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Yaren ǂAakhoe

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
ǂAakhoe
Haiǁom–ǂĀkhoe
Asali a Namibia, South Africa, Angola and Botswana
Yanki Etosha pan, Kavango, Mangetti Dune, Omataku, Grootfontein, Baghani, Tsintsabis and Maroelaboom
'Yan asalin magana
52,000 (2003–2016)e25
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 hgm (Haiǁom)
Glottolog haio1238[1]


[2] Xi Xi Xiayi da Xiayiom suna daga cikin yaren yaren Khoekhoe kuma ana magana da su galibi a Namibia. A cikin kayan da ba su da yawa a kan batun, an yi la'akari da bambancin yaren Khoekhoe, a matsayin yare daban-daban (Haacke et al. 1997), a matsayin ma'anar kama-da-wane na bambancin guda (Heikinnen, n.d.), ko kuma a matsayin "hanyar da wasu Haińom ke magana da yarensu a arewacin Namibia" (Widlock, n.D.). An yi amfani da shi musamman a tsakanin rassan Khoekhoe da Kalahari na dangin yaren Khoe.

Jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haiǁom mafarauta ne a al'adance, kuma yawancin al'adun wannan al'ada an kiyaye su duk da siyasa, tattalin arziki, da harshe na ƙungiyar. Siffofin halayen al'adunsu sun haɗa da raye-rayen raye-raye, sihirin farauta, yin amfani da tsire-tsire na daji da abinci na kwari, tsarin dangi na musamman da suna, ba da labari akai-akai, da kuma amfani da tsarin yanayin shimfidar wuri don daidaita sararin samaniya. [2]

Haiǁom suna zaune ne a cikin savannah na arewacin Namibiya, a wani yanki da ke shimfiɗa daga gefen kwanon gishiri na Etosha da wuraren noma na fari na arewa har zuwa iyakar Angola - kuma watakila bayan - a arewa da Kavango a gabas. A cewar Ethnologue akwai masu magana da Haiǁom 52,000 a cikin 2016.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin ka'idar ǂAkhoe yana da tsari na kalma kyauta, tare da batun-abu- odar fi'ili (SOV) shine fifikon fifiko. Dangane da bayanan rubutu na harsunan SOV, sifofi, nuni da lambobi gabaɗaya suna gaba da suna. Sunaye ana yiwa alama ta alamar mutum-jinsi-lambar (PGN). Siffai, nuni da lambobi duk sun yarda da sunan kawunansu.   Mãa tambaya ce da ake amfani da ita kyauta a cikin Haiǁom, batun yana ɗaukar kari -ba, wanda alama ce ta PGN da ke nuna mutum na 3 na namiji ɗaya. Abun kai tsaye nde, mai nunawa, yana biye da suna, kuma ana yin shi daidai da sunan kai.

Tsarin haɗe-haɗe suna aiki sosai a cikin ǂAkhoe kuma sun bambanta sosai a cikin haɗin nau'ikan kalmomi. Yiwuwar sun haɗa da: noun+noun, noun+adverb ko akasin haka, noun+adjective ko akasin haka, siffa+adjective, adjective+adverb ko akasin haka, siffa+suffix, ko haɗuwa da yawa na abubuwan da ke sama.

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwatanta gudunmawar Heikinnen [3] da Widlock [4] zuwa ǂAkhoe phonology tare da ƙarin aikin gama gari da ka'idar phonological na Peter Ladefoged (1996), [5] ǂAkhoe ana iya cewa yana da wayoyin wayoyi 47. Koyaya, zane mai zurfi na harshe na iya nuna wasu sakamakon inda wasulan suka shafi.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2012)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai baƙaƙe guda 34 a cikin ǂAkhoe, 20 daga cikinsu dannawa ne da aka samar tare da iskar iska mai ƙarfi, kuma 14 daga cikinsu baƙaƙe ne na huhu da aka samar tare da magudanar iska.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2012)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Dannawa
Dental Alveolar Palatal Na gefe
VL ba a so kǀ ⟨ ⟩ kǂ ⟨ ǂg ⟩ kǃ ⟨ ⟩ kǁ ⟨ ⟩
VL da ake so ǀˣ ⟨ ⟩ ǂˣ ⟨ ⟩ ǃˣ ⟨ !kh ⟩ ǁˣ ⟨ ⟩
VL ya amsa ǀ ⟨ ⟩ ǂˣ ⟨ ⟩ ǃˣ ⟨ h ⟩ ǁˣ ⟨ ⟩
VD ya fadi ŋǀʰ ⟨ ⟩ ŋǂʰ ⟨ ⟩ ŋ!ʰ ⟨ ⟩ ŋǁʰ ⟨ ⟩
Glottal rufewa kǀʔ ⟨ ⟩ kǂʔ ⟨ ⟩ kǃʔ ⟨ ⟩ kǁʔ ⟨ ⟩
Baƙaƙen huhu
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨ m ⟩ n ⟨ n ⟩
Tsaya a fili p ⟨ b ⟩ t ⟨ t ⟩ k ⟨ ⟩
prenasalized ᵐb ⟨ mb ⟩ ⁿd ⟨ ⟩
Haɗin kai a fili tʃ ⟨ tsh ⟩ kx ⟨ kh ⟩
prenasalized ⁿdʒ ⟨ ndz ⟩
Mai sassautawa s ⟨ s ⟩ x ⟨ x ⟩ ɦ ⟨ ⟩
Kaɗa ɾ ⟨ ⟩

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akhoe Haiǁom yana da jimlar wayoyi 12 na wasali. Ana iya raba waɗannan zuwa monophthongs da diphthongs, tare da ƙarin juzu'i zuwa furucin baka da hanci.

Monophthongs
/i e a o u/ kuma /ĩ ã ũ/ .
Diphthongs
/ai au/ da /ãi ãu/ .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jam'iyyar Asalin Jama'ar Namibiya, jam'iyyar siyasa ce a Namibiya ta mulkin mallaka karkashin jagorancin Theophilus Soroseb, memba na kungiyoyin Haiǁom da Ovambo .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hai//om-Akhoe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 DOBES documentation project on Haiǁom
  3. Heikinnen, T. (n.d.), pp 15–30.
  4. Widlock, T. (n.d.), pp. 12–17
  5. Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian (1996), pp. 246–260.

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Haacke, W. (1988) Nama|Damara I, Jagora na 2: Ilimin Halittar Halittu da Magana, mimeographed.
  • Haacke, W., E. Eiseb, L. Namaseb (1997) " Dangantakar Ciki da waje na Yarukan Khoekhoe, Binciken Farko ", a cikin W. Haacke da E. Elderkin (eds.), Harsunan Namibiya: Rahotanni da Takardu, Köln : Kofe.
  • Heikinnen, T. (nd), "Bayyana harshen ≠Akhoen", rubutun da ba a buga ba.
  • Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian (1996) Sautunan harsunan duniya, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Widlock, T. (nd) Littafin tushen Haiǁom: Takardun T. Heikinnen, rubutun da ba a buga ba.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]