewa Muawiya ya yi amfani da dabarar sasantawa a sama a lokacin da babban janar dinsa, Amr bn al-As ya sanar da shi cewa, mutanen Sham ba za su iya yin nasara a yakin ba.[61]

Da yake fuskantar kira zuwa ga littafinsu mai tsarki, sojojin Ali sun daina fada, duk kuwa da gargadin da Ali ya yi cewa Muyawiyya ba mai addini ba ne, kuma tada Alkur’ani yaudara ce.[62] An ruwaito cewa, Ash’ath ibn Qays al-Kindi, shugaban qabilar Kufa mafi qarfi, ya shaida wa Ali cewa babu wani daga cikin kabilarsa da zai yaqe shi idan bai amince da kiran da aka yi masa ba.[63] Har ila yau, kiraye-kirayen da Ali ya yi wa sojojinsa ya fuskanci barazanar halaka, musamman wadanda za su zama jagororin Khawarijawa.[64] Don haka aka tilasta Ali ya amince da waɗannan buƙatun kuma ya kira babban kwamandansa, al-Ashtar, wanda ya yi nisa zuwa sansanin Siriya.[65] An amince da cewa wakilai daga bangarorin biyu za su yi sulhu kamar yadda Alkur'ani ya tanada.[66]

Lokacin da bayanin shawarar Mu'awiya ya fito fili, wasu tsiraru daga cikin sojojin Ali sun ki amincewa da sulhuntawa, da alama sun fahimci manufar siyasar Muawiya.[67] Wannan tsiraru dai sun bukaci Ali ya koma yakin.[68] Ko da yake an ruwaito cewa Ali ya fifita hakan, amma ya ki amincewa da wannan shawara, yana mai nuni da cewa mafiya yawa za su murkushe wannan tsiraru da kuma Siriyawa wadanda duk suka bukaci a yi sulhu.[69] Wasu daga cikin ‘yan adawar sun tafi Kufa, wasu kuma suka zauna, suna fatan Ali ya canja ra’ayinsa daga baya.[70] Yayin da yake fuskantar ƙaƙƙarfan ra'ayin zaman lafiya a cikin sojojinsa, Ali ya karɓi shawarar sasantawa, a kan hukuncin da ya yanke.[71]

Yawancin sojojin Ali a yanzu sun matsa kaimi wajen ganin Abu Musa al-Ashari mai tsaka-tsaki a matsayin wakilinsu, duk da rashin amincewar Ali kan butulcin siyasar Abu Musa.[72] Duk da haka, an rubuta yarjejeniyar sasantawa kuma bangarorin biyu suka sanya hannu a ranar 2 ga Agusta, 657 AZ.[73] Abu Musa ya wakilci rundunar Ali yayin da babban janar na Muawiya Amr ibn al-As yake wakiltar dakarun Muawiya.[74] Wakilan biyu sun kuduri aniyar yin riko da Alkur'ani da Sunna, da kuma ceto al'umma daga yaki da rarrabuwar kawuna, wani sashi da ya fito fili don farantawa kungiyar zaman lafiya hankali.[75] Duk da haka, an lura cewa Amr ya yi nisa daga tsaka-tsaki kuma ya yi aiki ne kawai don amfanin Muawiya.[76]

Bayan kwana biyu da wannan yarjejeniya sojojin biyu sun bar fagen daga.[77] Bayan dawowarsa Kufa, Ali ya sami nasarar maido da goyon bayan masu adawa da sulhu.[78] Ya tunatar da sauran abokan hamayyar cewa sun zabi yin sulhu duk da gargadin da ya yi.[79] Sai suka yarda suka gaya wa Ali cewa sun tuba daga zunubansu kuma suka bukaci Ali ya yi haka.[80] Sai dai Ali ya tabbatar da yarjejeniyar da aka yi da Mu’awiya, kuma a hankali ‘yan adawa suka kafa Khawarijawa, ma’ana ‘yan ballewa, wadanda daga baya suka dauki makaman yaki da Ali a yakin Nahrawan.[81] An dauki Khawarijawa a matsayin sahun gaba na masu tsattsauran ra'ayin Musulunci.[82]

Bayan watanni da dama na shirye-shiryen, masu sasantawa biyu sun hadu tare, na farko a Dumat al-Jandal sannan kuma a Udhruh.[83] Shari'ar ta ci gaba har tsawon makonni, mai yiwuwa ya wuce tsakiyar Afrilu 658 CE.[84] A Dumat al-Jandal, masu sasantawa sun kai ga yanke hukuncin cewa an kashe Usman bisa zalunci, kuma Muawiya yana da hakkin ya dauki fansa.[85] Ana kallon wannan a matsayin hukunci na siyasa, maimakon na shari’a, kuma kuskure ne na Abu Musa mai butulci.[86] Hukuncin ya karfafa goyon bayan mutanen Sham ga Mu’awiya da raunana matsayin Ali.[87]

A cewar Madelung, taro na biyu a Udhruh ya watse cikin rudani.[4] A ƙarshe, ɗaya daga cikin bayanin shi ne cewa Abu Musa, bisa yarjejeniyarsa da Amr, ya kori Ali da Muawiya, kuma ya yi kira da a kafa majalisa don nada sabon halifa. A lokacin da Amr ya hau wannan mataki, ya tabbatar da cewa lallai masu sasantawa sun yi ittifaqi a kan sauke Ali amma ya kara da cewa Muawiya ya ci gaba da mulki, don haka ya saba yarjejeniyarsa da Abu Musa.[88] Tawagar Kufan ​​ta mayar da martani da kakkausar murya ga rangwamen da Abu Musa ya yi.[89] An kunyata shi ya gudu zuwa Makka, yayin da Amr ya sami karbuwa daga Muawiya da nasara bayan ya dawo Sham.[90]

Bayan haka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan kammala sulhu, mutanen Sham suka yi mubaya'a ga Mu'awiya a matsayin halifa na gaba a shekara ta 659 miladiyya.[91] Ali ya yi Allah-wadai da abin da mahukuntan biyu suka yi da cewa ya saba wa Alkur’ani, ya kuma fara shirya wani sabon balaguro zuwa kasar Sham.[92] Sai dai da labarin cin zarafi da suka yi wa fararen hula, Ali ya dage yakin da yake yi na ganin kasar Sham ta fatattaki Khawarijawa a yakin Nahrawan a shekara ta 658 Miladiyya.[93] Da ya ji cewa Muawiya ya ayyana kansa a matsayin halifa, sai Ali ya yanke duk wata alaka da shi, ya yi masa la’ana, bisa tafarkin Muhammadu.[94] Mu’awiya ya rama ta hanyar gabatar da la’ana ga Ali, da ‘ya’yansa, da babban janar dinsa.[95] Kafin ya fara yakinsa na biyu zuwa Sham a shekara ta 661 Miladiyya, lokacin da yake addu’a a Masallacin Kufa, wani dan Khawarijawa ne ya kashe Ali.[96]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  • Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Mirza, Mahan; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, eds. (2013b). "Arbitration". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691134840.
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  • Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.
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